Revision of the pentacrinid stalked crinoids of the genus Endoxocrinus (Echinodermata, Crinoidea), with a study of environmental control of characters and its consequences for taxonomy

J. David, M. Roux, C. G. Messing, N. Ameziane

Abstract


A revision of the stalked crinoid species attributed to the genus Endoxocrinus A.H. Clark, 1908 (Diplocrininae, Pentacrinitidae, Crinoidea, Echinodermata) is conducted using studies on phenotype variation and its relation with environment. Specimens collected via submersible at five sites in the Bahamas exhibit distinct phenotypes that correlate with different apparent ecological niches and serve as references for interpreting specimens dredged in Atlantic and Pacific Oceans where detailed information on their benthic environment is unknown. Documentation of ecophenotypic convergences or divergences allows us to distinguish between adaptive characters and those revealing genetic affinities, and to discuss allopatric evolution and bathymetric zonation. The results suggest the following taxonomy: the genus Endoxocrinus is subdivided into two subgenera, i.e., Endoxocrinus A.H. Clark, 1908 and Diplocrinus Döderlein, 1912 (Annacrinus A. H. Clark, 1923 becomes a junior synonym of Diplocrinus); the subgenus Endoxocrinus is monospecific with E. (E.) parrae [Gervais (in Guérin, 1835)] from the western tropical Atlantic; the subgenus Diplocrinus includes E. (D.) alternicirrus (Carpenter, 1882) from the western and central Pacific, E. (D.) maclearanus (Thomson, 1872) from the western tropical Atlantic, and E. (D.) wyvillethomsoni (Jeffreys, 1870) from the northeastern Atlantic. Endoxocrinus (E.) parrae includes three subspecies adapted to different habitats and depths: E. (E.) parrae parrae usually in 154–518 m with moderate to high current velocity and moderate turbulence to laminar flow, E. (E.) parrae carolinae (A.H. Clark, 1934) in 504–724 m with moderate current velocity and high turbulence, and E. (E.) parrae prionodes H.L. Clark, 1941 in 402–832 m with high current velocity in laminar flow. E. (D.) alternicirrus includes two subspecies, E. (D.) alternicirrus alternicirrus in 625–1476 m and E. (D.) alternicirrus sibogae (Döderlein, 1907) usually in 364–800 m. E. (D.) maclearanus has a depth range of 432–878 m and occurs as a dwarf variety minimus n. var. in high current velocities and high turbulence. E. (D.) wyvillethomsoni from depths of 1214–2070 m lives on various substrates under a variety of hydrodynamic conditions.

Keywords


<i>Endoxocrinus</i>; <i>Diplocrinus</i>; <i>Annacrinus</i>; stalked crinoids; Echinodermata; biogeography; phenotypes; taxonomy



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1156.1.1

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ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand