Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2022-07-26

Morphological, Anatomical, Palynological and Karyological Studies on Endemic Alyssum kaynakiae (Brassicaceae) from Southwest Region of Turkey

Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Science, Bursa Uludağ University, Bursa, Turkey
Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Science, Bursa Uludağ University, Bursa, Turkey
Alyssum anatomy chromosome endemism Turkey Eudicots

Abstract

Alyssum kaynakiae is an endemic biennial species growing in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey. In this study, the morphology of this taxon was revised, and its anatomical, palynological, and karyological characteristics were analysed for the first time. Alyssum kaynakiae has been considered part of the traditional Alyssum sect. Gamosepalum. Alyssum kaynakiae has diploid chromosome number 2n=16. It has a primary structure in the root and stem, collenchyma located under the epidermis in the root and under the cortex layer in the stem, and vascular bundles varying between 9 to 11. Leaves are isolateral, stomata are at the same level as the epidermis, and both sides of the leaves have lepidote hairs. Its palynological features are compatible with the Brassicaceae family, with its pollen type being tricolpate, its pollen shape being prolate, and its ornamentation being reticulate.

References

  1. Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (1987) The genera of Alysseae (Cruciferae, Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 68: 185–240.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.11932

  2. Al-Shehbaz, I.A., Mutlu, B. & Dönmez, A.A. (2007) The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) of Turkey, Updated. Turkish Journal of Botany 31: 327–336.

  3. Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2012) A generic and tribal synopsis of the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Taxon 61 (5): 931–954.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.615002

  4. Amina, H., Ahmad, M., Bhatti, G.R., Zafar, M., Sultana, S., Butt, M.A., Bahadur, S., Haq, I.-U., Ghufran, M.A., Lubna, Ahmad, S. & Ashfaq, S. (2020) Microscopic investigation of pollen morphology of Brassicaceae from Central Punjab-Pakistan. Microscopy Research & Technique 83: 446–454. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23432

  5. Anjum, N.A., Gill, Ahmad, I., Pacheco, M., Duarte, A.C., Umar, S., Khan, N.A. & Pereira, M.E.  (2012) The Plant Family Brassicaceae: An Introduction. In: Anjum, N., Ahmad, I., Pereira, M., Duarte, A., Umar, S. & Khan, N. (Eds.) The Plant Family Brassicaceae. Environmental Pollution, vol 21. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-3913-0_1

  6. Appel, O. & Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2003) Cruciferae. In: Kubitzki K, Bayer C (Eds.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, pp. 75-174. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-07255-4_17

  7. Başer, B., Baygeldi, Z. & Şahin, B. (2018) Pollen morphology of some Alyssum L. (Brassicaceae) from Turkey. Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology 8 (2): 60–68.  https://doi.org/10.17678/beuscitech.402885

  8. Bentham, G. & Hooker, J.D. (1862) Genera Plantarum. Vol. 1, Reeve, London.

  9. Boissier, E. (1867) Flora Orientalis. Vol. l. H. Georg, Basel & Genève, XXXIV + 1017 pp.

  10. Bulbul, A.S., Varlik, K., Armagan, M. & Arslan, A. (2019) Fruits, seeds and pollen morphology of Alyssum L. (Brassicaceae) and their taxonomic value. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 28 (3): 2199–2219.

  11. Cetlová, V., Zozomová-Lihová, J., Melichárková, A., Mártonfiová, L. & Španiel, S. (2021) Multiple drivers of high species diversity and endemism among Alyssum annuals in the Mediterranean: the evolutionary significance of the Aegean hotspot. Frontiers in Plant Science 12: 627909.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.627909

  12. Dudley, T.R. (1964) Synopsis of the genus Alyssum. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 45: 57–100.  https://doi.org/10.5962/p.185685

  13. Dudley, T.R. (1965a) Alyssum L. In: Davis, P.H. (Ed.) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 1. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 362–409.

  14. Dudley, T.R. (1965b) Studies in Alyssum. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 46: 195–196.  https://doi.org/10.5962/p.185697

  15. Emberger, M.L. & Maire, R.C.J.E. (1932) Alyssum antiatlanticum Emb. & Maire In: Maire, Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de l’Afrique du Nord 23: 165.

  16. Erdtman, G. (1966) Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. New York and London: Hafner Publishing Company.

