Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2022-07-19

Revisiting two Stauroneis Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyta) from H. P. Gandhi’s Diatom collection: Notes on Ultrastructure, Types and Nomenclature

Biodiversity and Palaeobiology, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India-411004; Department of Botany, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India-411007
Biodiversity and Palaeobiology, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India-411004; Department of Botany, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India-411007
Diatom Dharwar Powai stauros valve morphology Algae


The study addresses revisiting two Stauroneis taxa described by H. P. Gandhi using his collections from Western India. The type specimens of S. phoenicenteron f. capitata Gonzalves and H.P.Gandhi and S. anceps f. indica H.P.Gandhi were studied employing light and scanning electron microscopy. This contribution documents their valve morphology, with comments on synonyms and type details of similar taxa utilised for comparison. Examining the type specimens of the aforementioned taxa endows evidence of a definable and distinct taxon. Consequently, Stauroneis lacuspowaiensis Wadmare & B.Karthick nom. nov., stat. nov. and Stauroneis dharwarensis Wadmare & B.Karthick nom. nov., stat. nov. are proposed. The present study clarifies the typification of Gandhi’s specimens and derives new morphological information.


  1. Andrews, G.W. (1981) Achnanthes linkei and the origin of monoraphid diatoms. Bacillaria 4: 29–40.

  2. Bahls, L. (2010) Stauroneis in the Northern Rockies—50 species of Stauroneis sensu stricto from western Montana, northern Idaho, northeastern Washington and southwestern Alberta, including 16 species described as new. Vol. 4 In: Bahls, L. (ed.) Northwest Diatoms, Montana Diatom Collection, Helena, 179 pp.

  3. Barber, H.G. & Haworth, E.Y. (1981) A guide to the morphology of the diatom frustule. Freshwater Biological Association, Scientific Publication 44: 1–112.

  4. Bessey, C. (1907) A synopsis of plant phyla. Nebraska University Studies 7: 275–373.

  5. Boyer, C.S. (1927) Supplement: Synopsis of North American Diatomaceae. Part II. Naviculatae, Surirellatae. Proceedings of the academy of natural sciences of Philadelphia 79: 228–583.

  6. Ehrenberg, C.G. (1843) Verbreitung und Einflufs des mikroskopischen Lebens in Süd-und Nord-Amerika. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1841: 291–445.

  7. Ehrenberg, C.G. (1854) Mikrogeologie. Das Erden und Felsen schaffende Wirken des unsichtbar kleinen selbstständigen Lebens auf der Erde. [Texte]. Leopold Voss, Leipzig, xxviii + 374 pp.

  8. Gandhi, H.P. (1959a) The freshwater diatom flora from Mugad, Dharwar District with some ecological notes. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biology Section) 2: 98–116.

  9. Gandhi, H.P. (1959b) Freshwater diatom flora of the Panhalgarh Hill Fort in the Kolhapur district. Hydrobiologia 14: 93–129.

  10. Gonzalves, E.A. & Gandhi, H.P. (1953) A systematic account of the Diatoms of Bombay and Salsette -11. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 32: 239–263.

  11. Guiry, M.D., Vigneshwaran, A. & Karthick, B. (2020) Validation and replacement of some diatom names published by H.P. Gandhi. Notulae algarum 133: 1–9. []

  12. Haeckel, E. (1878) Das Protistenreich. Eine populare Übersicht über das For-mengebiet der niedersten Lebewesen. Mit einem wissenschaftlichen Anhang: System der Protisten. Ernst Günther, Leipzig, 104 pp.

  13. Harrington, B. (2004–2005) Inkscape. Available from (accessed 2 June 2020).

  14. Kale, A., Levkov, Z. & Karthick, B. (2017) Typification of two species of Luticola (Bacillariophyta) from aerophilic habitats of the Western Ghats, India. Phytotaxa 298: 29–42.

  15. Karthick, B., Taylor, J.C., Mahesh, M.K. & Ramachandra, T.V. (2010) Protocols for collection, preservation and enumeration of diatoms from Aquatic habitats for water quality monitoring in India. The ICF Journal of Soil and Water Sciences 3: 1–36.

  16. Karthick, B. & Kociolek, J.P. (2012) Reconsideration of the Gomphonema (Bacillariophyceae) species from Kolhapur, Northern Western Ghats, India: Taxonomy, typification and biogeography of the species reported by H.P. Gandhi. Phycological Research 60: 179–198.

