Palaeoentomology <p><strong>Palaeoentomology </strong>is the official journal of the <a href="">International Palaeoentomological Society</a> (IPS). It is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal, which publishes high quality, original research contributions as well as review papers. Papers are published in English and they cover a wide spectrum of topics in palaeoentomology, fossil terrestrial arthropods and amber research, i.e. systematic palaeontology, morphology, diversity, palaeogeography, palaeoecology, palaeobehavior, evolutionary and phylogenetic studies on fossil insects and terrestrial arthropods, biostratigraphy, taphonomy, and amber (deposits, inclusions, geochemistry, curation). Descriptions of new methods (analytical, instrumental or numerical) should be relevant to the broad scope of the journal.</p> <p> </p> <p>Palaeoentomology is the flag journal of IPS, who is responsible for the editing of this journal. For more info about IPS, please contact Prof. Dr. Hab. Dany Azar, Lebanese University, Lebanon.</p> en-US <span lang="EN-GB">Authors need to complete and return an </span><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="/phytotaxa/images/copyright.rtf">Assignment of Copyright</a> </span><span lang="EN-GB">form when a paper is accepted for publication. Authors from institutions that do not allow transfer of copyrights to publishers (e.g. government institutions such as USDA, CSIRO) should attach a copyright waiver or similar document.</span> (Diying Huang) (Journal support team) Tue, 28 Feb 2023 10:00:31 +1300 OJS 60 <p><strong>The 4th Palaeontological Virtual Congress</strong></p> <p>The emergence of new applications and technological advances has opened new and wider pathways for people to ensure effective science communication. This has become more significant after more than two years of difficulties and restrictions due to the COVID-19 epidemiological crisis, in which online platforms gained great relevance and proved key to keep up the drive for science communication (Barral, 2020). Aware of this, the first edition of the Palaeontological Virtual Congress (PVC) was organised in December 2018 by a team of young researchers from different nationalities. The purpose of that new congress format was simply to disseminate worldwide the most recent scientific advances in palaeontology in a fast, easy, inexpensive and inclusive way.</p> ALBA SÁNCHEZ-GARCÍA, MARÍA RÍOS, FERNANDO ANTONIO MARTÍN ARNAL, ARTURO GAMONAL, PENÉLOPE CRUZADO-CABALLERO, JAVIER GONZÁLEZ-DIONIS, EVANGELOS VLACHOS, ROSALÍA GUERRERO-ARENAS, VICENTE D. CRESPO Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The second species of <em>Sorellevania</em> Engel, 2006 (Evanioidea: Evaniidae) from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber</strong></p> <p>The representatives of the superfamily Evanioidea are easily distinguishable from all other extant and extinct Hymenoptera because of their metasoma (sometimes rounded) articulated high on the propodeum and well above the metacoxae (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., Goulet &amp; Huber, 1993). Recent phylogenetic studies on the superfamily Evanioidea have shown strong support for its monophyly and for the monophyly of the Evaniidae even when fossil taxa are included (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., Li <em>et al</em>., 2018; Parslow <em>et al</em>., 2020; Jouault <em>et al</em>., 2022). According to the most recent analysis, the superfamily arose during either the Upper Triassic or the Lower Jurassic. Still, its earliest species are recorded in the younger Middle Jurassic, and its crown-group representatives during the Lower Cretaceous (Jouault <em>et al</em>., 2022: fig. 8). The stem Evaniidae are estimated to arise during the Upper Jurassic while their crown group has a more recent origin, likely around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Extant evaniid wasps are common, nearly cosmopolitan, and moderately diversified (about 580 extant species in 21 genera) even if this diversity is underestimated (Deans, 2005; Mullins <em>et al</em>., 2012). Little is known about the biology of extant evaniids, but their larvae are considered predators of cockroach eggs in oothecae (Huben, 1995). The Evaniidae have a good fossil record with the oldest species known from the late Hauterivian, numerous species documented up to the Miocene, and an important diversity in Burmese amber (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., Rasnitsyn <em>et al</em>., 1998; Nel <em>et al</em>., 2002; Deans <em>et al</em>., 2004; Jennings <em>et al</em>., 2012; Shih <em>et al</em>., 2020). Nevertheless, their past diversity is still underestimated.