Zoosymposia 2021-12-31T17:06:49+13:00 ZHI-QIANG ZHANG Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Zoosymposia</strong> is a rapid journal for peer-reviewed papers (reviews or original papers) on special topics/themes in zoology. It is a sister series of <a href="">Zootaxa</a><strong> </strong>and is designed to allow volumes of collected papers covering a wide range of topics (e.g. ecology, conservation ...) outside the scope of <a href="">Zootaxa</a>. </p> <p><strong>How long do Acari live? A survey of mite lifespans (Cover)</strong></p> 2021-12-30T10:47:54+13:00 <p>Cover</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>How long do Acari live? A survey of mite lifespans (TOC)</strong></p> 2021-12-30T10:54:03+13:00 <p>Table of Contents</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>A survey of lifespans in Oribatida excluding Astigmata (Acari)</strong></p> 2021-12-31T12:01:51+13:00 TOBIAS PFINGSTL HEINRICH SCHATZ <p>This contribution provides an update on the duration of life cycles and lifespans of oribatid mites based on a literature review. The total lifespan is the sum of the immature developmental time (egg to adult) and the longevity of the adult. Most investigations were carried out in the laboratory, few were performed in the field, under field conditions and/or compared with field data. Many life cycles were investigated under different environmental influences. The life cycles of 144 oribatid species are listed. Compared with the total number of known oribatid species, this number is very low. Data for the total lifespan are given for 52 species, either from observations in the laboratory or estimated in comparison with field studies, but can only be guesses of the real lifespan. The typical lifespan of an oribatid species in temperate or boreal regions lasts between 1 and 2 years, rarely 3 years. The few investigated tropical species from laboratory experiments show generally faster development and shorter lifespans as species from temperate regions; no field studies have been carried out in the tropics yet. Long lifespan periods of 5 to 8 years are particularly characteristic of species in polar regions and in mountainous temperate regions. Some examples of species with different longevity in distinct climate regions, very long lifespans and change of life parameters under stressful laboratory conditions are presented.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>A survey of lifespan in Winterschmidtiidae (Sarcoptiformes: Astigmata)</strong></p> 2021-12-31T12:05:29+13:00 ZHI-QIANG ZHANG <p>The Winterschmidtiidae are a family of over 140 species of fungivorous, saprophagous, predatory and/or parasitic mites in insect/vertebrate nests, in decaying organic matter, in soils and on plants worldwide. In this review, I provide a survey of the immature developmental time, adult longevity and lifespan of the Winterschmidtiidae as part of the series on the lifespans in the Acari. The complete life cycle in this family includes five immature stages (the egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph and tritonymph) and adult male/female, with deutonymphs lost in some genera such as <em>Czenspinskia</em> and <em>Oulenziella</em>. Development or lifespan data have been reported for only three species (&lt; 3%) of the Winterschmidtiidae, and the experimentally measured lifespans of one to two months most likely reflect those of the summer generation. <em>Afrocalvolia nataliae</em> has two generations per year: the summer generation, which has no deutonymph stage, is mainly devoted to feeding and reproduction and lasts for one month only; the winter generation, however, has a deutonymph stage to resist the cold conditions and lasts for as long as 11 months.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>How long do eriophyoid mites live?</strong></p> 2021-12-31T12:08:49+13:00 SEBAHAT K. OZMAN-SULLIVAN GREGORY T. SULLIVAN <p>The eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) are extremely small, highly specialized and obligately phytophagous, and ~ 80% of the ~ 5,000 known species are monophagous. They include pests of more than 50 important food and industrial crops and ornamental plants. Conversely, other species have been investigated for their potential role in the biological control of weeds. In this literature review, the data on the development time, adult longevity and lifespan of eriophyoid species generated in 74 studies from 1930 to 2021 was compiled. The eriophyoids were from three families, Eriophyidae, Diptilomiopidae and Phytoptidae, 24 genera and 47 species that included 43 eriophyids, two phytoptids and two diptilomiopids. The most studied genus was <em>Aceria</em> (13 species), followed by <em>Aculus</em> (4) and <em>Calacarus </em>(3). The host plants were in a range of vegetative forms, including grasses, a climber, shrubs and trees, in different families that included Poaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae. Almost all the investigations were carried out in laboratory settings