Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Monograph
Published: 2021-02-26
Page range: 1–738
Abstract views: 4687
PDF downloaded: 2942

New concepts and methods for phylogenetic taxonomy and nomenclature in zoology, exemplified by a new ranked cladonomy of recent amphibians (Lissamphibia)

Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, Paris, France
Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, Paris, France
Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA.
Amphibia Lissamphibia classification phylogeny cladonomy ergotaxonomy taxonomic concepts taxonomic category Code Duplostensional Nomenclatural System nomenclatural rank mandatory rank nomenclatural availability taxonomic allocation of nomina

Abstract

Although currently most taxonomists claim to adhere to the concept of ‘phylogenetic taxonomy’, in fact most of the zoological classifications currently published are only in part ‘phylogenetic’ but include also phenetic or gradist approaches, in their arbitrary choices of the nodes formally recognised as taxa and in their attribution of ranks to these taxa. We here propose a new approach to ‘phylogenetic taxonomy and nomenclature’, exemplified by a phylogenetic classification or cladonomy of the extant amphibians (subclass Lissamphibia of the class Amphibia) derived from a supermatrix-based phylogenetic analysis using 4060 amphibian species, i.e. about half of the 8235 species recognised on 31 October 2020. These taxa were represented by a mean of 3029 bp (range: 197–13849 bp) of DNA sequence data from a mean of 4 genes (range: 1‒15). The cladistic tree thus generated was transferred into a classification according to a new taxonomic and nomenclatural methodology presented here, which allows a bijective or isomorphic relationship between the phylogenetic hypothesis and the classification through a rigorous use of suprageneric ranks, in which their hierarchy mirrors the structure of the tree. Our methodology differs from all previous ones in several particulars: [1] whereas the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature uses only three ‘groups of names’ (species, genus and family), we recognise four nominal-series (species, genus, family and class); [2] we strictly follow the Code for the establishment of the valid nomen (scientific name) of taxa in the three lower nominal-series (however, in a few situations, we suggest improvements to the current Rules of the Code); [3] we provide precise and unambiguous Criteria for the assignment of suprageneric nomina to either the family- or the class-series, excluding nomina proposed expressly under unranked or pseudoranked nomenclatural systems; [4] in the class-series, for which the Code provides only incomplete Rules concerning availability, we provide precise, complete and unambiguous Criteria for the nomenclatural availability, taxonomic allocation and nomenclatural validity and correctness of nomina; [5] we stress the fact that nomenclatural ranks do not have biological definitions or meanings and that they should never be used in an ‘absolute’ way (e.g., to express degrees of genetic or phenetic divergence between taxa or hypothesised ages of cladogeneses) but in a ‘relative’ way: two taxa which are considered phylogenetically as sister-taxa should always be attributed to the same nomenclatural rank, but taxa bearing the same rank in different ‘clades’ are by no means ‘equivalent’, as the number of ranks depends largely on the number of terminal taxa (species) and on the degree of phylogenetic resolution of the tree; [6] because of this lack of ‘equivalence’, some arbitrary criteria are necessary to fix a starting point for assigning a given suprageneric rank to some taxa, from which the ranks of all other taxa will automatically derive through a simple implementation of the hierarchy of ranks: for this purpose we chose the rank family and we propose a ‘Ten Criteria Procedure’ allowing to fix the position of this rank in any zoological classification. As a result of the implementation of this set of Criteria, we obtained a new ranked classification of extant lissamphibians using 25 suprageneric ranks below the rank class (11 class-series and 14 family-series ranks), and including 34 class-series and 573 family-series taxa, and where the 575 genera we recognise are referred to 69 families and 87 subfamilies. We provide new nomina and diagnoses for 10 class-series taxa, 171 family-series taxa, 14 genus-series taxa and 1 species. As many new species of amphibians are permanently described, this classification and its nomenclature will certainly have to change many times in the future but, using the clear, explicit, complete, automatic and unambiguous methodology presented here, these changes will be easy to implement, and will not depend on subjective and arbitrary choices as it has too often been the case in the last decades. We suggest that applying this methodology in other zoological groups would improve considerably the homogeneity, clarity and usefulness of zoological taxonomy and nomenclature.

References

  1. Abel, O. (1919) Die Stämme der Wirbelthiere. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin & Leipzig, i–xviii + 914 pp. [1919.aa].

    Abraham, R.K., Pyron, R.A., Ansil, B.R., Zachariah, A. & Zachariah, A. (2013) Two novel genera and one new species of treefrog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) highlight cryptic diversity in the Western Ghats of India. Zootaxa, 3640 (2), 177–199.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3640.2.3

    Acloque, A. (1900) Faune de France. Poissons, Reptiles, Batraciens, Tuniciers. Baillière, Paris, i–ix + pp. 339–548. [1900.aa].

    Adler, K. & Zhao, E. (1990) Studies on hynobiid salamanders, with description of a new genus. Herpetological Research, 4, 37–45.

