Palaeoentomology <p><strong>Palaeoentomology </strong>is the official journal of the <a href="">International Palaeoentomological Society</a>. It is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal, which publishes high quality, original research contributions as well as review papers. Papers are published in English and they cover a wide spectrum of topics in palaeoentomology, fossil terrestrial arthropods and amber research, i.e. systematic palaeontology, morphology, diversity, palaeogeography, palaeoecology, palaeobehavior, evolutionary and phylogenetic studies on fossil insects and terrestrial arthropods, biostratigraphy, taphonomy, and amber (deposits, inclusions, geochemistry, curation). Descriptions of new methods (analytical, instrumental or numerical) should be relevant to the broad scope of the journal.</p> en-US <span lang="EN-GB">Authors need to complete and return an </span><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="/phytotaxa/images/copyright.rtf">Assignment of Copyright</a> </span><span lang="EN-GB">form when a paper is accepted for publication. Authors from institutions that do not allow transfer of copyrights to publishers (e.g. government institutions such as USDA, CSIRO) should attach a copyright waiver or similar document.</span> (Diying Huang) (Journal support team) Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 OJS 60 <p><strong>The odontocerid genera <em>Psilotreta</em> and <em>Palaeopsilotreta</em> (Insecta, Trichoptera) embedded in mid</strong><strong>-</strong><strong>Cretaceous Burmese amber</strong></p> <p>The trichopteran family Odontoceridae is reported in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber by two genera: the extant <em>Psilotreta</em>, with one described extinct species, <em>P</em>.<em> fossilis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>; and the extinct <em>Palaeopsilotreta</em>, with five species, two of which are newly found and described here, <em>P</em>.<em> kachini</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong>, <em>P</em>.<em> succini</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong> The two genera are closely related and show great similarities in the venation of the forewings and hindwings, but their males differ markedly in the shape of the antennae. In <em>Palaeopsilotreta</em> the males have bipectinate antennae and in <em>Psilotreta</em> the antennae are simple and filiform.</p> WILFRIED WICHARD, PATRICK MÜLLER, CHUN-PENG XU Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Redescription of <em>Neponymphes godoii</em> Zamboni, 2001 from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil, based on the adult and nymphal stages (Hemiptera: Nepomorpha: Belostomatidae)</strong></p> <p><em>Neponymphes godoii</em> Zamboni, 2001 is redescribed and illustrated based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous of Northeastern Brazil (Araripe Basin, Crato Formation; upper Aptian, ~114 Ma). The redescription, based both on the adult and nymphal stages, shows that the external morphological characters of <em>N</em>. <em>godoii</em> were fairly similar to those of recent members of the Belostomatini. Hence, the external morphology in this tribe has apparently not changed much since the Cretaceous.</p> DIONIZIO A. MOURA-JÚNIOR, VICTOR QUINTAS, SANDRO M. SCHEFFLER, ANDRÉ NEL, JOSÉ RICARDO I. RIBEIRO, GABRIEL MEJDALANI Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>On subfamily structure of the Cupedidae (Coleoptera, Archostemata): data from paleontology and an approach to solving conflicting classifications</strong></p> <p>This paper demonstrates some of main differences between the systematic constructions based mostly on paleontological research and constructions involving the other approaches. Some reasons for these differences are discussed, together with an approach to solve contradictions between the conflicting hypotheses. The multiple (multidimensional) parallelism gives a possibility to solve many problems of phylogenetic interrelations due to reconstructions based on coincidence of patterns of changes (series of interconnected facts) traced in different aspects of evolutionary processes. This principle originates in the ideas by Jean Agassiz and Ernst Haeckel defined as the principle of triple parallelism. Other aspects of the evolution can be added to the morphology, embryology, and paleontology, initially included in this method. The molecular method is one of such aspects. It is shown that the potential resolution of the morphological and molecular approaches in some cases could be rather restricted, particularly applying ancient groups with main evolutionary transformations passed far in the past. The infraorder Cupediformia and suborder Archostemata in general are examples of such cases. It is advisable in the current research period that has followed the previous interpretation of the systematic structure of the family Cupedidae recognizing three subfamilies with not quite distinct hiatus between them (Cupedinae, Ommatinae and Triadocupedinae). Some recent morphological and molecular approaches proposed to divide the Cupedidae into two separate families on the basis of incomplete information accessible after study of only modern representatives, as most events in the family evolution occurred during the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic, and these events are scarcely possible to trace without considering fossils. As the principle of multiple parallelism cannot be currently used for archostematans to the full extent of its power, it is necessary to choose the paleontological method of phylogenetic reconstruction as crucial. This approach is preferable for groups that are well-documented through very diverse fossils, and for which only few of its remnants of the past diversity reached the modern epoque.