under numerous combinations of species, gender, diet/host plant, temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod. These variables all affected the development time, adult longevity and lifespan of eriophyoid mites, with temperature consistently a major influence and relative humidity consistently important. Male life stages were always shorter than female life stages. <em>Phyllocoptruta oleivora</em> (Ashmead) males had the shortest lifespan of 7.1 d at 32 °C on green orange fruit and <em>Aculops lycopersici</em> (Massee) females had the longest lifespan of 46.4 d at 11 °C on young tomato leaves. Biological studies on the duration of their life stages are required to develop models that predict the dynamics of eriophyoid populations in the field to support IPM programs and organic farming. Moreover, these studies are becoming increasingly valuable as globalization and climate change facilitate the spread of invasive eriophyoid mite species.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>How long do Tydeidae live?</strong></p> 2021-12-31T12:12:04+13:00 LIANA JOHANN GUILHERME LIBERATO DA SILVA <p>The family Tydeidae consists of small, free-living, soft-bodied mites with a diversity of feeding habits, including phytophages, pollen feeders and even predators, but the majority are scavengers or fungivores. Approximately 330 species in 30 genera have been described from throughout the world, but only a few species (&lt;1% of all species) have been studied for their life history. This review provides a survey of their life history with a focus on their lifespan.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>How long do whirligig mites live? A survey of lifespan in Anystidae (Acari: Trombidiformes)</strong></p> 2021-12-31T12:14:51+13:00 ZHI-QIANG ZHANG <p>The Anystidae are a family of over 100 species of predatory mites commonly seen in soils and on plants worldwide. A few species of genus <em>Anystis</em> have potential as biocontrol agents against some insect and mite pests. Herein I provide a review of the lifespan of the Anystidae as part of a series on the lifespans in the Acari. The full life cycle in this family includes six immature stages (the egg, prelarva, larva, protonymph, deutonymph and tritonymph) and adult males/females. Life history data are only available for a few species. Developmental times from eggs to adults (44 to 82 days at 21 or 22 °C) were reported for three <em>Anystis</em> species. The total lifespan was measured for only one species (<em>Anystis</em> <em>agilis</em>): 66 days at 21 °C. There are two to three generations per year for <em>Anystis</em> species in the field. Summer aestivation was reported for <em>Anystis baccarum</em>, either as eggs or tritonymphs; aestivating tritonymphs may have a developmental time and total lifespan of over 200 and 300 days, respectively.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>The characteristics of lifespan in Cheyletidae and its response to environmental factors</strong></p> 2021-12-31T12:17:48+13:00 ZEHUI ZHENG BIN XIA <p>This paper provides a survey of a collection of references on life history studies of eight species in the family Cheyletidae. It reviews some factors (including sex difference, temperature, humidity and prey) that affect the development time and lifespan in Cheyletidae. This paper also analyzes the effects these biotic and abiotic factors on the growth and development of cheyletid mites.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>The lifespans of the potential biological control agents in the family Blattisociidae (Acari: Mesostigmata)</strong></p> 2021-12-31T12:20:42+13:00 NA ZHANG LIXIA XIE <p>This review summarized the duration of immature stages (egg to adult) and adult lifespans of the mites in the family Blattisociidae based on literature published from 1965 to 2021. We found 57 articles with information on the ecology and biology of the blattisociids. The lifespan and duration of immature stages were only reported in 16 out of 400 species. Most of the experiments were conducted in the laboratory, which may not accurately reflect their lifespans in nature. Temperatures, diets, and pesticides are the main factors that affect the lifespan of blattisociids. Low temperature could significantly prolong the lifespan and duration of immature stages of blattisociids. Different prey species or stages also affect the development time and lifespan of blattisociids significantly.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021 <p><strong>Introducing a survey of mite lifespans: How long do Acari live?</strong></p> 2021-12-31T11:57:24+13:00 ZHI-QIANG ZHANG <p>How long do animals live and why are some long-lived whereas others short-lived? These questions have long fascinated scholars, including Aristotle. Incidentally, it is also Aristotle who first named mites “Acari” according to new research on the Greek origin of acarology by Zaborowski &amp; Daszkiewicz (2017)</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+13:00 Copyright (c) 2021