Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Monograph
Published: 2024-04-15
Page range: 1-261
Abstract views: 95
PDF downloaded: 29

Systematics and palaeobiology of kangaroos of the late Cenozoic genus Protemnodon (Marsupialia, Macropodidae)

College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia, 5042
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia, 5042
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia, 5042
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia, 5042
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia, 5042
Australia New Guinea Biogeography Pliocene Pleistocene Morphology Adaptation Megafauna Taxonomy Mammalia

Abstract

Species of the kangaroo genus Protemnodon were common members of late Cenozoic communities across Australia and New Guinea until their extinction in the late Pleistocene. However, since the genus was first raised 150 years ago, it has proven difficult to diagnose, as have the species allocated to it. This is due primarily to the incompleteness of the type material and a heavy reliance on cheek tooth size and slight variations in premolar form. Along with the rare association between cranial and postcranial material, this has hampered understanding of the palaeobiology of these large-bodied kangaroos. Here we review and re-diagnose Protemnodon, recognising a total of seven species and providing a hypothesis of species interrelationships. The following new synonymies are made: Protemnodon chinchillaensis is synonymised with P. otibandus and P. hopei with P. tumbuna. The following are considered nomina dubia: Protemnodon brehus, P. roechus, P. mimas, P. antaeus, and P. devisi. We reveal that the morphology of the cheek dentition is not as consistently useful for differentiating species of Protemnodon as features of the cranium and postcranial skeleton. As a whole, the species share anatomical features that reflect stability and power in the limb joints, yet they differ in body proportions, and axial and limb morphology. This we interpret as showing locomotory adaptations to different habitats. Of the three Pliocene species, Protemnodon snewini is interpreted as a medium- to high-geared hopper, suggesting proficiency in more open environments, whereas P. dawsonae sp. nov. we infer to have been a medium-geared inhabitant of eastern Australian forests and woodlands. Protemnodon otibandus, with a range extending through the woodlands and forests of eastern Australia into the rainforests of eastern New Guinea, displays adaptations to slower hopping. Its Pleistocene descendant, P. tumbuna, is convergent on the morphology of modern New Guinea forest wallabies, and was likely facultatively quadrupedal. Of the three Australian Pleistocene species, the long-necked P. anak is hypothesised to have been a large, medium-geared, eastern Australian species, and P. mamkurra sp. nov. a robust, low-geared resident of well-wooded southern Australia habitats. By contrast, P. viator sp. nov. was larger but more gracile, suggested to be a medium- to high-geared species convergent in some traits on large extant kangaroos. This and a wide inland distribution point to adeptness in open, arid environments. Protemnodon mamkurra sp. nov. and P. viator sp. nov. occupy the morphospace previously occupied by P. roechus and P. brehus. Overall, the species of Protemnodon exhibit a degree of ecomorphological variation suggestive of a broader array of ecological adaptations than hitherto envisioned.

References

  1. Alexander, R.M. & Vernon, A. (1975) The mechanics of hopping by kangaroos (Macropodidae). Journal of Zoology, 177 (2), 265–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1975.tb05983.x
  2. Alley, N.F. (1998) Cainozoic stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and geological evolution of the Lake Eyre Basin. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 144 (1998), 239–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(98)00120-5
  3. Andrae, J., McInerney, F., Polissar, P., Sniderman, J., Howard, S., Hall, P. & Phelps, S. (2018) Initial expansion of C4 vegetation in Australia during the late Pliocene. Geophysical Research Letters, 45 (10), 4831–4840. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL077833
  4. Aplin, K.P. & Archer, M. (1987) Recent advances in marsupial systematics with a new syncretic classification. In: Archer, M. (ed.) Possums and Opossums: Studies in Evolution. Surrey Beatty and Sons and the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, pp. 15–72.
  5. Archer, M., Hand, S.J. & Godthelp, H. (1994) Patterns in the history of Australia’s mammals and inferences about palaeohabitats. In: Hill, R.S. (ed.) History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, pp. 80–103. https://doi.org/10.20851/australian-vegetation-06
  6. Archer, M. & Wade, M. (1976) Results of the Ray E. Lemley expeditions, part 1. The Allingham Formation and a new Pliocene vertebrate fauna from northern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 17 (3), 379–397.
  7. Arman, S.D. (2017) Diets of the Macropodidae Inferred Through Dental Microwear Texture Analysis. Thesis. Doctor of Philosophy, Flinders University, Adelaide, 243 pp. (unpublished)
  8. Arman, S.D. & Prideaux, G.J. (2015) Dietary classification of extant kangaroos and their relatives (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea). Austral Ecology, 40 (8), 909–922.
  9. https://doi.org/10.1111/aec.12273
  10. Arnold, L.J., Demuro, M., Power, R., Duval, M., Guilarte, V., Weij, R., Woodhead, J., White, L., Bourne, S. & Reed, E.H. (2022) Examining sediment infill dynamics at Naracoorte cave megafauna sites using multiple luminescence dating signals. Quaternary Geochronology, 70, 101301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2022.101301
  11. Arnold, P. (2021) Evolution of the mammalian neck from developmental, morpho-functional, and paleontological perspectives. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 28, 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-020-09506-9
  12. Arnold, P., Amson, E. & Fischer, M.S. (2017) Differential scaling patterns of vertebrae and the evolution of neck length in mammals. Evolution, 71 (6), 1587–1599. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.13232
  13. Ayliffe, L.K., Prideaux, G.J., Bird, M.I., Grun, R., Roberts, R.G., Gully, G.A., Jones, R., Fifield, L.K. & Cresswell, R.G. (2008) Age constraints on Pleistocene megafauna at Tight Entrance Cave in southwestern Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 1784–1788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.07.008
  14. Aziz-ur-Rahman, A. & McDougall, I. (1972) Potassium-Argon ages on the newer volcanics of Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 85, 61–69.
  15. Baird, R.F. (1985) Avian fossils from Quaternary deposits in ‘Green Waterhole Cave’, south-eastern South Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, 37, 353–370. https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.37.1985.332
  16. Barrett, C. (1943) An Australian animal book. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 374 pp.
  17. Bartholomai, A. (1973) The genus Protemnodon Owen (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) in the Upper Cainozoic deposits of Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 16 (3), 309–363.
  18. Bartholomai, A. (1978) The Macropodidae (Marsupialia) from the Allingham Formation, northern Queensland. Results of the Ray E. Lemley expeditions, Part 2. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 18 (2), 127–143.
  19. Baudinette, R. (1977) Locomotor energetics in a marsupial, Setonix brachyurus. Australian Journal of Zoology, 25, 423–428. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO9770423
  20. Baudinette, R.V. (1989) The biomechanics and energetics of locomotion in Macropodoidea. In: Grigg, G.C., Jarman, P.J. and Hume, I.D. (Eds.), Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, pp. 245–253.
  21. Baudinette, R.V. (1994) Locomotion in macropoid marsupials: gaits, energetics and heat balance. Australian Journal of Zoology, 42, 103–123. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO9940103
  22. Beck, R.M.D., Voss, R.S. & Jansa, S.A. (2022) Craniodental morphology and phylogeny of marsupials. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 457 (1), 1–352. https://doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090.457.1.1
  23. Belperio, A. & Fotheringham, D. (1990) Geological setting of two Quaternary footprint sites, western South Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 37 (1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/08120099008727903
  24. Benbow, M.C., Alley, N.F., Lindsay, M. & Greenwood, D.R. (1995) Geological history and palaeoclimate. In: Drexel, J.F. and Preiss, W.V. (Eds.), The Geology of South Australia. Volume 2. The Phanerozoic. Geological Survey of South Australia, Bulletin No. 54, Adelaide, pp. 208–217.
