Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2021-09-09

Cryptomonas indica sp. nov. (Cryptophyceae: Cryptomonadales), a new species described from the Western Ghats, India

К.А. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, IPP RAS, 35 Botanicheskaya St., Moscow, 127276 Russia
Biodiversity and Paleobiology Group, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, 411004 India
К.А. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, IPP RAS, 35 Botanicheskaya St., Moscow, 127276 Russia
К.А. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, IPP RAS, 35 Botanicheskaya St., Moscow, 127276 Russia
К.А. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, IPP RAS, 35 Botanicheskaya St., Moscow, 127276 Russia
Cryptomonas new species nuclear SSU rDNA LSU and ITS2 rDNA markers plastid psbA India Algae

Abstract

A new species, Cryptomonas indica sp. nov., is described from Western Ghats, India, based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from nuclear small and large subunit ribosomal DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2, and plastid psbA sequences show that the new species forms a separate lineage on the phylogenetic tree of the genus Cryptomonas. This new species is included in the basal clade of Cryptomonas tree, which consists of undescribed taxa from Europe and South Korea. Cells of this species are up to 19 µm in length, elliptical to slightly asymmetrical in broad view, and have a plastid with four pyrenoids. Cryptomonas indica has been observed in one locality, the Northern region of the Western Ghats. Notably, this is the first Cryptomonas taxon described from the Indian subcontinent with both morphology and molecular information.

References

  1. Boenigk, J., Wodniok, S., Bock, C., Beisser, D., Hempel, C., Grossmann, L., Lange, A. & Jensen, M. (2018) Geographic distance and mountain ranges structure freshwater protist communities on a European scale. Metabarcoding and Metagenomics 2: e21519.  https://doi.org/10.3897/mbmg.2.21519

  2. Byun, Y. & Han, K. (2006) PseudoViewer: web application and webservice for visualizing RNA pseudoknots and secondary structures. Nucleic Acids Research 34: 416–422. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkl210

  3. Choi, B., Son, M., Kim, J.I. & Shin, W. (2013) Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae, Cryptophyta) from Korea. Algae 28: 307–330. https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2013.28.4.307

  4. Darriba, D., Taboada, G.L., Doallo, R. & Posada, D. (2012) jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature methods 9 (8): 772–772. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2109

  5. Eddy, S.R. (1998) Profile hidden Markov models. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 14 (9): 755–763. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.755

  6. Ehrenberg, C.G. (1831) Symbolae physicae seu icones et descriptiones animalium evertebratorum sepositis insectis quae ex itinere per Africanum Borealem et Asiam Occidentalem Friderici Guilelmi Hemprich et Christiani Godofredi Ehrenberg medicinae et chirurgiae doctorum studio novae aut illustratae redierunt. Berlin, Mittler.

  7. Gadgil, M. & Meher-Homji, V.M. (1990) Ecological diversity. In: Daniels, J.C. & Serrao, J.S. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Centenary Seminar of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, Bombay, pp. 175–198.

  8. Gandhi, H.P. (1957) The freshwater diatoms from Radhanagari-Kolhapur. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biology Section) 1: 45–47.

  9. Gandhi, H.P. (1959) Freshwater Diatom flora of the Panhalgarh Hillfort in the Kolhapur district. Hydrobiologia 14: 93–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00042594

  10. Gandhi, H.P. (1999) Fresh-water diatoms of central Gujarat: with a review and some others. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, 324 pp.

  11. Gillespie, J.J., Johnston, J.S., Cannone, J.J. & Gutell, R.R. (2006) Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements. Insect Molecular Biology 15: 657–686. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00689.x

  12. Gusev, E., Podunay, Y., Martynenko, N., Shkurina, N. & Kulikovskiy, M. (2020) Taxonomic studies of Cryptomonas lundii clade (Cryptophyta: Cryptophyceae) with description of a new species from Vietnam. Fottea 20 (2): 137–143. https://doi.org/10.5507/fot.2020.004