</p> CORENTIN JOUAULT Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>New material of <em>Paleopsychoda jarzembowskii</em> Azar &amp; Maksoud, 2022 from Bqaatouta amber outcrop, showing the importance of insect fossils in biostratigraphy</strong></p> <p>The family Psychodidae Newman, 1834 comprises about 3,000 living species of small hairy nematoceran flies (Azar &amp; Maksoud, 2022). To date, seven psychodid subfamilies are recognized within this family, namely Bruchomyiinae Alexander, 1921; extinct Datziinae Stebner, Solórzano Kraemer, Ibáñez-Bernal &amp; Wagner, 2015; Horaiellinae Enderlein, 1937; Phlebotominae Rondani, 1840; Psychodinae Newman, 1834; Sycoracinae Rondani, 1856; and Trichomyiinae Tonnoir, 1922 (Azar &amp; Maksoud, 2022). Some authors consider the psychodid group to consist of two families, <em>i</em>.<em>e</em>., Psychodidae and Phlebotomidae (Williams, 1993; Azar <em>et al</em>., 1999). This taxonomic treatment is based only on the hematophagous and medically important aspects of the phlebotomines. Nevertheless it is unfounded, because the phylogenetic relationships between the psychodid subfamilies remain unresolved, even if there is a possible sister-group relationship between the Phlebotominae and Psychodinae (Curler &amp; Moulton, 2012). We consider that recognising phlebotomines as a separate family would necessitate also giving separate familial rank to all the currently recognised subfamilies, which is not adopted here.</p> TAMARA EL HOSSNY, MOUNIR MAALOUF, RAMY MAALOUF, DANY AZAR Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Identity of the insect larva described by Zippel<em> et al</em>. (2022) in the mid–Cretaceous Burmese (Kachin) amber (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinoidea, Blasticotomidae = Xyelotomidae, syn. nov.)</strong></p> <p>The fossil in consideration, a small insect larva some 4 mm long, has been described, illustrated and left unnamed by Zippel<em> et al</em>. (2022) as a larva of the beetle family Mordellidae. The same year it was re-identified, unnamed as yet, as a sawfly larva of the family Pamphiliidae (Batelka &amp; Engel, 2022). In our opinion, re-interpretation of the fossil by the latter authors was only partially correct. It demonstrates diagnostic characters of a sawfly larva, but the family attribution of the larva to Pamphiliidae is questionable: in our opinion it is most similar to larval Blasticotomidae (Tenthredinoidea).</p> ALEXANDR P. RASNITSYN, PATRICK MÜLLER Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong><em>Archemezira nuoxichenae</em> gen. et sp. nov. from Burmese amber (Heteroptera, Aradidae)</strong></p> <p>The mid-Cretaceous amber deposits of Kachin State in Northern Myanmar have yielded to date a plethora of biological inclusions (Ross, 2019, 2021, 2022). Among them, the heteropteran flat bug family Aradidae is represented by ten genera and 13 species: <em>Aradoleptus</em> Heiss, 2016 (one sp.); <em>Archeaneurus</em> Heiss, 2019 (one sp.); <em>Archearadus </em>Heiss &amp; Grimaldi, 2001 (two sp.); <em>Archecalisius </em>Heiss, 2019 (one sp.); <em>Calisiomorpha </em>Heiss 2016 (one sp.); <em>Cretopiesma</em> Grimaldi &amp; Engel, 2008 (four sp.); <em>Ellenbergeria</em> Heiss, 2016 (one sp.); <em>Kachinocoris</em> Heiss, 2012 (one sp.); <em>Myanmezira</em> Heiss &amp; Poinar, 2012 (one sp.); <em>Pachytylaradus</em> Heiss, 2022 (one sp.) (Heiss &amp; Grimaldi, 2001; Grimaldi &amp; Engel, 2008; Heiss, 2012, 2016, 2019a, b, 2022; Heiss &amp; Poinar, 2012; Azar <em>et al</em>., 2020).</p> ERNST HEISS, HUA-RONG CHEN Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Supplement to the Burmese (Myanmar) amber checklist and bibliography, 2022</strong></p> <p>This is a supplement to the Burmese (Myanmar) amber checklist and bibliography covering taxa described or recorded during 2022, plus a couple of earlier records that were missed previously. Up to the end of 2022, 2,524 species have been recorded from Kachin amber, of which 350 were named in 2022; ten species have been recorded from older Hkamti amber, of which two were named in 2022 (one species known from both Hkamti and Kachin amber). Another 17 species were named in 2022 though it is uncertain whether they are in Kachin or Hkamti amber. In total 368 species were named from Cretaceous amber from Myanmar in 2022.