Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Proceedings Papers
Published: 2022-11-30

Three new genera of Schizogyniidae (Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) from a New Caledonian millipede (Spirobolida)

Queensland Museum, PO Box 3300, South Brisbane, 4101, Australia
New species key sexual dimorphism sperm transfer modifications convergent evolution biogeography


Three new monotypic genera of Schizogyniidae, Terrogynium gen. nov., Xenogynium gen. nov. and Zygogynium gen. nov., are described from a spirobolid millipede in New Caledonia. Terrogynium has females with chelicerae presumably modified for parasitism, and both sexes have numerous flattened ventral setae, convergent with many Paramegistidae. Xenogynium and Zygogynium are less-specialised genera with the former appearing closer to Terrogynium. Genus relationships are difficult to determine. These three genera are probably most closely related to each other but as a group it lacks convincing unique synapomorphies. Possible synapomorphies may instead reflect convergence for living on hosts, such as their shortened peritremes and loss of pretarsal claws, characters found elsewhere in the Schizogyniidae. The origins of the Schizogyniidae are discussed and a key to genera of Schizogyniidae is provided.


  1. Baker, M.R. & Seeman, O.D. (2008) Mites and millipedes: a new Neomegistus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Paramegistidae) from Australia. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 13, 204‒213.

  2. Butler, L. & Hunter, P.E. (1968) Redescription of Megisthanus floridanus with observations on its biology. (Acarina: Megisthanidae). Florida Entomologist, 51, 187–197.

  3. Carl, J. (1926) Diplopoden von Neu-Caledonien und den Loyalty Inseln. Nova Caledonia, Zoologie, 4, 369–462.

  4. Cluzel, D., Maurizot, P., Collot, J. & Sevin, B. (2012) An outline of the geology of New Caledonia; from Permian–Mesozoic Southeast Gondwanaland active margin to Cenozoic obduction and supergene evolution. Episodes, 35, 72‒86.

  5. Derne, B.T., Hutchinson, M.N., Weinstein, P., Gardner, M.G. & Halliday, B. (2018) Parasite in peril? A new species of mite in the genus Ophiomegistus Banks (Parasitiformes: Paramegistidae) on an endangered host, the pygmy bluetongue lizard Tiliqua adelaidensis (Peters) (Squamata: Scincidae). Austral Ecology, 44, 420–432.

  6. Elsen, P. (1981) Etude d’une collection de Celaenopsoidea africains. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 95, 570–607.

  7. Evans, G.O. (1963) Observations on the chaetotaxy of the legs in the free-living Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 10, 277–303.

  8. Funk, R.C. (1970) The genus Schizogynium Trägårdh, 1950, and description of S. berlesei n. sp. (Schizogyniidae: Celaenopsoidea: Mesostigmata). Acarologia, 12, 34–42.

  9. Funk, R.C. (1974) Megacelaenopsidae, a new family of Celaenopsoidea (Acari: Mesostigmata). Acarologia, 16, 382–393.

  10. Funk, R.C. (1980) Generic revision of the family Euzerconidae (Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea) with description of seven new genera. International Journal of Acarology, 6, 313‒349.

  11. Giribet, G. & Baker, C.M. (2019) Further discussion on the Eocene drowning of New Caledonia: Discordances from the point of view of zoology. Journal of Biogeography, 46, 1912‒1918.

  12. Grandcolas, P. (2017) Ten false ideas about New Caledonia biogeography. Cladistics, 33, 481–487.

  13. Grandcolas, P., Murienne, J., Robillard, T., Desutter-Grandcolas, L., Jourdan, H., Guilbert, E. & Deharveng, L. (2008) New Caledonia: a very old Darwinian island? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B Biological Sciences, 363(1508), 3309–3317.

  14. Heads, M. (2019) Recent advances in New Caledonian biogeography. Biological Reviews, 94, 957‒980.

  15. Hirschmann, W. (1972) Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 104. Von Dr. W. Rühm während seiner Tätigkeit an der Universidad Austral de Chile (Valdivia) gesammelte Araukarien-Milben aus Südchile und Südbrasilein. Acarologie. Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde, 17, 29–33.

  16. Hunter, P.E. & Rosario, R.M.T. (1987) A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Trigynaspida: Celaenopsoidea). International Journal of Acarology, 13, 197–202.