  25. Biewener, A.A. (1990) Biomechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion. Science, 250 (4984), 1097–1103. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.105.1.147
  26. Bishop, N. (1997) Functional anatomy of the macropodid pes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 117, 17–50.
  27. Blender Online Community (2018) Blender – a 3D modelling and rendering package. 2.90.1 [http://www.blender.org]
  28. Buchmann, C. & Guiler, E. (1974) Locomotion in the potoroo. Journal of Mammology, 55, 203–206. https://doi.org/10.2307/1379270
  29. Burbidge, N.T. (1960) The phytogeography of the Australian region. Australian Journal of Botany, 8 (2), 75–211. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9600075
  30. Butler, K., Louys, J. & Travouillon, K. (2014) Extending dental mesowear analyses to Australian marsupials, with applications to six Plio-Pleistocene kangaroos from southeast Queensland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 408, 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.04.024
  31. Callen, R. & Nanson, G. (1992) Formation and age of dunes in the Lake Eyre depocentres. Geologische Rundschau, 81 (2), 589–593. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01828619
  32. Callen, R.A., Dulhunty, J.D., Lange, R.T., Plane, M., Tedford, R.H., Wells, R.T. & Williams, D.L.G. (1986) The Lake Eyre basin – Cainozoic sediments, fossil vertebrates and plants, landforms, silcretes and climatic implications. Geological Society of Australia, Sydney, pp.
  33. Carey, S.P., Camens, A.B., Cupper, M.L., Grün, R., Hellstrom, J.C., McKnight, S.W., Mclennan, I., Pickering, D.A., Trusler, P. & Aubert, M. (2011) A diverse Pleistocene marsupial trackway assemblage from the Victorian Volcanic Plains, Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30 (5–6), 591–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.11.021
  34. Cascini, M., Mitchell, K.J., Cooper, A. & Phillips, M.J. (2019) Reconstructing the evolution of giant extinct kangaroos: comparing the utility of DNA, morphology, and total evidence. Systematic Biology, 68 (3), 520–537. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syy080
  35. Caughley, G., Grigg, G.C. & Short, J. (1983) How many kangaroos? Search, 14 (5–6), 151–152.
  36. Caughley, G., Short, J., Grigg, G.C. & Nix, H. (1987) Kangaroos and climate: an analysis of distribution. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 751–761. https://doi.org/10.2307/4946
  37. Celik, M., Cascini, M., Haouchar, D., Van Der Burg, C., Dodt, W., Evans, A.R., Prentis, P., Bunce, M., Fruciano, C. & Phillips, M.J. (2019) A molecular and morphometric assessment of the systematics of the Macropus complex clarifies the tempo and mode of kangaroo evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 186 (3), 793–812. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz005
  38. Cignoni, P., Callieri, M., Corsini, M., M., D., Ganovelli, F. & Ranzuglia, G. (2008) MeshLab: an open-source mesh processing tool. In: Scarano, V., De Chiara, R. and Erra, U. (eds.), Conference: Sixth Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference, 129–136 pp. The Eurographics Association, Pisa, Italy. http://doi.org/10.2312/LocalChapterEvents/ItalChap/ItalianChapConf2008/129-136
  39. Coede, A., Harmon, R.S., Atkinson, T.C. & Rowe, P.J. (1990) Pleistocene climatic change in southern Australia and its effect on speleothem deposition in some Nullarbor caves. Journal of Quaternary Science, 5 (1), 29–38. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3390050104
  40. Cohen, T., Nanson, G., Jansen, J.D., Jones, B., Jacobs, Z., Larsen, J., May, J.-H., Treble, P., Price, D. & Smith, A. (2012) Late Quaternary mega-lakes fed by the northern and southern river systems of central Australia: varying moisture sources and increased continental aridity. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 356–357, 89–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.06.023
  41. Cohen, T.J., Arnold, L.J., Gázquez, F., May, J.-H., Marx, S.K., Jankowski, N.R., Chivas, A.R., Garćia, A., Cadd, H., Parker, A.G., Jansen, J.D., Fu, X., Waldmann, N., Nanson, G.C., Jones, B.G. & Gadd, P. (2022) Late Quaternary climate change in Australia’s arid interior: Evidence from Kati Thanda – Lake Eyre. Quaternary Science Reviews, 292, 107635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2022.107635
  42. Colhoun, E.A., Pola, J.S., Barton, C.E. & Heijnis, H. (1999) Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate history of Lake Selina, western Tasmania. Quaternary International, 57, 5–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6182(98)00046-9
  43. Collett, R. (1884) On some apparently new marsupials from Queensland. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 52 (3), 381–389. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1884.tb02840.x
  44. Cooke, B.D. (2020) Swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) distribution has dramatically increased following sustained biological control of rabbits. Australian Mammalogy, 42 (3), 321–328. https://doi.org/10.1071/AM19037
  45. Cooke, B.N., Travouillon, K.J., Archer, M. & Hand, S.J. (2015) Ganguroo robustiter, sp. nov. (Macropodoidea, Marsupialia), a middle to early late Miocene basal macropodid from Riversleigh World Heritage Area, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 35 (4), e956879. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2015.956879
  46. Couzens, A.M.C. & Prideaux, G.J. (2018) Rapid Pliocene adaptive radiation of modern kangaroos. Science, 362, 72–75. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aas8788
  47. Darragh, T.A. (1985) Molluscan biogeography and biostratigraphy of the Tertiary of southeastern Australia. Alcheringa, 9 (2), 83–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/03115518508618960
  48. Dawson, L. (1985) Marsupial fossils from Wellington Caves, New South Wales; the historic and scientific significance of the collections in the Australia Museum, Sydney. Records of the Australian Museum, 37 (2), 55–69. https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.37.1985.335
  49. Dawson, L. (2001) Revision of Protemnodon – Protemnodon devisi and Protemnodon chinchillaensis: corrections to species concepts/descriptions as presented by Bartholomai (1973) (unpublished manuscript). University of New South Wales.
  50. Dawson, L. (2004) A new fossil genus of forest wallaby (Marsupialia, Macropodinae) and a review of Protemnodon from eastern Australia and New Guinea. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 28, 275–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/03115510408619285
  51. Dawson, L. & Flannery, T.F. (1985) Taxonomic and phylogenetic status of living and fossil kangaroos and wallabies of the genus Macropus Shaw (Macropodidae: Marsupialia), with a new subgeneric name for the larger wallabies. Australian Journal of Zoology, 33, 473–498. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO9850473
  52. Dawson, L., Muirhead, J. & Wroe, S. (1999) The Big Sink Local Fauna: a lower Pliocene mammalian fauna from the Wellington Caves complex, Wellington, New South Wales. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement No. 57, 265–290.