  13. Hoef-Emden, K. (2007) Revision of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae) II: Incongruences between classical morphospecies concept and molecular phylogeny in smaller pyrenoid-less cells. Phycologia 46 (4): 402–428. https://doi.org/10.2216/06-83.1

  14. Hoef-Emden, K. & Melkonian, M. (2003) Revision of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae): A combination of molecular phylogeny and morphology provides insights into a long-hidden dimorphism. Protist 154: 371–409. https://doi.org/10.1078/143446103322454130

  15. Hoef-Emden, K. & Archibald, J.M. (2017) Cryptophyta (Cryptomonads). In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C.H., Margulis, L., Melkonian, M., Chapman, D.J. & Corliss, J.O. (eds.) Handbook of the Protists. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28149-0_35

  16. Jindal, R., Thakur, R.K., Singh, U.B. & Ahluwalia, A.S. (2014) Phytoplankton dynamics and species diversity in a shallow eutrophic, natural mid-altitude lake in Himachal Pradesh (India): role of physicochemical factors. Chemistry and Ecology 30 (4): 328–338.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02757540.2013.871267

  17. Karthick, B., Kociolek, J.P., Mahesh, M.K. & Ramachandra, T.V. (2011) The diatom genus Gomphonema Ehrenberg in India: Checklist and description of three new species. Nova Hedwigia 93 (1–2): 211–236.

  18. https://doi.org/10.1127/0029-5035/2011/0093-0211

  19. Karthick, B. & Kociolek, J.P. (2012) Reconsideration of the Gomphonema (Bacillariophyceae) species from Kolhapur, Northern Western Ghats, India: Taxonomy, typification and biogeography of the species reported by H. P. Gandhi. Phycological Research 60 (3): 179–198.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.2012.00649.x

  20. Karthick, B., Nautiyal, R., Kociolek, J.P. & Ramachandra, T.V. (2015) Two new species of Gomphonema (Bacillariophyceae) from Doon Valley, Uttarakhand, India. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 144: 165–174. https://doi.org/10.1127/nova_suppl/2015/0037

  21. Katoh, K. & Toh, H. (2010) Parallelization of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. Bioinformatics 26: 1899–1900. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq224

  22. Keller, A., Schleicher, T., Schultz, J., Müller, T., Dandekar, T. & Wolf, M. (2009) 5.8S-28S rRNA interaction and HMM-based ITS2 annotation. Gene 430: 50–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2008.10.012

  23. Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C. & Tamura, K. (2018) MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across computing platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 35: 1547–1549. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy096

  24. Martynenko, N.A., Gusev, E.S., Kapustin, D.A., Guseva, E.E. & Kulikovskiy, M.S. (2020a) Cryptomonas cattiensis sp. nov. (Cryptophyta: Cryptophyceae), a new species described from Vietnam. Phytotaxa 452 (2): 127–136.

  25. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.454.2.4

  26. Martynenko, N.A., Gusev, E.S., Kulizin, P.V., Guseva, E.E., Mccartney, K. & Kulikovskiy, M. S. (2020b) A new species of Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae) from the Western Urals (Russia). European Journal of Taxonomy 649: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.649

  27. Mcfadden, G.I. & Melkonian, M. (1986) Use of Hepes buffer for microalgal culture media and fixation for electron microscopy. Phycologia 25: 551–557. https://doi.org/10.2216/i0031-8884-25-4-551.1

  28. Menon, S. & Bawa, K.S. (1997) Applications of geographic information systems, remote-sensing, and a landscape ecology approach to biodiversity conservation in the Western Ghats. Current science 73 (2): 134–145. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24098267

  29. Nakayama, T., Watanabe, S., Mitsui, K., Uchida, H. & Inouye, I. (1996) The phylogenetic relationship between the Chlamydomonadales and Chlorococcales inferred from 18S rDNA sequence data. Phycological research 44 (1): 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1835.1996.tb00037.x

  30. Pascal, J.P. (1988) Wet evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India: ecology, structure, floristic composition, and succession. French Institute, Pondicherry, India.