</p> ALEXANDER G. KIREJTSHUK Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Three new species of the fossil Cantacaderinae genus <em>Paleocader</em> Froeschner, 1996 from the Baltic and Rovno amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae)</strong></p> <p>Four species are presently assigned to the fossil Tingidae genus <em>Paleocader</em> Froeschner, 1996: <em>P</em>.<em> avitus</em> (Drake, 1950), <em>P</em>.<em> strictus</em> Golub &amp; Popov, 1998, <em>P</em>. <em>serafini</em> Heiss, 2008 and <em>P</em>. <em>gusenleitnerorum</em> Heiss, 2013, all described from the Eocene Baltic amber. The new species <em>P</em>.<em> balticus</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong> and <em>P</em>.<em> pulchellus</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong> originate as well from Baltic amber, and <em>P</em>. <em>rovnensis</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong> from Ukrainian amber deposits, both of Eocene age. A key to all seven species of <em>Paleocader</em> is presented.</p> ERNST HEISS, VIKTOR B. GOLUB Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Baskinta and Bqaatouta: Two new early Barremian fossiliferous amber outcrops from Central Lebanon</strong></p> <p>Two new fossiliferous amber outcrops in the heights of Baskinta and Bqaatouta (El-Maten and Kesserouan districts, Central Lebanon) are described. These new discoveries constitute respectively the 27<sup>th</sup> and 28<sup>th</sup> amber outcrops with biological inclusions in Lebanon, enrich and improve our knowledge about the palaeobiodiversity and palaeoenvironment of the North-Eastern coast of Gondwana during the early Barremian.</p> SIBELLE MAKSOUD, MOUNIR MAALOUF, RAMY MAALOUF, DANY AZAR Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Further evidence of Cretaceous termitophily: Description of new termite hosts of the trichopseniine <em>Cretotrichopsenius</em> (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), with emendations to the classification of lower termites (Isoptera)</strong></p> <p>Termites (Isoptera) are among the most ecologically ubiquitous of terrestrial eusocial insects and provide an attractive environment for symbionts, which have evolved numerous times independently, and in lineages as diverse as millipedes and beetles. Previous studies reported the discovery of unequivocal termitophily in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar, providing evidence that pushed the origin of termitophily back into the Mesozoic. Here we report the discovery of two more pieces of Cretaceous amber containing individuals of the trichopseniine rove beetle <em>Cretotrichopsenius burmiticus</em> Cai <em>et al</em>., 2017 (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Trichopseniini) preserved together with their potential host termites, providing further evidence regarding the association between these two insect lineages. Two new termite species and genera are described as putative hosts for <em>C</em>.<em> burmiticus</em>: <em>Arceotermes hospitis</em> Engel &amp; Jiang, <strong>gen. et sp. nov.</strong> and <em>Tanytermitalis philetaerus</em> Engel &amp; Cai, <strong>gen. et sp. nov.</strong> Each is included in a new family, Arceotermitidae Engel, <strong>fam. nov.</strong> (type genus: <em>Arceotermes</em> Engel &amp; Jiang, <strong>gen. nov.</strong>), and Tanytermitidae Engel, <strong>fam. nov.</strong> (type genus: <em>Tanytermes</em> Engel <em>et al</em>., 2007). In order to better characterize these two families the classification of lower Isoptera and clade Xylophagodea (= Cryptocercidae + Isoptera) is emended with the following new taxa: Idanotermitinae Engel, <strong>subfam. nov.</strong>; Melqartitermitidae Engel, <strong>fam. nov.</strong>; Mylacrotermitidae Engel, <strong>fam. nov.</strong>; Krishnatermitidae Engel, <strong>fam. nov.</strong>; Cosmotermitinae Engel, <strong>subfam. nov.</strong>; Hodotermopsinae Engel, <strong>subfam. nov.</strong>; Artisoptera Engel, <strong>minord. nov.</strong>; Cryptocercaptera Engel, <strong>infraord. nov.</strong> Lower termites were remarkably diverse during the mid-Cretaceous but declined in diversity considerably by the Palaeogene. The fossil rove beetle <em>Cretotrichopsenius</em> Cai <em>et al</em>., 2017 currently provides the earliest definitive evidence of termitophily and the complex association between rove beetles and termites.