  53. Dawson, R.S. (2015) Morphological correlates of pentapedal locomotion in kangaroos and wallabies (Family: Macropodidae). Thesis. University of Western Australia,
  54. Dawson, R.S., Milne, N. & Warburton, N.M. (2014) Muscular anatomy of the tail of the western grey kangaroo, Macropus fuliginosus. Australian Journal of Zoology, 62 (2), 166–174. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO13085
  55. Dawson, R.S., Warburton, N.M., Richards, H.L. & Milne, N. (2015) Walking on five legs: investigating tail use during slow gait in kangaroos and wallabies. Australian Journal of Zoology, 63 (3), 192–200. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO15007
  56. Dawson, T.J. (1977) Kangaroos. Scientific American, 237 (2), 78–89. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0877-78
  57. --- (1989) Diets of macropodoid marsupials: general patterns and environmental influences. In: Grigg, G.C., Jarman, P.J. and Hume, I.D. (Eds.), Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, pp. 129–142.
  58. Dawson, T.J. & Taylor, C.R. (1973) Energetic cost of locomotion in kangaroos. Nature, 246, 313–314. https://doi.org/10.1038/246313a0
  59. De Vis, C.W. (1895) A review of the fossil jaws of the Macropodidae in the Queensland Museum. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 10, 75–133.
  60. Den Boer, W. (2018) Evolutionary progression of the iconic Australasian kangaroos, rat-kangaroos, and their fossil relatives (Marsupialia: Macropodiformes). Thesis. Masters, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 105 pp. (unpublished)
  61. DeSantis, L.R.G., Field, J.H., Wroe, S. & Dodson, J.R. (2017) Dietary responses of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia–New Guinea) megafauna to climate and environmental change. Paleobiology, 43 (2), 181–195. https://doi.org/10.1017/pab.2016.50
  62. Desmarest, A. (1804) Tableau Méthodique des mammifères. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire Naturelle, 24, 5–58.
  63. Desmarest, A. (1817) Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire Naturelle. 25. Deterville, Paris, France, 477 pp.
  64. Desmarest, A.G. (1822) Mammalogie, ou, Description des espèces de mammifères. 2. Chez Mme Veuve Agasse, Paris, France, 530 pp.
  65. Di Stefano, J., York, A., Swan, M., Greenfield, A. & Coulson, G. (2009) Habitat selection by the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) in relation to diel period, food and shelter. Austral Ecology, 34 (2), 143–155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2008.01890.x
  66. Etheridge, R. & Jack, R.L. (1892) Organic remains of the post-Tertiary period; extract from: The geology and palaeontology of Queensland and New Guinea. Publications of the Geological Survey of Queensland, 1 & 2 (92).
  67. Field, J.H., Dodson, J.R. & Proccer, I.P. (2002) A late Pleistocene vegetation history from the Australian semi-arid zone. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21 (8–9), 1023–1037. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00057-9
  68. Flannery, T.F. (1984) Re-examination of the Quanbun Local Fauna, a Late Cenozoic vertebrate fauna from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 11 (2), 119–128.
  69. Flannery, T.F. (1989) A new species of Wallabia (Macropodinae: Marsupialia) from Pleistocene deposits in Mammoth Cave, southwestern Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 14 (3), 299–307.
  70. Flannery, T.F. (1990a) Mammals of New Guinea. Robert Brown and Associates, Brisbane, 568 pp.
  71. Flannery, T.F. (1990b) Pleistocene faunal loss: implications of the aftershock for Australia’s past and future. Archaeology in Oceania, 25 (2), 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1834-4453.1990.tb00232.x
  72. Flannery, T.F. (1992a) New Pleistocene marsupials (Macropodidae, Diprotodontidae) from subalpine habitats in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Alcheringa, 16 (4), 321–331. https://doi.org/10.1080/03115519208619113
  73. Flannery, T.F. (1992b) Taxonomic revision of the Thylogale brunii complex (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) in Melanesia, with description of a new species. Australian Mammalogy, 15 (1), 7–23. https://doi.org/10.1071/AM92002
  74. Flannery, T.F. (1994) The fossil land mammal record of New Guinea: a review. Science in New Guinea, 20 (1), 39–48.
  75. Flannery, T.F. (1999) The Pleistocene mammal fauna of Kelangurr Cave, central montane Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australia Museum, 57, 341–350.
  76. Flannery, T.F. & Archer, M. (1984) The macropodoids (Marsupialia) of the early Pliocene Bow Local Fauna, central eastern New South Wales. The Australian Zoologist, 21 (4), 357–383.
  77. Flannery, T.F. & Gott, B. (1984) The Spring Creek locality, southwestern Victoria, a late surviving megafaunal assemblage. The Australian Zoologist, 21 (4), 385–422.
  78. Flannery, T.F., Mountain, M.-J. & Aplin, K. (1983) Quaternary kangaroos (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) from Nombe Rock Shelter, Papua New Guinea, with comments on the nature of megafaunal extinctions in the New Guinea highlands. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 107 (2), 77–99.
  79. Flannery, T.F., Rich, T.H., Turnbull, W.D. & Lundelius Jr, E.L. (1992) The Macropodoidea (Marsupialia) of the early Pliocene Hamilton Local Fauna, Victoria, Australia. Fieldiana, (25), 1–37. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.3468
  80. Flannery, T.F. & Roberts, R.G. (1999) Late Quaternary extinctions in Australasia: an overview. In: MacPhee, R.D.E. (ed.) Extinctions in Near Time. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-5202-1_10
  81. Flower, W.H. (1867) On the development and succession of teeth in the Marsupialia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 157, 631–641. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1867.0020​
  82. Flower, W.H. (1884) Catalogue of the specimens illustrating the osteology and dentition of vertebrated animals, recent and extinct, contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Part II. Class Mammalia other than man. 2. Taylor and Francis, London, 779 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.105637
  83. Frith, H.J. & Calaby, J.H. (1969) Kangaroos. Cheshire, Melbourne, xiii, 209 pp.
  84. Fu, X., Cohen, T.J. & Arnold, L.J. (2017) Extending the record of lacustrine phases beyond the last interglacial for Lake Eyre in central Australia using luminescence dating. Quaternary Science Reviews, 162, 88–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.03.002
  85. Fujioka, T., Chappell, J., Honda, M., Yatsevich, I., Fifield, K. & Fabel, D. (2005) Global cooling initiated stony deserts in central Australia 2–4 Ma, dated by cosmogenic 21Ne-10Be. Geology, 33 (12), 993–996. https://doi.org/10.1130/G21746.1
  86. Gaffney, E.S. & McNamara, G.C. (1990) A meiolaniid turtle from the Pleistocene of northern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 28 (1), 107–113.
  87. Gallagher, S.J., Greenwood, D.R., Taylor, D., Smith, A.J., Wallace, M.W. & Holdgate, G.R. (2003) The Pliocene climatic and environmental evolution of southeastern Australia: evidence from the marine and terrestrial realm. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 193 (3–4), 349–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00231-1
  88. Ganslosser, U. (1989) Agonistic behaviour in macropodoids – a review. In: Grigg, G.C., Jarman, P.J. and Hume, I.D. (Eds.), Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales, pp. 475–503.
  89. Gillespie, R., Camens, A.B., Worthy, T.H., Rawlence, N.J., Reid, C., Bertuch, F., Levchenko, V. & Cooper, A. (2012) Man and megafauna in Tasmania: closing the gap. Quaternary Science Reviews, 37, 38–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.01.013
  90. Gillespie, R., Wood, R., Fallon, S., Stafford Jr, T.W. & Southon, J. (2014) New 14C dates for Spring Creek and Mowbray Swamp megafauna: XAD‐2 processing. Archaeology in Oceania, 50 (1), 43–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/arco.5045
  91. Glauert, L. (1910) Sthenurus occidentalis (Glauert). Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Western Australia, 36, 53–69.
