Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2022-09-16

Thismia petasiformis (Thismiaceae), a new fairy lantern species from the Brazilian Amazon Forest

Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Pacheco Leão, 915, 22460-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Pacheco Leão, 915, 22460-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
achlorophyllous Brazil Dioscoreales mycoheterotrophic neotropics Monocots

Abstract

Thismia petasiformis is described and illustrated as a new achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophic species discovered in the Brazilian Amazon Forest. The species belongs to Thismia subg. Ophiomeris sect. Pyramidalis by the presence of horizontal cylindrical roots, terete stem with scattered leaves, pyramidal stigma, and stamens flattened with connective not dilated, interstaminal lobes absent and ovary with parietal placentation from the base to the top of the ovary. Thismia petasiformis differs from T. fungiformis by the perianth tube apparently trigonous with slightly curved sides, annulus inconspicuous, and inner perianth lobes forming a single hat-shaped mitre. We present a taxonomic treatment for T. petasiformis, with a detailed description, illustrations and a preliminary assessment of its conservation status following IUCN categories and criteria.

References

  1. BFG—The Brazil Flora Group (2022) Brazilian Flora 2020: Leveraging the power of a collaborative scientific network. Taxon 71: 178–198. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12640

  2. Carvalho, W.D., Mustin, K., Hilário, R.R., Vasconcelos, I.M., Eilers, V. & Fearnside, P.M. (2019) Deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon: A conservation struggle being lost as agreements and regulations are subverted and bypassed. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 17: 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecon.2019.06.002

  3. Fearnside, P.M. (2005) Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: history, rates, and consequences. Conservation Biology 19: 680–688. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00697.x

  4. Feller, B., Dančák, M., Hroneš, M., Sochor, M., Suetsugu, K. &  Imhof, S. (2022) Mycorrhizal structures in mycoheterotrophic Thismia spp. (Thismiaceae): functional and evolutionary interpretations. Mycorrhiza 32: 269–280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-022-01076-3

  5. Garrett, R.D., Cammelli, F., Ferreira, J., Levy, S.A., Valentim, J. & Vieira, I. (2021) Forests and sustainable development in the Brazilian Amazon: history, trends, and future prospects. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 46: 625–652. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-012220-010228

  6. Griffith, W. (1844) On the root parasites referred by authors to Rhizantheae, and their allies. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 1: 221–223.

  7. Guo, X., Zhao, Z., Mar, S.S., Zhang, D. & Saunders, R.M. (2019) A symbiotic balancing act: arbuscular mycorrhizal specificity and specialist fungus gnat pollination in the mycoheterotrophic genus Thismia (Thismiaceae). Annals of Botany 124: 331–342. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz087

  8. IUCN (2012) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 32 pp.

  9. IUCN (2019) IUCN Red List of threatened species: Version 2019-2. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ (accessed 1 May 2022)

  10. Jonker, F.P. (1938) A monograph of the Burmanniaceae. Mededeelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijks Universiteit te Utrecht 51: 1–279.

  11. Lam, V.K.Y., Merckx, V.S.F.T. & Graham, S.W. (2016) A few-gene plastid phylogenetic framework for mycoheterotrophic monocots. American Journal of Botany 103: 692–708. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1500412

  12. Leake, J.R. (1994) The biology of mycoheterotrophic (‘saprophytic’) plants. New Phytologist 127: 171–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb04272.x

  13. Li, H.Q. & Bi, Y.K. (2013) A new species of Thismia (Thismiaceae) from Yunnan, China. Phytotaxa 105: 25–28. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.105.1.4

  14. Maas, P.J.M. & Maas, H. (1987) Ecuadorian saprophytes, a preliminary review. Opera Botanica 92: 131–145.

  15. Maas, P.J.M., Maas-van de Kamer, H., van Benthem, J., Snelders, H.C.M. & Rübsamen, T. (1986) Burmanniaceae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 42: 1–189.

  16. Maas-van de Kamer, H. (1998) Burmanniaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (Ed.) Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 3: Monocotyledons, Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 154–164.

  17. Mar, S.S. & Saunders, R.M.K. (2015) Thismia hongkongensis (Thismiaceae): a new mycoheterotrophic species from Hong Kong, China, with observations on floral visitors and seed dispersal. PhytoKeys 46: 21–33. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.46.8963

  18. Merckx, V.S.F.T. & Smets, E.F. (2014) Thismia americana, the 101st anniversary of a botanical mystery. International Journal of Plant Sciences 175: 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1086/674315

  19. Merckx, V.S.F.T., Freudenstein, J.V., Kissling, J., Christenhusz, M.J.M., Stotler, R.E., Crandall-Stotler, B., Wickett, N., Rudall, P.J., Maas-van de Kamer, H. & Maas, P.J.M. (2013) Taxonomy and classification. In: Merckx, V.S.F.T. (ed.) Mycoheterotrophy: the biology of plants living on fungi. Springer, New York, pp. 19–101.

  20. Merckx, V.S.F.T., Gomes, S.I.F, Wapstra, M., Hunt, C., Steenbeeke, G., Mennes, C.B., Walsh, N., Smissen, R., Hsieh T-H, Smets, E.F. & Bidartondo, M.I. (2017) The biogeographical history of the interaction between mycoheterotrophic Thismia (Thismiaceae) plants and mycorrhizal Rhizophagus (Glomeraceae) fungi. Journal of Biogeography 44: 1869–1879. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12994

  21. Miers, J. (1847) On a new genus of plants of the family Burmanniaceae. Proceedings of Linnean Society of London 1: 328–329.

  22. Nobre, C., Arieira, J. & Nascimento, N. (2021) Amazonian Forest: the products of agroecological systems: considerations about the natural forest and economic exploitation for its conservation and how to develop sustainable agroforestry systems that induce the reduction of deforestation. Technical Note IDB-TN-02242: 1–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.18235/0003693

  23. Shepeleva, E.A., Schelkunov, M.I., Hroneš, M., Sochor, M., Dančák, M., Merckx, V.S.F.T, Kikuchi, I.A., Chantanaorrapint, S., Suetsugu, K., Tsukaya, H., Mar, S.S., Luu, H.T., Li, H.-Q., Logacheva, M.D. & Nuraliev, M.S. (2020) Phylogenetics of the mycoheterotrophic genus Thismia (Thismiaceae: Dioscoreales) with a focus on the Old World taxa: delineation of novel natural groups and insights into the evolution of morphological traits. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 193: 287–315. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boaa017

  24. Silva, D.F. da, Engels, M.E. & Soares-Lopes, C.R.A. (2020) Novelties in Thismia (Thismiaceae) from South Brazilian Amazon with the description of a new species. Phytotaxa 429: 261–273. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.429.4.2

  25. Silva Junior, C.A. da, Lima, M., Teodoro, P.E., Oliveira-Júnior, J.F. de, Rossi, F.S., Funatsu, B.M., Butturi, W., Lourençoni, T., Kraeski, A., Pelissari, T.D., Moratelli, F.A., Arvor, D., Luz, I.M.S., Teodoro, L.P.R., Debruil, V. & Teixeira, V.M. (2022) Fires drive long-term environmental degradation in the Amazon Basin. Remote Sensing 14: 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14020338

  26. Silva Junior, C.H.L., Pessôa, A.C.M., Carvalho, N.S., Reis, J.B.C., Anderson, L.O. & Aragão, L.E.O.C. (2021) The Brazilian Amazon deforestation rate in 2020 is the greatest of the decade. Nature Ecology & Evolution 5: 144–145. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-01368-x

  27. Siti-Munirah, M.Y. & Dome, N. (2022) Thismia latiffiana (Thismiaceae), an unusual new species from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. PhytoKeys 188: 105–114. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.188.77061

  28. Siti-Munirah, M.Y., Dome, N. & Thorogood, C.J. (2021) Thismia sitimeriamiae (Thismiaceae), an extraordinary new species from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. PhytoKeys 179: 75–89. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.179.68300

  29. Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards) Angiosperm phylogeny website. Available from: http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/ (accessed 29 July 2022)

  30. Suetsugu, K., Okada, H., Hirota, S.K. & Suyama, Y. (2022) Evolutionary history of mycorrhizal associations between Japanese Oxygyne (Thismiaceae) species and Glomeraceae fungi. New Phytologist 235: 836–841. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.18163

  31. Warming, E. (1901) Sur quelques Burmanniacées recueillies au Brésil par le Dr. A. Glaziou. Oversigt Over Det Kgl. Danse Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger 1901: 173–188.

  32. WCSP (2022) Thismia. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available from: http://wcsp.science.kew.org/ (accessed 29 July 2022)

  33. Woodward, C.L., Berry, P.E., Maas-van de Kamer, H. & Swing, K. (2007) Tiputinia foetida, a new mycoheterotrophic genus of Thismiaceae from Amazonian Ecuador, and a likely case of deceit pollination. Taxon 56: 157–162. https://doi.org/10.2307/25065746