  17. Karg, W. (1997) Neue Raubmilbenarten der Antennophorina Berlese, 1892 (Acarina, Parasitifonnes), phoretisch auf Passaliden. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum fur Naturkunde in Berlin, 73, 51–61.

  18. Kazemi, S., Klompen, H., Moraza, M.I., Kamali, K. & Saboori, A. (2008) A new species of Weiseronyssus Samsinak 1962 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Diplogyniidae) from Iran, with a key for genera. Zootaxa, 1824, 17‒27.

  19. Kethley, J.B. (1974) Developmental chaetotaxy of a paedomorphic celaenopsoid Neotenogynium malkini n.g., n. sp. (Acari: Parasitiformes: Neotenogyniidae, n. fam.) associated with millipedes. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 67, 571–579.

  20. Kethley, J.B. (1977) A review of the higher categories of Trigynaspida (Acari: Parasitiformes). International Journal of Acarology, 3, 129–149.

  21. Kim, C.M. (2004) Trigynaspida (Acari: Mesostigmata): new diagnosis, classification, and phylogeny. Acarologia, 44, 157–194.

  22. Kinn, D.N. (1966) A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from North America with a key to the genera. Acarologia, 8, 576–586.

  23. Kinn, D.N. (1967) A new species of Cercomegistus (Acari: Mesostigmata) from California. Acarologia, 9, 488–496.

  24. Kinn D.N. (1968) A new species of Pleuronectocelaeno (Acarina: Celaenopsidae) associated with bark beetles in North and Central America. Acarologia, 10, 191–205.

  25. Lindquist, E.E. & Evans, G.O. (1965) Taxonomic concepts in the Ascidae, with a modified setal nomenclature for the idiosoma of the Gamasina (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 47, 1–64.

  26. Ryke, P.A.J. (1957) Mixogynium proteae, a new genus and species of Celaenopsoidea (Mesostigmata: Acarina) from South Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 12, 10, 579–584.

  27. Seeman, O.D. (2000) Life cycle, development, feeding and immature life stages of the Fedrizziidae (Mesostigmata: Fedrizzioidea). Acarologia, 41, 39‒52.

  28. Seeman, O.D. (2002) Mites and passalid beetles: diversity, taxonomy, and biogeography. PhD Thesis, The University of Queensland. 339 pp.

  29. Seeman, O.D. (2007) Revision of the Fedrizziidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Fedrizzioidea). Zootaxa, 1480, 1–55.

  30. Seeman, O.D. (2012) Diplogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with Panesthia cockroaches (Blattodea: Blaberidae). Zootaxa, 3163, 33‒53.

  31. Seeman, O.D. & Walter, D.E. (1997) A new species of Triplogyniidae (Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea) from Australian rainforests. International Journal of Acarology, 23, 49‒59.

  32. Sellnick, M. (1954) Indogynium lindbergi nov. gen., nov. spec., eine neue Acaride aus Indien. Entomologisk Tidskrift, 75, 285–291.

  33. Stoll, O. (1893) Class Arachnida, Order Acaridea. Biologia Centrali-Americana, i–xxi, 1–55, 21 plates.

  34. Trach, V.A. & Seeman, O.D. (2014) A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine. Zootaxa, 3793, 247–256.

  35. Trägårdh, I. (1950) Studies on the Celaenopsidae, Diplogyniidae and Schizogyniidae (Acarina). Arkiv för Zoologi, Serie 2, 1,361–451.

  36. Trägårdh, I. (1951) Brachycelaenopsis, a new genus of Celaenopsidae (Acarina) from Tasmania. Entomologisk Tidskrift, 72, 60‒64.

  37. Womersley, H. (1958) Some Acarina from Australia and New Guinea paraphagic upon millipedes and cockroaches, and on beetles of the family Passalidae. Pt 2. The family Diplogyniidae (Mesostigmata–Trigynaspida). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 81, 13–29.

  38. Zhang, X.-F., Yi, T.-C., Guo, J.-J. & Jin, D.-C. (2017) A new species of Schizogyniidae (Mesostigmata, Celaenopsoidea) associated with beetles in China. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 22, 1048–1058.