  31. Patil, S.R., Patil, S.S. & Sathe, T.V. (2014) Status of freshwater bodies from Ajara tahsil of Kolhapur district (MS), India with special reference to morphometric characteristics. IOSR-JESTFT 8 (9): 17–22. https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-08943137

  32. Patidar, S.K., Chokshi, K., George, B., Bhattacharya, S. & Mishra, S. (2015) Dominance of cyanobacterial and cryptophytic assemblage correlated to CDOM at heavy metal contamination sites of Gujarat, India. Environmental monitoring and assessment 187 (1): 4118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4118-6

  33. Playfair, G.J. (1921) Australian freshwater flagellates. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 46: 99–146. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.14004

  34. Pruesse, E., Peplies, J. & Glöckner, F.O. (2012) SINA: accurate high-throughput multiple sequence alignment of ribosomal RNA genes. Bioinformatics 28: 1823–1829.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts252

  35. Radhakrishnan, C., Kulikovskiy, M., Glushchenko, A., Kuznetsova, I., Kociolek, P. & Karthick, B. (2018) Oricymba sagarensis (Gandhi) comb. nov., an endemic diatom from the Western Ghats, India. Phytotaxa 382 (3): 267–274. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.382.3.3

  36. Radhakrishnan, C., Pardhi, S., Kulikovskiy, M., Kociolek, J.P. & Karthick, B. (2020) Navicula watveae sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae) a new diatom species from the Western Ghats, India. Phytotaxa 433 (1): 20–26. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.433.1.3

  37. Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

  38. Seibel, P.N., Müller, T., Dandekar, T., Schultz, J. & Wolf, M. (2006) 4SALE–a tool for synchronous RNA sequence and secondary structure alignment and editing. BMC Bioinformatics 7 (1): 498. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-7-498

  39. Shanthala, M., Hosmani, S.P. & Hosetti, B.B. (2009) Diversity of phytoplanktons in a waste stabilization pond at Shimoga Town, Karnataka State, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 151 (1–4): 437–443. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0287-5

  40. Sharma, B.K. & Pachuau, L. (2016) Diversity of Phytoplankton of a sub-tropical reservoir of Mizoram, northeast India. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 4 (6): 360–369.  https://doi.org/10.22034/ijab.v4i6.195

  41. Roy, S., Radhakrishnan, C., Taylor, J.C., Kulikovskiy, M.S. & Karthick, B. (2020) Encyonema keshrii, sp. nov.: a new diatom species (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyceae) from the Indian subcontinent. Cryptogamie, Algologie 41 (2): 7–17. https://doi.org/10.5252/cryptogamie-algologie2020v41a2

  42. Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1994) CLUSTALW: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence through weighing, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22: 4673–4680. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/22.22.4673

  43. Vigneshwaran, A., Kulikovskiy, M.S., Glushchenko, A., Kociolek, J.P. & Karthick, B. (2019) A new species of Cymbella (Bacillariophyceae, Cymbellaceae) from the Pavana River, Western Ghats, India. Phytotaxa 395 (3): 209–218. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.395.3.5

  44. Wuyts, J., Van De Peer, Y. & De Wachter, R. (2001) Distribution of substitution rates and location of insertion sites in the tertiary structure of ribosomal RNA. Nucleic Acids Research 29: 5017–5028.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/29.24.5017

  45. Xia, X. & Xie, Z. (2001) DAMBE: software package for data analysis in molecular biology and evolution. Journal of heredity 92 (4): 371–373. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/92.4.371

  46. Xia, X., Xie, Z., Salemi, M., Chen, L. & Wang, Y. (2003) An index of substitution saturation and its application. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 26 (1): 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00326-3

  47. Xia, X. & Lemey, P. (2009) Assessing substitution saturation with DAMBE. The phylogenetic handbook: a practical approach to DNA and protein phylogeny 2: 615–630.

  48. Xia, S., Liu, G.X. & Hu, Z.Y. (2013) Morphological examination and phylogenetic position of two newly recorded freshwater Cryptomonas species (Cryptophyceae) from China. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (2): 212–222. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2012.00227.x

  49. Zuker, M. (2003) Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Research 31: 3406–3415. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkg595