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Type: Review
Published: 2021-12-31
Page range: 28–34
Abstract views: 779
PDF downloaded: 8

A survey of lifespan in Winterschmidtiidae (Sarcoptiformes: Astigmata)

Manaaki-Whenua-Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Acari Life cycle development lifespan free-living mites parasitic mites phoretic mites Winterschmidtiidae


The Winterschmidtiidae are a family of over 140 species of fungivorous, saprophagous, predatory and/or parasitic mites in insect/vertebrate nests, in decaying organic matter, in soils and on plants worldwide. In this review, I provide a survey of the immature developmental time, adult longevity and lifespan of the Winterschmidtiidae as part of the series on the lifespans in the Acari. The complete life cycle in this family includes five immature stages (the egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph and tritonymph) and adult male/female, with deutonymphs lost in some genera such as Czenspinskia and Oulenziella. Development or lifespan data have been reported for only three species (< 3%) of the Winterschmidtiidae, and the experimentally measured lifespans of one to two months most likely reflect those of the summer generation. Afrocalvolia nataliae has two generations per year: the summer generation, which has no deutonymph stage, is mainly devoted to feeding and reproduction and lasts for one month only; the winter generation, however, has a deutonymph stage to resist the cold conditions and lasts for as long as 11 months.


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