  92. Goloboff, P.A., Farris, J.S. & Nixon, K.C. (2008) TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics, 24 (5), 774–786. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00217.x
  93. Gould, J. (1841) A Monograph of the Macropodidae, or Family of Kangaroos. 1. John Gould, London, 184 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.65990
  94. Gould, J. (1863) The Mammals of Australia. 2. John Gould, London, 69 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.312827
  95. Grand, T.I. & Barboza, P.S. (2001) Anatomy and development of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus: an evolutionary perspective on the superfamily Vombatoidea. Anatomy and Embryology, 203 (3), 211–223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004290000153
  96. Gray, J.E. (1821) On the arrangement of vertebrose animals. London Medical Repository, (15), 296–310.
  97. Gray, J.E. (1837) Description of some new or little known Mammalia, principally in the British Museum collection. Magazine of Natural History and Journal of Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, Geology and Meteorology, 1, 577–587.
  98. Gray, J.E. (1841) Contributions towards the geographical distribution of the Mammalia in Australia, with notes on some recently discovered species, in a letter addressed to the Author. In: Grey, G. (ed.) Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in North-west and Western Australia During the Years 1837, 38, and 39, Under the Authority of Her Majesty’s Government. Describing many newly discovered, important, and fertile districts, with observations on the moral and physical condition of the aboriginal inhabitants, &c. &c. T. & W. Boone, London, 397–414.
  99. Griffiths, R.I. (1984) Mechanical properties of an ankle extensor muscle in a freely hopping wallaby. Thesis. Doctor of Philosophy, Monash University,
  100. Grün, R., Eggins, S., Aubert, M., Spooner, N., Pike, A.W. & Müller, W. (2010) ESR and U-series analyses of faunal material from Cuddie Springs, NSW, Australia: implications for the timing of the extinction of the Australian megafauna. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29 (5–6), 596–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.11.004
  101. Grün, R., Moriarty, K.C. & Wells, R.T. (2001) Electron spin resonance dating of the fossil deposits in the Naracoorte Caves, South Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science, 16 (1), 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1417(200101)16:1%3C49::AID-JQS570%3E3.0.CO;2-%23
  102. Gunji, M. & Endo, H. (2019) Growth pattern and functional morphology of the cervical vertebrae in the Gerenuk (Litocranius walleri): the evolution of neck elongation in Antilopini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla). Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 26, 225–235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-017-9396-7
  103. Heaney, L.R. (1991) A synopsis of climatic and vegetational change in Southeast Asia. In: Myers, N. (ed.) Tropical Forests and Climate. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 53–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3608-4_6
  104. Helgen, K.M. (2007) The mammal fauna of the Kaijende Highlands, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea. In: Richards, S.J. (ed.) A rapid biodiversity assessment of the Kaijende Highlands, Enga Province, Papua New Guinea. Conservation International, Arlington, pp. 52–68.
  105. Helgen, K.M., Wells, R.T., Kear, B.P., Gerdtz, W.R. & Flannery, T.F. (2006) Ecological and evolutionary significance of sizes of giant extinct kangaroos. Australian Journal of Zoology, 54 (4), 293–303. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO05077
  106. Hildebrand, M., Goslow, G.E. & Hildebrand, V. (2001) Analysis of vertebrate structure. 2. Wiley, New York, 656 pp.
  107. Hoch, E. & Holm, P.M. (1986) New K/Ar age determinations of the Awe Fauna Gangue, Papua New Guinea: consequences for Papuaustralian Late Cenozoic biostratigraphy. Modern Geology, 10, 181–195.
  108. Hocknull, S.A., Lewis, R., Arnold, L.J., Pietsch, T., Joannes-Boyau, R., Price, G.J., Moss, P., Wood, R., Dosseto, A. & Louys, J. (2020) Extinction of eastern Sahul megafauna coincides with sustained environmental deterioration. Nature communications, 11 (1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15785-w
  109. Hocknull, S.A., Zhao, J.-x., Feng, Y.-x. & Webb, G.E. (2007) Responses of Quaternary rainforest vertebrates to climate change in Australia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 264 (1), 317–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.10.004
  110. Hope, G.S., Flannery, T.F. & Boeardi (1993) A preliminary report of changing Quaternary mammal faunas in subalpine New Guinea. Quaternary Research, 40 (1), 117–126. https://doi.org/10.1006/qres.1993.1062
  111. Hopwood, P.R. (1974) The intrinsic musculature of the pectoral limb of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus major (Shaw) Macropus giganteus (Zimm)). Journal of Anatomy, 118 (3), 445–468.
  112. Hopwood, P.R. & Butterfield, R.M. (1990) The locomotor apparatus of the crus and pes of the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. Australian Journal of Zoology, 38, 397–413. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO9900397
  113. Horne, P. (1988) “Fossil Cave” (5L81), underwater palaeontological and surveying project, 1987–88. 1 p.
  114. Hughes, P.J., Sullivan, M.E. & Hiscock, P. (2017) Palaeoclimate and human occupation in southeastern arid Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 163, 72–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.03.014
  115. Janis, C.M., Buttrill, K. & Figueirido, B. (2014) Locomotion in extinct giant kangaroos: were sthenurines hop-less monsters? PloS one, 9 (10), e109888. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109888
  116. Janis, C.M., Damuth, J., Travouillon, K.J., Figueirido, B., Hand, S.J. & Archer, M. (2016) Palaeoecology of Oligo-Miocene macropodoids determined from craniodental and calcaneal data. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 73, 200–232. https://doi.org/10.24199/j.mmv.2016.74.17
  117. Janis, C.M., Napoli, J.G., Billingham, C. & Martín-Serra, A. (2020) Proximal humerus morphology indicates divergent patterns of locomotion in extinct giant kangaroos. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 27 (4), 627–647. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-019-09494-5
  118. Janis, C.M., O’Driscoll, A.M. & Kear, B.P. (2023) Myth of the QANTAS leap: perspectives on the evolution of kangaroo locomotion. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 47 (4), 671–685. https://doi.org/10.1080/03115518.2023.2195895
  119. Jankowski, N.R., Gully, G.A., Jacobs, Z., Roberts, R.G. & Prideaux, G.J. (2016) A late Quaternary vertebrate deposit in Kudjal Yolgah Cave, south‐western Australia: refining regional late Pleistocene extinctions. Journal of Quaternary Science, 31 (5), 538–550. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2877
  120. Jarman, P.J. (1989) Sexual dimorphism in Macropodoidea. In: Grigg, G.C., Jarman, P.J. and Hume, I.D. (Eds.), Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales, pp. 433–447.
  121. Jarman, P.J. (1991) Social behavior and organization in the Macropodoidea. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 20, 1–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3454(08)60318-6
  122. Jarman, P.J. & Phillips, C.M. (1989) Diets in a community of macropod species. In: Grigg, G.C., Jarman, P.J. and Hume, I.D. (Eds.), Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, pp. 143–149.
  123. Jenkins Jr, F.A. (1973) The functional anatomy and evolution of the mammalian humero‐ulnar articulation. American Journal of Anatomy, 137 (3), 281–297. https://doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001370304
  124. Johnson, P.M. & Vernes, K.A. (2008) Red-legged Pademelon: Thylogale stigmatica. In: Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (Eds.), The Mammals of Australia. Reed New Holland, Sydney, pp. 397–400.
