A taxonomic study of the propaguliferous species of the genus Pohlia with axillary and rhizoidal propagules in China is presented. Structure in the variation in size and form of the propagules provides a basis for distinguishing species although developmental variations often exist in the propagules. Ten species are recognized in the study area, including two new records: Pohlia andalusica and P. andrewsii. P. andalusica has obconic propagules with erect-spreading laminate leaf primordia clustered in the leaf axils. The oblong, translucent, reddish-orange, axillary propagule with inconspicuous peg-like protuberances of leaf primordia that are incurved at the apex is a distinctive trait of P. andrewsii. P. hisae is an endemic species to China. The species is distinct because of its axillary propagules, which are obconic to ovate, with long, flexuose peg-like leaf primordia. In addition, the glossy shine of the plants when dry is a good diagnostic feature of Pohlia proligera, P. andrewsii and P. andalusica. Taxonomically important characters of all Chinese propaguliferous Pohlia are provided, as are photomicrographs of propagules and an artificial key to these species. The global distribution and specify provinces in China for each species have been summarized.