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Type: Article
Published: 2022-12-30
Page range: 133–150
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Bryophytes of mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Panama

Smithsonian Tropical Research. Institute. Panama City, Panama
Research Associate, Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, Apartado 749-1000, San José, Costa Rica; Apartado 114-1250, Escazú, San José, Costa Rica, Código postal 10201
Department of Biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, Canada
University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
Department of Botany, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada
Universidad Mayor Nacional de San Marcos, Perú
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama
Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, México, Institut de Recherche sur les Forêts, Université du Québec en Abitibi Témiscamingue, Canada
Facultad de Biología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, México
Daugavpils University, Daugavpils, Latvia
Universidad Industrial de Santander, Venezuela
Departamento de Botánica, Universidad de Panamá
Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Universidad de Los Llanos, Colombia
Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú
Bryophytes mangroves Panama


This is the first survey of bryophyte diversity in the mangroves of Panama. The study was done in the mangroves of Bocas del Toro Province, Panama, in September 2016 and, July, May and August 2017. Bryophytes were collected from prop or stilt roots of mangroves, the mid-lower part of the trunks and the lower branches. In areas inundated at high tide, additional samples were collected on the cortex of palms, its rootlets, other angiosperm trees and from decomposing logs. Twenty-six species of liverworts and seven of mosses were identified. The most diverse and predominant liverwort family was the Lejeuneaceae with twenty-two species and two varieties and, among the mosses, the Calymperaceae with three species. Species affinities with other tropical mangroves were analyzed and liverworts were found to be the dominant element. Among the liverworts collected, two are new reports for Panama: Ceratolejeunea confusa and Frullanoides mexicana. Additional surveys of the cryptogamic vegetation of Panamanian mangroves are urgently needed due to the accelerated deforestation caused by anthropic activities and the potential loss of important biodiversity.


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