  125. Jones, B., Martín-Serra, A., Rayfield, E.J. & Janis, C.M. (2021) Distal humeral morphology indicates locomotory divergence in extinct giant kangaroos. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 29, 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-021-09576-3
  126. Kaufmann, J.H. (2015) The ecology and evolution of social organization in the kangaroo family (Macropodidae). American Zoologist, 14 (1), 51–62. https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/14.1.51
  127. Kear, B.P., Lee, M.S.Y., Gerdtz, W.R. & Flannery, T.F. (2008) Evolution of hind limb proportions in kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea). In: Sargis, E.J. and Dagosto, M. (Eds.), Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. Springer Science, New York, pp. 25–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6997-0_2
  128. Keast, A. (1981) Distributional patterns, regional biotas and adaptation in the Australian biota: a synthesis. In: Keast, A. (ed.) Ecological Biogeography of Australia. Dr W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 1891–1997. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-8629-9_68
  129. Kerr, I.A.R. & Prideaux, G.J. (2022) A new genus of kangaroo (Marsupialia, Macropodidae) from the late Pleistocene of Papua New Guinea. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia, 146 (2), 295–318. https://doi.org/10.1080/03721426.2022.2086518.
  130. Kershaw, A. (1994) Pleistocene vegetation of the humid tropics of northeastern Queensland, Australia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 109 (2–4), 399–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(94)90188-0
  131. Kershaw, A.P., Martin, H.A. & McEwen Mason, J.R.C. (1994) The Neogene: a period of transition. In: Hill, R.S. (ed.) History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, pp. 299–327. https://doi.org/10.20851/australian-vegetation-13
  132. Kirsch, J.A.W., Lapointe, F.-J. & Springer, M.S. (1997) DNA-hybridisation studies of marsupials and their implications for metatherian classification. Australian Journal of Zoology, 45 (3), 211–280. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO96030
  133. Koungoulos, L.G., Flannery, T.F. & O’Connor, S. (2024) First record of Protemnodon (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) from Pleistocene lowland New Guinea. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1080/03115518.2024.2304340
  134. Kram, R. & Dawson, T.J. (1998) Energetics and biomechanics of locomotion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 120 (1), 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-0491(98)00022-4
  135. Krefft, G. (1875) Remarks on Professor Owen’s arrangement of the fossil kangaroos. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 4th Series, 15, 204–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222937508681059
  136. Lesson, R.P. (1842) Nouveau tableau du règne animal: mammifères. 1. A. Bertrand, Paris, 204 pp.
  137. Linnaeus, C. (1758) Classis I: Mammalia. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, pp. 14–77. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542
  138. Llamas, B., Brotherton, P., Mitchell, K.J., Templeton, J.E.L., Thomson, V.A., Metcalf, J.L., Armstrong, K.N., Kasper, M., Richards, S.M., Camens, A.B., Lee, M.S.Y. & Cooper, A. (2015) Late Pleistocene Australian marsupial DNA clarifies the affinities of extinct megafaunal kangaroos and wallabies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32 (3), 574–584. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msu338
  139. Lloyd, P.J. & Kershaw, A.P. (1997) Late Quaternary vegetation and early Holocene quantitative climate estimates from Morwell Swamp, Latrobe Valley, south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany, 45 (3), 549–563. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT96034
  140. Long, J.A., Archer, M., Flannery, T. & Hand, S. (2002) Prehistoric mammals of Australia and New Guinea: one hundred million years of evolution. University of New South Wales Press, Kensington, 280 pp.
  141. Loutit, T.S. & Kennett, J.P. (1981) New Zealand and Australian Cenozoic sedimentary cycles and global sea-level changes. AAPG Bulletin, 65 (9), 1586–1601. https://doi.org/10.1306/03B59625-16D1-11D7-8645000102C1865D
  142. Louys, J., Duval, M., Beck, R.M., Pease, E., Sobbe, I., Sands, N. & Price, G.J. (2022) Cranial remains of Ramsayia magna from the Late Pleistocene of Australia and the evolution of gigantism in wombats (Marsupialia, Vombatidae). Papers in Palaeontology, 8 (6), e1475. https://doi.org/10.1002/spp2.1475
  143. Louys, J. & Price, G.J. (2015) The Chinchilla Local Fauna: an exceptionally rich and well-preserved Pliocene vertebrate assemblage from fluviatile deposits of south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60 (3), 551–572. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00042.2013
  144. Luckett, W.P. (1993) An ontogenetic assessment of dental homologies in therian mammals. In: Szalay, F.S., Novacek, M.J. and McKenna, M.C. (Eds.), Mammal Phylogeny. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 182–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9249-1_13
  145. Lydekker, R. (1887) Mammalia in the British Museum (Natural History) Cromwell Road, S.W. Part 5. Containing the Group Tillodontia, the Orders Sirenia, Cetacea, Edentata, Marsupialia, Monotremata, and supplement. 5. Taylor and Francis, British Museum (Natural History), London, 339 pp.
  146. Lydekker, R. (1894) A handbook to the Marsupialia and Monotremata. XVI. W. H. Allen and Co., London, 302 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.14336
  147. Lydekker, R. (1896) A handbook to the Marsupialia and Monotremata. XV. Edward Lloyd, London, 320 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15228
  148. MacFadden, B.J., Whitelaw, M.J., McFadden, P. & Rich, T.H. (1987) Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Pleistocene section at Portland (Victoria), Australia. Quaternary Research, 28 (3), 364–373. https://doi.org/10.1016/0033-5894(87)90004-4
  149. Mackness, B.S., Whitehead, P.W. & McNamara, G.C. (2000) New Potassium-Argon basalt date in relation to the Pliocene Bluff Downs Local Fauna, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 47 (4), 807–811. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-0952.2000.00812.x
  150. Macphail, M., Jordan, G. & Hill, R. (1993) Key periods in the evolution of the flora and vegetation in western Tasmania. I. The Early–Middle Pleistocene. Australian Journal of Botany, 41 (6), 673–707. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9930673
  151. Macphail, M.K. (1996) Neogene environments in Australia, 1: re-evaluation of microfloras associated with important early Pliocene marsupial remains at Grange Burn, southwest Victoria. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 92, 307–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(95)00113-1
  152. Macphail, M.K. (1997) Late Neogene climates in Australia: fossil pollen-and spore-based estimates in retrospect and prospect. Australian Journal of Botany, 45 (3), 425–464. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT96052
  153. Maddison, W.P. & Maddison, D.R. (2021) Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. 3.70
  154. Mahoney, J.A. & Ride, W.D.L. (1975) Index to the genera and species of fossil Mammalia described from Australia and New Guinea between 1838 and 1968 (including citations of type species and primary type specimens). Special Publication of the Western Australian Museum, 6, 1–250.
  155. Marshall, A.J. & Beehler, B.M. (2011) Ecology of Indonesian Papua Part One. 6. Periplus Editions (HK) Limited, London, 784 pp.
  156. Martin, H.A. (1987) The Cainozoic history of the vegetation and climate of the Lachlan River Region, New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 109, 214–257.