  17. Kobayasi, H. & Ando, K. (1977) Diatoms from irrigation ponds in Musashikyuryo-shinrin Park, Saitama Prefecture. Bulletin of Tokyo Gakugei University 29: 231–263.

  18. Kobayasi, H. & Ando, K. (1978) New species and new combinations in the genus Stauroneis. Japanese Journal of Phycology 26: 13–18.

  19. Lange-Bertalot, H. & Metzeltin, D. (1996) Indicators of Oligotrophy: 800 Taxa Representative of Three Ecologically Distinct Lake Types. Vol. 2 In: Lange-Bertalot (ed.) Iconographia Diatomologica, Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, 390 pp.

  20. Lange-Bertalot, H., Cavacini, P., Tagliaventi, N. & Alfinito, S. (2003) Diatoms of Sardinia. Rare and 76 new species in rock pools and other ephemeral waters. Iconographia Diatomologica 12: 1–438.

  21. Levkov, Z., Tofilovska, S., Jovanovska, E., Cvetkoska, A. & Metzeltin, D. (2016) Revision of the Stauroneis smithii Grunow (Bacillariophyceae) species complex from Macedonia. Botanica Serbica 40: 167–178.

  22. Medlin, L.K. & Kaczmarska, I. (2004) Evolution of the diatoms: V. Morphological and cytological support for the major clades and a taxonomic revision. Phycologia 43: 245–270.

  23. Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1998) Tropical diatoms of South America I: About 700 predominantly rarely known or new taxa representative of the neotropical flora. Iconographia Diatomologica 5: 3–695.

  24. Metzeltin, D., Lange-Bertalot, H. & García-Rodríguez, F. (2005) Diatoms of Uruguay. Compared with other taxa from South America and elsewhere. Iconographia Diatomologica 15: 1–736.

  25. Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2007) Tropical Diatoms of South America II. Special remarks on biogeographic disjunction. Iconographia Diatomologica 18: 1–877.

  26. Patrick, R. & Reimer, C.W. (1966) The diatoms of the United States. Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. Volume 1: Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae, Achnanthaceae, Naviculaceae. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13: 1–688.

  27. Radhakrishnan, C., Kulikovskiy, M., Glushchenko, A., Kuznetsova, I., Kociolek, P. & Karthick, B. (2018) Oricymba sagarensis (Gandhi) comb. nov., an endemic diatom from the Western Ghats, India. Phytotaxa 382: 267–274.

  28. Reichardt, E. (1995) Die Diatomeen (Bacillariophyceae) in Ehrenbergs Material von Cayenne, Guyane Gallica (1843). Iconographia Diatomologica 1: 7–99.

  29. Round, F.E., Crawford, R.M. & Mann, D.G. (1990) The Diatoms: Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 747 pp.

  30. Schumann, J. (1867) Preussische Diatomeen. Schriften der koniglichen physikalisch-okonomischen Gesellschaft zu Konigsberg, 8: 37–68.

  31. Skvortzow, B.V. (Ed.) (2012) New and little known fresh- and brackish water diatoms chiefly from Eastern part of Asia and their geographical distribution with a map and 499 figures. Iconographia Diatomologica 23: 749–861.

  32. Smith, W. (1853) A synopsis of the British Diatomaceae; with remarks on their structure, functions and distribution; and instructions for collecting and preserving specimens. Vol. 1. John Van Voorst, London, 89 pp.

  33. Van de Vijver, B., Beyens, L. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004) The genus Stauroneis in Arctic and Antarctic regions. Bibliotheca Diatomologica, 51: 1–317.

  34. Vouilloud, A.A., Guerrero, J.M., Palladino, M.B. & Lamaro, A.A. (2021) Revision of the type materials of Stauroneis schinzii var. argentina Frenguelli and S. schinzii var. maxima Frenguelli (bacillariophyceae). Phytotaxa 478: 119–130.

  35. Wadmare, N., Roy, S., Kociolek, J.P. & Karthick, B. (2019) Two new aerophilic species of Stauroneis Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyta) from the Eastern Himalayas. Botany Letters 166: 234–245.

  36. Wadmare, N., Kociolek, J.P. & Karthick, B. (2021) Three new species of the genus Stauroneis Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae: Stauroneidaceae) from the Northern Western Ghats, India. Fottea 21: 220–234.

  37. Zidarova, R., Kopalová, K. & Van de Vijver, B. (2014) The genus Stauroneis (Bacillariophyta) from the South Shetland Islands and James Ross Island (Antarctica). Fottea 14: 201–207.