</p> RI-XIN JIANG, HONG-RUI ZHANG, K. TARO ELDREDGE, XIAO-BIN SONG, YAN-DA LI, ERIK TIHELKA, DI-YING HUANG, SHUO WANG, MICHAEL S. ENGEL, CHEN-YANG CAI Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>The earliest record of fossil solid-wood-borer larvae—immature beetles in 99 million-year-old Myanmar amber</strong></p> <p>Interactions between animals and plants represent an important driver of evolution. Especially the group Insecta has an enormous impact on plants, <em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., by consuming them. Among beetles, the larvae of different groups (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, partly Eucnemidae) bore into wood and are therefore called wood-borer larvae or borers. While adults of these beetle groups are well known in the fossil record, there are barely any fossils of the corresponding larvae. We report here four new wood-borer larvae from Cretaceous Kachin amber (Myanmar, <em>ca</em>. 99 Ma). To compare these fossils with extant wood-borer larvae, we reconstructed the body outline and performed shape analysis via elliptic Fourier transformation and a subsequent principal component analysis. Two of the new larvae plot closely together and clearly in the same area as modern representatives of Buprestidae. As they furthermore lack legs, they are interpreted as representatives of Buprestidae. The other two new larvae possess legs and plot far apart from each other. They are more difficult to interpret; they may represent larvae of early offshoots of either Cerambycidae or Buprestidae, which still retain longer legs. These findings represent the earliest fossil record of larvae of Buprestidae and possibly of Cerambycidae known to date.</p> CAROLIN HAUG, GIDEON T. HAUG, ANA ZIPPEL, SERITA VAN DER WAL, JOACHIM T. HAUG Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Corrigendum: A new stonefly species (Plecoptera: Perlodidae) from Eocene Baltic amber and questions on the wing venation potential for species diagnostic of fossil Plecoptera</strong></p> <p>In the paper ‘A new stonefly species (Plecoptera: Perlodidae) from Eocene Baltic amber and questions on the wing venation potential for species diagnostic of fossil Plecoptera’, we figured and discussed on a specimen of the plecopteran <em>Pteroliriope sinitshenkovae</em> Cui, Béthoux, Kondratieff, Shih &amp; Ren, 2016 (Jouault <em>et al</em>., 2021: figs 5–6), under the accession number MNHN.F.A71351, of the collection of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France. The repository number has been corrected to fit with the recent ‘parachute research’ issue (DeMiguel <em>et al</em>., 2021). Therefore, the specimen is in fact deposited in the collection of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Science, China, under the accession number NIGP176250.</p> CORENTIN JOUAULT, FRÉDÉRIC LEGENDRE, FABIEN L. CONDAMINE, ANDRÉ NEL Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>The second Caloneurodea from the Moscovian of Avion, France (Insecta, Archaeorthoptera)</strong></p> <p>The Late Palaeozoic insect order Caloneurodea Handlirsch, 1907 is a rather small clade in the superorder Archaeorthoptera Béthoux &amp; Nel, 2002 (Béthoux et al., 2003), several representatives have been recently described from Portugal, France, China, and Russia (see Dvořák et al., 2021 and references herein). The body structures of these insects are poorly known and the majority of genera and species are based on isolated wings. Also the majority of genera and species are Permian and latest Carboniferous. With two genera and species recorded from the Moscovian of the Pas-de-Calais Basin, this area is of great interest to estimate the diversity of this order during the early Pennsylvanian (Pruvost, 1919; Prokop et al., 2014). Here we describe the second genus and species from the Avion locality, which has already given Aviogramma gracilis Prokop et al., 2014. This discovery further confirms the very important richness and diversity of the fossil entomofauna of the slag heap of Avion (Nel et al., 2013).</p> ANDRÉ NEL, PATRICK ROQUES Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>The second species of the cnemidolestid genus <em>Piesbergopterum</em> from the Upper Carboniferous of Avion, Northern France (Archaeorthoptera: Cnemidolestidae)</strong></p> <p>The Palaeozoic archaeorthopteran order Cnemidolestodea Handlirsch, 1937 (<em>sensu</em> Béthoux, 2005; not <em>sensu</em> Aristov, 2014) currently comprises only the family Cnemidolestidae Handlirsch, 1906. They are easily characterized by the presence of a more or less triangular area delimited by the vein MA and the first anterior fork of MP+CuA+CuPa, this last vein having several parallel posterior branches. Dvořák <em>et al</em>. (2021) listed the included genera, and described the new genus and species <em>Piesbergopterum punctatum</em> from the Moscovian of Piesberg (Germany), characterized by the presence of a pattern of rounded spots in numerous cells all over the forewings. Nel &amp; Poschmann (in press) noticed that the Cnemidolestidae show an important diversity of patterns of coloration on their forewings, possibly related to cryptic behaviors in the vegetation.