  157. Martin, H.A. (1990) The palynology of the Namba Formation in the Wooltana-1 bore, Callabonna Basin (Lake Frome), South Australia, and its relevance to the Miocene grasslands in central Australia. Alcheringa, 14, 247–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/03115519008619058
  158. Martin, H.A. (1998) Late Cretaceous-Cainozoic palynology of the Poonarunna No. 1 well, central Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 122 (3), 89–138.
  159. Martin, H.A. (2006) Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia. Journal of Arid Environments, 66 (3), 533–563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.01.009
  160. Martin, H.A. & McMinn, A. (1993) Palynology of sites 815 and 823: the Neogene vegetation history of coastal northeastern Australia. In: McKenzie, J.A., Davies, P.J. and Palmer-Julson, A. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. Pp. 115–125. https://doi.org/10.2973/odp.proc.sr.133.218.1993
  161. Martin, H.A. & McMinn, A. (1994) Late Cainozoic vegetation history of north-western Australia, from the palynology of a deep sea core (ODP Site 765). Australian Journal of Botany, 42, 95–102. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9940095
  162. Martin, M.L., Travouillon, K.J., Sherratt, E., Fleming, P.A. & Warburton, N.M. (2019) Covariation between forelimb muscle anatomy and bone shape in an Australian scratch‐digging marsupial: comparison of morphometric methods. Journal of Morphology, 280 (12), 1900–1915. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.21074
  163. Mather, E.K., Lee, M.S.Y., Fusco, D.A., Hellstrom, J. & Worthy, T.H. (2023) Pleistocene raptors from cave deposits of South Australia, with a description of a new species of Dynatoaetus (Accipitridae: Aves): morphology, systematics and palaeoecological implications. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 48, 134–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/03115518.2023.2268780
  164. Maynes, G.M. (1989) Zoogeography of the Macropodoidea. In: Grigg, G.C., Jarman, P.J. and Hume, I.D. (Eds.), Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, pp. 47–66.
  165. McInerney, P.L., Arnold, L.J., Burke, C., Camens, A.B. & Worthy, T.H. (2022) Multiple occurrences of pathologies suggesting a common and severe bone infection in a population of the Australian Pleistocene giant, Genyornis newtoni (Aves, Dromornithidae). Papers in Palaeontology, 8 (1), e1415. https://doi.org/10.1002/spp2.1415
  166. McLaren, S. & Wallace, M.W. (2010) Plio-Pleistocene climate change and the onset of aridity in southeastern Australia. Global and Planetary Change, 71 (1–2), 55–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.12.007
  167. McNamara, G.C. (1990) The Wyandotte Local Fauna: a new, dated, Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from northern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 28 (1), 285–297.
  168. McNamara, J.A. (1994) A new fossil wallaby (Marsupialia; Macropodidae) from the south east of South Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, 27 (2), 111–115.
  169. Menzies, J.I. & Ballard, C. (1994) Some new records of Pleistocene megafauna from New Guinea. Science in New Guinea, 20 (2, 3), 113–139.
  170. Mitchell, D.R., Sherratt, E., Ledogar, J.A. & Wroe, S. (2018) The biomechanics of foraging determines face length among kangaroos and their relatives. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285 (1881), 20180845. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0845
  171. Montanari, S., Louys, J. & Price, G.J. (2013) Pliocene paleoenvironments of southeastern Queensland, Australia inferred from stable isotopes of marsupial tooth enamel. PloS One, 8 (6), e66221. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066221
  172. Moore, L. (2008) Functional morphology and palaeoecology of extinct macropodoids, sthenurines and Protemnodon spp. (Marsupialia; Diprotodontia). Thesis. B.Sc. (Hons), Flinders University, Adelaide, 96 pp. (unpublished)
  173. Müller, S. (1840) Bijdragen tot de Kennis van Nieuw-Guinea. In: Temminck, C.J. (ed.) Verhandlingen over de natuurlijke Geschiedenis der Nederlandische Overzeesche Bezittingen, Door de Leden der Natuurkundige Commissie in Indie en Andere Schrijvers. Zoologie. S & J. Luchtmans and C. C. van der Hoek, Leiden, 80 pp.
  174. Murray, P.F. (1991) The Pleistocene megafauna of Australia. In: Rich, P.V., Monaghan, J.M., Baird, R.F. and Rich, T.H. (Eds.), Vertebrate Palaeontology of Australia. Pioneer Design Studio, Melbourne, pp. 1071–1164.
  175. Nanson, G.C., Page, K.J., Callen, R.A. & Price, D.M. (1993) Evidence for changes in the climate and moisture regime of Australia over the past 60 ka. Quaternary palaeoclimatic mapping: A proticol for Australia, Quaternary Australasia, Monash University, 69 pp.
  176. Nanson, G.C., Price, D.M., Jones, B.G., Maroulis, J.C., Coleman, M., Bowman, H., Cohen, T.J., Pietsch, T.J. & Larsen, J.R. (2008) Alluvial evidence for major climate and flow regime changes during the middle and late Quaternary in eastern central Australia. Geomorphology, 101 (1–2), 109–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.05.032
  177. Newton, C.A. (1988) A taphonomic and palaeoecological analysis of the Green Waterhole (5L81), a submerged Late Pleistocene bone deposit in the lower southeast of South Australia. Thesis. B.Sc. (Hons), Flinders University, Adelaide, 106 pp. (unpublished)
  178. O’Connor, S.M., Dawson, T.J., Kram, R. & Donelan, J.M. (2014) The kangaroo’s tail propels and powers pentapedal locomotion. Biology letters, 10 (7), 20140381. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2014.0381
  179. Oliver, A.J. (1986) Social organisation and dispersal in the red kangaroo. Thesis. Murdoch University,
  180. Osborne, R.A.L. (1997) Rehabilitation of the Wellington Caves Phosphate Mine: implications for Cainozoic stratigraphy. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 117, 175–180.
  181. Owen, R. (1838) Fossil Marsupialia from the caves of Wellington Valley. In: Mitchell, T.L. (ed.) Three expeditions into the interior of eastern Australia, with descriptions of the recently explored region of Australia Felix, and of the present colony of New South Wales. T. & W. Boone, London, pp. 359–363.
  182. Owen, R. (1874) On the fossil mammals of Australia, Part VIII. Family Macropodidae: genera Macropus, Osphranter, Phascolagus, Sthenurus and Protemnodon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 164, 245–288. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1874.0008
  183. Owen, R. (1876) On the fossil mammals of Australia, Part X. Family Macropodidae: mandibular dentition and parts of the skeleton of Palorchestes; additional evidences of Macropus titan, Sthenurus and Procoptodon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 166, 197–223. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1876.0008
  184. Owen, R. (1877) Researches on the fossil remains of the extinct mammals of Australia; with a notice of the extinct marsupials of England. 1. J. Erxleben, London, 522 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.77375
  185. Palmer, T.S. (1904) Index generum mammalum. North American Fauna, (23), 984. https://doi.org/10.3996/nafa.23.0001
  186. Payne, R.C., Hutchinson, J.R., Robilliard, J.J., Smith, N.C. & Wilson, A.M. (2005) Functional specialisation of pelvic limb anatomy in horses (Equus caballus). Journal of Anatomy, 206 (6), 557–574. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2005.00420.x
  187. Pepper, M. & Keogh, S.J. (2014) Biogeography of the Kimberley, Western Australia: a review of landscape evolution and biotic response in an ancient refugium. Journal of Biogeography, 41 (8), 1443–1455. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12324
  188. Peters, K.J., Saltré, F., Friedrich, T., Jacobs, Z., Wood, R., McDowell, M., Ulm, S. & Bradshaw, C.J.A. (2019) FosSahul 2.0, an updated database for the Late Quaternary fossil records of Sahul. Scientific Data, 6 (1), 272. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-019-0267-3
  189. Piper, K.J. (2016) The Macropodidae (Marsupialia) of the early Pleistocene Nelson Bay Local Fauna, Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 74, 233–253. https://doi.org/10.24199/j.mmv.2016.74.18
  190. Piper, K.J., Fitzgerald, E.M.G. & Rich, T.H. (2006) Mesozoic to Early Quaternary mammal faunas of Victoria, south-east Australia. Palaeontology, 49 (6), 1237–1262. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00595.x
  191. Plane, M. (1972) A New Guinea fossil macropodid (Marsupialia) from the marine Pliocene of Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, 33, 33–36. https://doi.org/10.24199/j.mmv.1972.33.03
  192. Plane, M.D. (1967) Stratigraphy and vertebrate fauna of the Otibanda Formation, New Guinea. Bulletin of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Australia, 86, 1–64.
