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Articles
Published: 2018-12-27

Frullania grabenhorstii sp. nov., a fossil liverwort (Jungermanniopsida: Frullaniaceae) with perianth from Bitterfeld amber

Systematic Botany and Mycology, GeoBio-Center, Ludwig Maximilian University, Menzinger Straße 67, 80638 Munich, Germany
Systematic Botany and Mycology, GeoBio-Center, Ludwig Maximilian University, Menzinger Straße 67, 80638 Munich, Germany
Mittlere Letten 11, 88634 Herdwangen-Schönach, Germany
Department of Botany, Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, USA.
Department of Geobiology, University of Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
† 1969 – 2018
Cenozoic epiphytic leafy liverworts Jungermanniidae Porellales

Abstract

Frullaniaceae are the most diverse family of leafy liverworts preserved in amber and are known from several deposits dating from the Miocene to the Early Cretaceous. In the fossil record, Frullania is represented by 15 species as well as the extinct genera Pseudofrullania, Protofrullania and Kaolakia. Here, we describe another species of Frullania from Bitterfeld amber (Germany) as Frullania grabenhorstii sp. nov. A combination of characters associated with the leaf lobe, leaf lobule, underleaf, branching patterns, and perianth distinguishes it from all other known extant and extinct taxa. Many characters of the new fossil are shared with F. subg. Frullania sect. Australes, especially the morphologically similar extant species F. incumbens and F. subincumbens-both of Australasia. Another similar species, Fullania densiloba, occurs in Japan. These distribution patterns reinforce previously described affinities of the Baltic and Bitterfeld bryophyte floras to the extant flora of Asia and Australasia. This pattern has been found in several taxa, e.g., Notoscyphus, Nipponolejeunea, and Metacalypogeia. The new fossil is compared with other species from Bitterfeld, Baltic, and Rovno amber, which show significant morphological differences. In addition to the description, we provide an overview of the family Frullaniaceae in different amber deposits.