</p> ANDRÉ NEL, PATRICK ROQUES Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>A new amber outcrop from the Oligocene Nanning Basin of Guangxi, southern China</strong></p> <p>Ambers in China have been described from the various localities of both Cretaceous (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., Xixia amber from Henan Province and Jalainur [Zhalainuoer] amber from northeastern Inner Mongolia) and Palaeogene (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., Eocene Fushun amber of Liaoning Province and Miocene Zhangpu amber of Fujian Province) ages to date (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., Hong, 1981, 2002; Shi <em>et al</em>., 2014; Wang <em>et al</em>., 2014; Azar <em>et al</em>., 2019; Wang <em>et al</em>., 2021). Here we report a new amber locality from the Late Oligocene of Nanning Basin, Guangxi, southern China. The first amber piece was collected by one of the authors (GCZ) on 5 June 2008. In a recent field work in early 2021, we further discovered more than 50 smaller amber pieces, which are reported here.</p> QI LIU, GUANG-CHUN ZENG, XIN-NENG LIAN, YAN-ZHE FU, CHEN-YANG CAI, DI-YING HUANG Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Celebrating 20<sup>th</sup> Anniversary of the International Palaeoentomological Society (Front matter)</strong></p> EWA KRZEMIŃSKA, WIESŁAW KRZEMIŃSKI Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Looking back at the latest 20 years</strong></p> <p>Twenty years ago the International Palaeoentomological Society was founded in Kraków during the 2<sup>nd</sup> Congress on Palaeoentomology (5<sup>th</sup>–9<sup>th</sup> September, 2001). This congress was preceded by a world conference in Moscow, 1998 (which was afterwards given the formal numbering as first), and World Congress on Amber Inclusions in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain, 1998. Later, Brazilian Symposium on Palaeoarthropodology in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil held for the first time in 2000, took place. The event in Kraków attracted a record number of 120 participants. We were quite aware that this frequency in 2001 was partially caused by the curiosity of the country which for long time was behind the iron curtain. Literally most of the countries were represented; from USA to China, from Russia to South Africa, as you may notice from the list of 53 founding members, below, who also provided the starting Society with first donations.</p> EWA KRZEMIŃSKA, WIESŁAW KRZEMIŃSKI Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>International Palaeoentomological Society—20 years after</strong></p> <p>Fossilised insects probably brought man’s attention since the prehistory, since first amber with an insect entombed in resin was found. Amber was collected and used by humans first in the Upper Paleolithic period, perhaps as long ago as 20,000 years (Beck <em>et al</em>., 2009; Burdukiewicz, 2009; Płonka &amp; Kowalski, 2017). The written testimonies on amber inclusions goes back to Ancient Rome (Plinius Secundus, 77). During 17<sup>th</sup> and 18<sup>th</sup> centuries the inclusions in amber were noted by philosophers (Bacon, 1638), their values discussed and illustrated (<em>e</em>.<em>g</em>., Sendel, 1742) and their importance to understanding the history of life pointed (Kant <em>in</em> Hagen, 1821). Shortly after Linnaeus “Systema Naturae” editions, the first research using binomial names for insect included in the copal was published (Bloch, 1776) and Pleistocene record of Recent beetle was noted by Fabricius (1775). Notes and information on fossil insects from imprints and amber were presented by Lang (1708), Bertrand (1763), Linnaeus (1778) and Volta (1796). The first regular description of beetle inclusion in Baltic amber came from Gravenhorst (1806) and works of de Serres (1828, 1829) seems to be the first with more detailed overview and description of insects as adpression fossils. Therefore, human’s palaeoentomological interests predates official beginning of modern taxonomy and palaeoentomology as science is as old as modern entomology (Azar <em>et al</em>., 2018).</p> JACEK SZWEDO Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200 <p><strong>Fossil insects 10 years after the Geological Conservation Review (Great Britain)</strong></p> <p>At the third congress of the I.P.S. (International Palaeoentomological Society) in Beijing (2010), Professor Dong Ren, conference organiser, was presented with an author’s copy of the arthropod volume of the Geological Conservation Review of Great Britain, which included fossil insects, and had just been published (Jarzembowski <em>et al</em>., 2010). The purpose of the review, which commenced in the last century before the founding of I.P.S., was essentially to select and document the key sites of British geology, geomorphology and palaeontology with view to geoheritage conservation—including palaeoentomology. The results were collated and published in a series of volumes and, as it subsequently transpired, the arthropod volume was the last one (number 35). The insect part (written by the current author) and other arthropods (by Derek Siveter and Paul Selden) were augmented by general geology and palaeontology contributed by Douglas Palmer. A planned volume with relevant Lower Cretaceous (Wealden) geology was eventually produced instead as a short series of papers by the Geologists’ Association of London (Radley &amp; Allen, 2012b). Geoconservation has featured periodically on the I.P.S. agenda and this paper reflects on the legacy of the GCR study, a decade later, and over a generation after its initiation.</p> ED JARZEMBOWSKI Copyright (c) 2021 Magnolia press limited Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +1200