  193. Pledge, N.S. (1980) Macropodid skeletons, including Simosthenurus Tedford, from an unusual “drowned cave” deposit in the south east of South Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, 18 (6), 131–141.
  194. Pledge, N.S. (1990) The Upper Fossil Fauna of the Henschke Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 28 (1), 247–262.
  195. Pledge, N.S. (1992) The Curramulka local fauna: a new late Tertiary fossil assemblage from Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. The Beagle: Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, 9 (1), 115–142. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.263122
  196. Price, G.J. (2012) Plio-Pleistocene climate and faunal change in central eastern Australia. Episodes, 35 (1), 160–165. https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/2012/v35i1/015
  197. Price, G.J. & Sobbe, I.H. (2005) Pleistocene palaeoecology and environmental change on the Darling Downs, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 51 (1), 171–201. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6390297
  198. Priddel, D. (1988) Habitat utilisation by sympatric red kangaroos Macropus rufus and western grey kangaroos M. fuliginosus, in western New South Wales. Australian. Wildlife Research, 15, 413–421. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9880413
  199. Priddel, D., Shepherd, N. & Wellard, G. (1988a) Home ranges of sympatric red kangaroos Macropus rufus and western grey kangaroos M. fuliginosus, in western New South Wales. Australian. Wildlife Research, 15, 405–411. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9880405
  200. Priddel, D., Wellard, G. & Shepherd, N. (1988b) Movements of sympatric red rangaroos, Macropus rufus, and western grey kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus, in western New South Wales. Wildlife Research, 15 (3), 339–346. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9880339
  201. Prideaux, G.J. (2000) Simosthenurus newtonae sp. nov., a widespread sthenurine kangaroo (Diprotodontia: Macropodidae) from the Pleistocene of southern and eastern Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, 33 (1), 1–15.
  202. Prideaux, G.J. (2004) Systematics and evolution of the sthenurine kangaroos. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 146, 1–623. https://doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520098459.001.0001
  203. Prideaux, G.J. (2006) Mid-Pleistocene vertebrate records: Australia. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science., pp.
  204. Prideaux, G.J., Kerr, I.A.R., van Zoelen, J.D., Grün, R., van der Kaars, S., Oertle, A., Douka, K., Grono, E., Barron, A., Mountain, M.-J., Westaway, M.C. & Denham, T. (2022) Re-evaluating the evidence for late-surviving megafauna at Nombe rockshelter in the New Guinea highlands. Archaeology in Oceania, 57 (3), 223–248. https://doi.org/10.1002/arco.5274
  205. Prideaux, G.J., Long, J.A., Ayliffe, L.K., Hellstrom, J.C., Pillans, B., Boles, W.E., Hutchinson, M.N., Roberts, R.G., Cupper, M.J., Arnold, L.J., Devine, P.D. & Warburton, N.M. (2007) An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia. Nature, 445, 422–425. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05471
  206. Prideaux, G.J. & Warburton, N.M. (2008) A new Pleistocene tree-kangaroo (Diprotodontia: Macropodidae) from the Nullarbor Plain of south-central Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28 (2), 463–478. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28[463:ANPTDM]2.0.CO;2
  207. Prideaux, G.J. & Warburton, N.M. (2010) An osteology-based appraisal of the phylogeny and evolution of kangaroos and wallabies (Macropodidae: Marsupialia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 159 (4), 954–987. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00607.x
  208. Quoy, J.R.C. & Gaimard, P. (1830a) “Kangurus brachyurus”. In: Lesson, A., Quoy, J.R.C., Gaimard, P., de Boisduval, J.B.A.C. and Richard, A. (Eds.), Voyage de la corvette l’Astrolabe exécuté par ordre du roi: pendant les années 1826–1827 & 1828–1829. J. Tastu, Paris, pp. 114–116.
  209. Quoy, J.R.C. & Gaimard, P. (1830b) Zoologie. In: Dumont d’Urville, J.-S.b.-C.s. (ed.) Voyage de Decouvertes de l’Astrolabe: exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826-1827-1828-1829. Imprimerie Royale, Paris, pp. 1–527. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.96961
  210. Raven, H.C. (1929) Kangaroo. Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 14th ed., pp. 254–255.
  211. Richards, H.L., Grueter, C.C. & Milne, N. (2015) Strong arm tactics: sexual dimorphism in macropodid limb proportions. Journal of Zoology, 297 (2), 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12264
  212. Roberts, R.G., Flannery, T.F., Ayliffe, L.K., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., Prideaux, G.J., Laslett, G.M., Baynes, A., Smith, M.A., Jones, R. & Smith, B.L. (2001) New ages for the last Australian megafauna: continent-wide extinction about 46,000 years ago. Science, 292, 1888–1892. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1060264
  213. Rovere, A., Raymo, M.E., Mitrovica, J., Hearty, P.J., OʼLeary, M. & Inglis, J. (2014) The mid-Pliocene sea-level conundrum: glacial isostasy, eustasy and dynamic topography. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 387, 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.10.030
  214. RStudio Team (2020) RStudio: Integrated Development for R.
  215. Sanson, G.D. (1978) The evolution and significance of mastication in the Macropodidae. Australian Mammalogy, 2 (1), 23–28. https://doi.org/10.1071/AM78003
  216. Sanson, G.D. (1980) The morphology and occlusion of the molariform cheek teeth in some Macropodinae (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 28, 341–365. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO9800341
  217. Sanson, G.D. (1989) Morphological adaptations of teeth to diets and feeding in the Macropodoidea. In: Grigg, G.C., Jarman, P.J. and Hume, I.D. (Eds.), Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp. 151–168.
