Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2022-01-10

Anoplocaryum: A newly recorded genus of Boraginaceae from China

Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000, Hebei, China
Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000, Hebei, China
Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Boraginaceae Anoplocaryum newly recorded China Eudicots


Anoplocaryum (Boraginaceae), a small genus previously known from Russia and Mongolia, is newly recorded from China. The specimen was discovered in the rock crevices of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei province, China, and was identified as A. helenae Volot. based on both morphological and molecular data. This study updates our knowledge on the geographic distribution of the genus Anoplocaryum. Two taxonomic keys were provided to distinguish Anoplocaryum and Chinese related genera, also to index taxa in Anoplocaryum.


  1. Chacón, J., Luebert, F. & Hilger, H.H., Ovchinnikova, S., Selvi, F., Cecchi, L., Guilliams, C.M., Hasenstab-Lehman, K., Sutorý, K., Simpson, M.G. & Weigend, M. (2016) The borage family (Boraginaceae s.str.): a revised infrafamilial classification based on new phylogenetic evidence, with emphasis on the placement of some enigmatic genera. Taxon 65 (3): 523–546.

  2. Edler, D., Klein, J., Antonelli, A. & Silvestro, D. (2020) RaxmlGUI 2.0: A graphical interface and toolkit for phylogenetic analyses using RAxML. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 12: 373–377.

  3. Farris, J.S., Källersjö, M., Kluge, A.G. & Bult, C. (1995) Constructing a significance test for incongruence. Systematic Biology 44: 570–572.

  4. Grubov, V.I. (2001) Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia, vol. 2. Science Publishers, Enfield (NH), U.S.A., 554 pp.

  5. Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.

  6. Hao, J.C., Liu, Q.R., Gong, Y.X. & Wei, L. (2017) Myosotis wumengensis sp. nov. (Boraginaceae) from central Yunnan, southwest China. Nordic Journal of Botany 35: 257–261.

  7. Ledebour, C.F. (1847) Flora Rossica, vol. 3. Sumtibus Librariae E. Schweizerbart, Stuttgartiae, 154 рp.

  8. Malyschev, L.I. (2006) Flora of Siberia, vol. 11. CRC Press, U.K., 167 pp.

  9. Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.

  10. Ovchinnikova, S.V. (2013) The system and conspectus of the genus Anoplocaryum (Boraginaceae) species. Rastitel’nyj mir Aziatskoj Rossii 2 (12): 79–88.

  11. POWO. (2019) Plants of the World Online. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew U.K. Available from: (accessed 5 March 2021)

  12. Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.

  13. Swofford, D.L. (2003) PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), v4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

  14. Thiers, B. (2021) Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from: (accessed 5 March 2021)

  15. Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D.G. (1997) The Clustal X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research 24: 4876–4882.

  16. Volotovsky, K.A. (1996) A new species of the genus Anoplocaryum Ledeb. (Boraginaceae) from South Yakutia. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii [New Delhi] 30: 147–150.

  17. Weigend, M., Gottschling, M., Selvi, F. & Hilger, H.H. (2009) Marbleseeds are gromwells – Systematics and evolution of Lithospermum and allies (Boraginaceae tribe Lithospermeae) based on molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 755–768.

  18. Weigend, M., Gottschling, M., Selvi, F. & Hilger, H.H. (2010) Fossil and extant western hemisphere Boragineae, and the polyphyly of “Trigonotideae Riedl (Boraginaceae: Boraginoideae). Systematic Botany 35 (2): 409–419.

  19. Weigend, M., Luebert, F., Selvi, F., Brokamp, G. & Hilger, H.H. (2013) Multiple origins for hounds tongues (Cynoglossum L.) and navel seeds (Omphalodes Mill.) – The phylogeny of the borage family (Boraginaceae s.str.). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68: 604–618.

  20. Weigend, M., Selvi, F., Thomas, D.C. & Hilger, H.H. (2016) Boraginaceae. In: Kadereit, J. & Bittrich, V. (Eds.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 14. Springer Nature, Switzerland, pp. 41–101.

  21. Yu, S.X., Janssens, S.B., Zhu, X.Y., Lidén, M., Gao, T.G. &Wang, W. (2016) Phylogeny of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae): integrating molecular and morphological evidence into a new classification. Cladistics 32 (2): 179–197.

  22. Zhu, G.L., Riedl, H. & Kamelin, R.V. (1995) Boraginaceae. In: Wu, Z.Y. & Raven, P.H. (Eds.) Flora of China, vol. 16. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp. 329–427.