  17. Gabr, D.G.I. (2018) Taxonomic Importance of Pollen Morphology for Some Species of    Brassicaceae. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 21 (5): 215–223.  https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2018.215.223

  18. Karabacak, O., Duran, A. & Çelik, M. (2016) Alyssum amasianum (Brassicaceae), a new  species     from North Anatolia, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 40: 402–411.  https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1508-2

  19. Karaismailoğlu, M.C. (2020) Petiole Anatomy of 21 Representatives of Tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) from Turkey. KSU Journal of Agriculture and Nature 23 (6): 1535–1544. https://doi.org/10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.722766

  20. Khalik, K.A., Van den Berg, R.G., Van der Maesen, L.J.G., El Hadidi, M.N. (2002) Pollen morphology of some tribes of Brassicaceae from Egypt and its systematic implications. Feddes Repertorium 113 (3–4): 211–223. https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-239X(200208)113:3/4<211::AID-FEDR211>3.0.CO;2-A

  21. Koch, W.D.J. (1836) Synopsis florae germanicae et helveticae. F. Wilmans, Francofurti ad Moenum [Frankfurt am Main], 102 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6629

  22. Koti, S., Reddy, K.R., Kakani, V.G., Zhao, D. & Reddy, V.R. (2004) Soybean (Glycine max) pollen germination characteristics, flower, and pollen morphology in response to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation. Annals of Botany 94 (6): 855–864.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ab/mch212

  23. Kuprianova, L.A. (1967) Apertures of pollen grains and their evolution in angiosperms. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 3: 73–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(67)90041-3

  24. Kürşat, M., Civelek, Ş., Kandil, A. (2008) Alyssum harputicum Dudley’in (Brassicaceae) Morfolojik, Anatomik ve Polen Özellikleri ile Kromozom Sayısı Bakımından Araştırılması. Fırat Üniversitesi Fen ve Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 20 (2): 205–215.

  25. Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmia [Stockholm], 1200 pp.  https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.669

  26. Marhold, K. & Lihová, J. (2006) Polyploidy, hybridisation and reticulate evolution: lessons from the Brassicaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 259: 143–174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-006-0417-x

  27. Mutlu, B. & Erik, S. (2012) Pollen morphology and its taxonomic significance of the genus Arabis (Brassicaceae) in Turkey. Plant Systematics and Evolution 298: 1931–1946.           https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-012-0692-7

  28. Nazari, Z., Ejtehadi, H. & Kavousi, K. (2013) Taxonomy of Alyssum sect. Gamosepalum on the basis of anatomical properties. Acta Botanica Hungarica 55: 3–4. https://doi.org/10.1556/ABot.56.2014.1-2.13

  29. Raza, A., Hafeez, M.B., Zahra, N., Shaukat, K., Umbreen, S., Tabassum, J., Charagh, S., Khan, R.S.A. & Hasanuzzaman, M. (2020) The Plant Family Brassicaceae: Introduction, Biology, And Importance. In: Hasanuzzaman, M. (Eds.) The Plant Family Brassicaceae. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6345-4_1

  30. Rešetnik, I., Satovic, Z., Schneeweiss, GM. & Liber, Z. (2013) Phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae tribe Alysseae inferred from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69 (3): 772–786.               https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.06.026

  31. Salmerón-Sánchez, E., Fuertes-Aguilar, J., Španiel, S., Pérez-García, F.J., Merlo, E., Garrido-Becerra, J.A. & Mota, J. (2018) Plant evolution in alkaline magnesium-rich soils: A phylogenetic study of the Mediterranean genus Hormathophylla (Cruciferae: Alysseae) based on nuclear and plastid sequences. PLoS ONE 13: e0208307.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208307

  32. Španiel, S., Kempa, M., Salmerón-Sánchez, E., Fuertes-Aguilar, J., Mota, JF., Al-Shehbaz, IA., German, DA., Olšavská, K., Šingliarová, B., Zozomová-Lihová, J. & Marhold, K. (2015) AlyBase: database of names, chromosome numbers, and ploidy levels of Alysseae (Brassicaceae), with a new generic concept of the tribe. Plant Systematics and Evolution 301: 2463–2491.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-015-1257-3

  33. Zhou, T., Lianli, L., Guang, Y. & Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2001) Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). In:  Wu, Z.Y. & Raven, P.H. (Eds.) Flora of China. Vol. 8. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. pp. 1–193.

  34. Uysal, T., Bozkurt, M., Tugay, O., Ertuğrul, K., Şimşek Sezer, E.N. & Köse, Y.B. (2017) Karyomorphology of Turkish species in Centaurea sections Centaurea and Phalolepis (Asteraceae) and implications for taxonomy. Plant Biosystems 151 (6): 949–964.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2016.1218967

  35. Walker, J.W. (1974) Aperture evolution in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. American Journal of Botany 61: 1112–1137.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2441929

  36. Warwick, S.I., Sauder, C.A. & Al-Shehbaz, I.A. (2008) Phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Botany Botanique 86: 315–336.  https://doi.org/10.1139/B08-013

  37. Wodehouse, R.P. (1935) Pollen Grains. Mc Grew Hill, New York.

  38. Yeloff, D., Blokker, P., Boelen, P., Rozema, J. (2008) Is Pollen Morphology of Salix Polaris Affected by Enhanced UV-B Irradiation? Results from a Field Experiment in High Arctic Tundra. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 40 (4): 770–774.          https://doi.org/10.1657/1523-0430(07-045)[YELOFF]2.0.CO;2

  39. Yılmaz, Ö. (2012) Alyssum kaynakiae sp. nov. (sect. Gamosepalum, Brassicaceae) from southwest Anatolia, Turkey. Nordic Journal of Botany 30: 190–194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01402.x