  218. Sears, K.E. (2004) Role of development in the evolution of the scapula of the giant sthenurine kangaroos (Macropodidae: Sthenurinae). Journal of Morphology, 265 (2), 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10353
  219. Shaw, G. (1790) The Naturalist’s Miscellany. 1. Nodder & Co., London, 253 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.79941
  220. Simpson, G.G. (1930) Post-Mesozoic Marsupialia. Fossilium Catalogus. 1: Animalia Part 47. W. Junk, Berlin, 87 pp.
  221. Smith, N., Wilson, A., Jespers, K.J. & Payne, R. (2006) Muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy, 209 (6), 765–779. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00658.x
  222. Sniderman, J.K., Pillans, B., O’Sullivan, P.B. & Kershaw, A.P. (2007) Climate and vegetation in southeastern Australia respond to Southern Hemisphere insolation forcing in the late Pliocene–early Pleistocene. Geology, 35 (1), 41–44. https://doi.org/10.1130/G23247A.1
  223. Sniderman, J.K., Woodhead, J.D., Hellstrom, J., Jordan, G.J., Drysdale, R.N., Tyler, J.J. & Porch, N. (2016) Pliocene reversal of late Neogene aridification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113 (8), 1999–2004. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1520188113
  224. Stirton, R.A. (1963) A review of the macropodid genus Protemnodon. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 44 (2), 97–162.
  225. Tate, G.H.H. (1948) Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 59. Studies on the anatomy and phylogeny of the Macropodidae (Marsupialia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 91 (2), 233–351.
  226. Tate, G.H.H. & Archbold, R. (1937) Results of the Archbold Expeditions, No. 16: some marsupials of New Guinea and Celebes. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 73, 331–476.
  227. Tedford, R.H. (1967) The fossil Macropodidae from Lake Menindee, New South Wales. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 64, 1–165.
  228. Tedford, R.H., Wells, R.T. & Barghoorn, S.F. (1992) Tirari Formation and contained faunas, Pliocene of the Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. The Beagle: Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, 9 (1), 173–193. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.263124
  229. Travouillon, K., Cooke, B., Archer, M. & Hand, S. (2014) Revision of basal macropodids from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area with descriptions of new material of Ganguroo bilamina Cooke, 1997 and a new species. Palaeontologia Electronica, 17 (1), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.26879/402
  230. Trouessart, E.L. (1904) Catalogus Mammalium tam viventium quam fossilium. Quinquennale supplementum, anno 1904. 1. R. Friedlander and Son, Berlin, 929 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.61820
  231. Troughton, E.L.G. (1957) The kangaroo family: brush wallabies. Australian Museum Magazine, (12), 186–192.
  232. Turnbull, W.D., Lundelius Jr, E.L. & Archer, M. (2003) Chapter 18: dasyurids, perameloids, phalangeroids, and vombatoids from the Early Pliocene Hamilton Fauna, Victoria, Australia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 279, 513–540. https://doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2003)279%3C0513:C%3E2.0.CO;2
  233. Turney, C.S., Flannery, T.F., Roberts, R.G., Reid, C., Fifield, L.K., Higham, T.F., Jacobs, Z., Kemp, N., Colhoun, E.A. & Kalin, R.M. (2008) Late-surviving megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, implicate human involvement in their extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, United Statess of America, 105 (34), 12150–12153. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0801360105
  234. Wagstaffe, A.Y. (2018) The biomechanics of kangaroo feet: hopping for a better resolution. Thesis. University of Bristol, Bristol, 115 pp. (unpublished)
  235. Wagstaffe, A.Y., O’Driscoll, A.M., Kunz, C.J., Rayfield, E.J. & Janis, C.M. (2022) Divergent locomotor evolution in “giant” kangaroos: evidence from foot bone bending resistances and microanatomy. Journal of Morphology, 283 (3), 313–332. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.21445
  236. Walker, D. & Flenley, J.R. (1979) Late Quaternary vegetational history of the Enga Province of upland Papua New Guinea. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences, 286 (1012), 265–344. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1979.0034
  237. Wallis, L.A. (2001) Environmental history of northwest Australia based on phytolith analysis at Carpenter’s Gap 1. Quartenary International, 83–85, 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6182(01)00033-7
  238. Warburton, N., Travouillon, K. & Camens, A. (2019) Skeletal atlas of the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus). Palaeontologia Electronica, 22.2.29A, 1–56. https://doi.org/10.26879/947
  239. Warburton, N.M. (2009) Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat‐kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodoidea). The Anatomical Record, 292 (6), 875–884. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.20905
  240. Warburton, N.M., Bateman, P.W. & Fleming, P.A. (2013) Sexual selection on forelimb muscles of western grey kangaroos (Skippy was clearly a female). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109 (4), 923–931. https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12090
  241. Warburton, N.M., Harvey, K.J., Prideaux, G.J. & O’Shea, J.E. (2011) Functional morphology of the forelimb of living and extinct tree‐kangaroos (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). Journal of Morphology, 272 (10), 1230–1244. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10979
  242. Warburton, N.M. & Prideaux, G.J. (2021) The skeleton of Congruus kitcheneri, a semiarboreal kangaroo from the Pleistocene of southern Australia. Royal Society Open Science, 8 (3), 202–216. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.202216
  243. Warburton, N.M., Yakovleff, M. & Malric, A. (2012) Anatomical adaptations of the hind limb musculature of tree kangaroos for arboreal locomotion (Marsupialia: Macropodinae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 60 (4), 246–258. https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO12059
  244. Webb, S.D. (2008) Megafauna demography and late Quaternary climatic change in Australia: A predisposition to extinction. Boreas, 37, 329–345. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.2008.00026.x
  245. Weij, R., Sniderman, J.K., Woodhead, J.D., Hellstrom, J.C., Brown, J.R., Drysdale, R.N., Reed, E., Bourne, S. & Gordon, J. (2024) Elevated Southern Hemisphere moisture availability during glacial periods. Nature, 626 (7998), 319–326. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06989-3
  246. Wells, R.T. & Tedford, R.H. (1995) Sthenurus (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) from the Pleistocene of Lake Callabonna, South Australia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 225, 1–111.
  247. Westerman, M., Loke, S., Tan, M.H. & Kear, B.P. (2022) Mitogenome of the extinct Desert ‘rat-kangaroo’ times the adaptation to aridity in macropodoids. Scientific Reports, 12 (1), 5829. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09568-0
  248. White, J.P. & Flannery, T.F. (1995) Late Pleistocene fauna at Spring Creek, Victoria: a re-evaluation. Australian Archaeology, 40, 13–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/03122417.1995.11681541
  249. Whitelaw, M.J. (1991) Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Fisherman’s Cliff and Bone Gulch vertebrate fossil faunas from the Murray Basin, New South Wales, Australia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 104, 417–423. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90219-8
  250. Wickler, S.J., Hoyt, D.F., Clayton, H.M., Mullineaux, D.R., Cogger, E.A., Sandoval, E., McGuire, R. & Lopez, C. (2004) Energetic and kinematic consequences of weighting the distal limb. Equine Veterinary Journal, 36 (8), 772–777. https://doi.org/10.2746/0425164044848046
  251. Wilford, G.E. & Brown, P.J. (1994) Maps of Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic Gondwana break-up: some palaeogeographic implications. In: Hill, R.S. (ed.) History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, 5–13. https://doi.org/10.20851/australian-vegetation-02
  252. Wilson, J.T. & Hill, J.P. (1897) Observations on the development and succession of the teeth in Perameles. Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science, 2 (156), 427–588. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.s2-39.156.427
  253. Windsor, D.E. & Dagg, A.I. (1971) The gaits of the Macropodinae (Marsupialia). Journals of Zoology, 163 (2), 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1971.tb04530.x
  254. Woodburne, M.O. (1984) Families of marsupials: relationships, evolution and biogeography. Studies in Geology, Notes for a Short Course, 8, 48–71. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0271164800000889