Taxonomic revisions are the most reliable pathway in unfolding new species to the world. During such a revision of the genus Lagenandra in Sri Lankan, we came across two new species: Lagenandra kalugalensis and Lagenandra srilankensis from the Wet Zone of Sri Lanka. The two new species were studied in detail and compared with the morphology of the other species described in the genus, and based on field collected data conservation assessments were performed. A detailed description for the two new species and an updated taxonomic key to the Sri Lankan Lagenandra is presented here for easy identification. Recognizing two new endemic members enhances the number of Sri Lankan species of Lagenandra to eleven and global to nineteen. According to the IUCN red data category guidelines, L. kalugalensis qualifies for Critically Endangered category under Criterion B1ab (ii,iii,v) + B2ab (ii,iii,v) while L. srilankensis qualifies for Critically Endangered category under B1ab (iii, iv) + C2 (a) (i, ii). Hence, immediate conservation measures are imperative.
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