</p> ANDREW J. ROSS Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong><em>Cretanabis kerzhneri</em> gen. et sp. nov., the oldest nabine genus and species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae) from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber</strong></p> <p>The oldest Nabinae fossil, <em>Cretanabis kerzhneri</em> <strong>gen.</strong> <strong>et sp. nov.</strong>, is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber based on a well-preserved specimen. The morphology of the nymph fossil is presented with diagnosis and description. The comparison with the nymphs of groups within Nabinae and the usefulness of nymphal morphology are discussed.</p> JUNGGON KIM, MARCOS ROCA-CUSACHS, THAI HONG PHAM PHAM, SUNGHOON JUNG Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Improved modelling of compositional heterogeneity reconciles phylogenomic conflicts among lacewings</strong></p> <p>Exponential growth of large-scale data for Neuropterida, an iconic group of insects used in behavioural, ecological, and evolutionary studies, has greatly changed our understanding of the origin and evolution of lacewings and their allies. Recent phylogenomic studies of Neuropterida based on mitogenomes, anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) data, and transcriptomes have yielded a well-resolved and largely congruent phylogeny. Some interfamilial relationships of lacewings, however, remain inconsistent among different phylogenomic studies. Here we re-analysed the genome-scale AHE and transcriptomic data for Neuropterida under the better fitting site-heterogeneous CAT-GTR+G model and recovered a strongly supported and congruent tree for the deeper phylogeny of Neuroptera. Integrating the smaller but more broadly sampled AHE and the larger but less-sampled transcriptomic data, we present a holistic phylogeny of Neuropterida from which to explore patterns of evolution across the clade. Our re-analyses of the largest available datasets of Neuropterida highlight the significance of modelling across-site compositional heterogeneity and model comparison in large-scale phylogenomic studies of insects.</p> CHEN-YANG CAI, ERIK TIHELKA, XING-YUE LIU, MICHAEL S. ENGEL Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>The earliest Pupipara (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea): A new genus and species from the lower Eocene of the Green River Formation</strong></p> <p><em>Eornithoica</em> <em>grimaldii</em><strong> gen. et sp. nov.</strong>, the currently earliest Pupipara, is described from the lower Eocene of the Green River Formation. The previously oldest representative of this clade was from the Oligocene. The new fossil has some plesiomorphic character states, suggesting a ‘basal’ position in the clade. Its age, around 52 Ma, suggests that these epizooic ectoparasitic flies originated during the Paleocene or even the latest Cretaceous, prior to the first bats, if the latter. As is the case for several early diverging hippoboscids that feed on birds, <em>E. grimaldii</em> possibly victimized birds or terrestrial mammals. This study is a further example of the quantity of new information that can be obtained by the examination of fossil insects under UV light.</p> ANDRÉ NEL, ROMAIN GARROUSTE, MICHAEL S. ENGEL Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300 <p><strong>Revision of palaeoburmesebuthid scorpions in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Scorpiones: Buthoidea)</strong></p> <p>Nine new scorpion specimens belonging to the extinct family Palaeoburmesebuthidae are documented from mid-Cretaceous Burmese (Kachin) amber from northern Myanmar. More accurate morphological details, including lateral ocelli, dentition of chela finger, leg tarsal armature, trichobothrial pattern, and subaculear tuberance, are provided. Based on new morphological evidence, the diagnostic characters for <em>Betaburmesebuthus </em>are revised, and<em> Spinoburmesebuthus </em>is suggested as a junior synonym of <em>Betaburmesebuthus </em><strong>syn. nov.</strong> Additionally, two new species of <em>Betaburmesebuthus</em>,<em> B</em>. <em>villosus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong> and <em>B</em>. <em>fuscus </em><strong>sp. nov.</strong>, are described from Burmese amber.</p> QIANG XUAN, CHEN-YANG CAI, DI-YING HUANG Copyright (c) 2023 Magnolia press limited Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +1300