    Agassiz, L. (1843) Nomina systematica generum Vermium (Annulatorum, Turbellarium et Entozoorum), tam viventium quam fossilium... Jent & Gassmann, Soloduri, i–vi + 14 pp. + 5 pp. + [i–ii]. ⌠P06⌡ [1843.aa].

    Agassiz, L. (1844) Nomina systematica generum Reptilium, tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita, adjectis auctoribus, libris in quibus reperiuntur, anno editionis, etymologia et familiis, ad quas pertinent. Jent & Gassmann, Soloduri, i–vii + 48 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12046

    Agassiz, L. (1845) Reptilia (Addenda et corrigenda.). Jent & Gassmann, Soloduri, 10 pp.

    Agassiz, L. (1847) Nomenclatoris zoologici. Index universalis continens nomina systematica classium, ordinum, familiarum et generum animalium omnium, tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum unicum disposita, adjectis homonymiis plantarum, nec non variis adnotationibus et emendationibus. ‘1846’. Jent & Gassmann, Soloduri, i–viii + 393 pp.

    Agassiz, L. (1848) Nomenclatoris zoologici. Index universalis, continens nomina systematica classium, ordinum, familiarum et generum animalium omnium, tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum unicum disposita, adjectis homonymiis plantarum. Jent & Gassmann, Soloduri, i–x + 1135 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.1819

    Ahl, E. (1924) Neue afrikanische Frösche. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 61, 99–103.

    Ahl, E. (1930) Neuere Erkenntnisse über die systematische Einteilung der Amphibien. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde, 1930, 78–85. [1930.aa].

    Ahl, E. (1931) Amphibia, Anura III, Polypedatidae. Das Thierreich, 55, i–xvi + 477 pp. {Q}.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111625430

    Ahyong, S.T., Lowry, J.K., Alonso, M., Bamber, R.N.,Boxshall, G.A., Castro, P., Gerken, S., Karaman, G.S., Goy, J.W., Jones, D.S., Meland, K., Rogers, D.C. & Svavarsson, J. (2011) Subphylum Crustacea Brünnich, 1772. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.), Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3148 (1), 165–191.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3148.1.33

    Allmon, W. (2017) Species, lineages, splitting, and divergence: why we still need ‘anagenesis’ and ‘cladogenesis’. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 120 (2), 474–479.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12885

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A. (2005) Nomenclature of higher taxa: a new approach. Bulletin of zoological Nomenclature, 62 (4), 189–199.

    Altig, R. & Johnston, G.F. (1989) Guilds of anuran larvae: relationships among developmental modes, morphologies, and habitats. Herpetological Monographs, 3, 81–109.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1466987

    Amiet, J.-L. (1974) La ponte et la larve d’Opisthothylax immaculatus Boulenger (Amphibien Anoure). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun, 17, 121–130.

    Amiet, J.-L. (1976) Observations anatomiques et biologiques sur le genre Werneria Poche, 1903. Revue de Zoologie et Botanique africaines, 90, 33–45.

    Amiet, J.-L. (1981) Revision du genre Leptodactylodon Andersson (Amphibia, Anura, Astylosterninae). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun, 27, 69–224.

    Ananjeva, N.B., Borkin, L.J., Darevsky, I.S. & Orlov, N.L. (1988) Dictionary of animal names in five languages. Russky Yazyk Publishers, Moscow, 556 pp. {Q}.

    Anderson, J. (1871) A list of the reptilian accessions to the Indian Museum, Calcutta, from 1865 to 1870, with a description of some new species. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 40, 12–39. [1871.aa].

    Andreone, F. & Nussbaum, R.A. (2006) A revision of Mantidactylus microtis and M. microtympanum, and a comparison with other large Madagascan stream frogs (Anura: Mantellidae: Mantellinae). Zootaxa, 1105 (1), 49–68.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1105.1.5

    Anisimova, M., Gil, M., Dufayard, J.F., Dessimoz, C. & Gascuel, O. (2011) Survey of branch support methods demonstrates accuracy, power, and robustness of fast likelihood-based approximation schemes. Systematic Biology, 60 (5), 685‒699.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syr041

    Annandale, N. (1912) Zoological results of the Abor Expedition, 1911–1912. I. Amphibia. Records of the Indian Museum, 8, 7–36, 4 pls.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.1186

    Annandale, N. (1915) Herpetological notes and descriptions. Records of the Indian Museum, 11, 341–347, 1 pl.

    Annandale, N. (1917) Zoological results of a tour in the Far East. Batrachia. Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 6, 119–155.

    Aranciaga-Rolando, A.M., Agnolin, F.L. & Corsolini, J. (2019) A new pipoid frog (Anura, Pipimorpha) from the Paleogene of Patagonia. Paleobiogeographical implications. Comptes rendus Palevol, 18, 725‒734. [2019.aa].

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2019.04.003

    Araujo-Vieira, K., Luna, M.C., Caramaschi, U. & Haddad, C.F.B. (2020) A new genus of lime treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae: Sphaenorhynchini). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 286, 81‒89.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2020.04.002

    Ardila-Robayo, M.C. (1979) Status sistemático del género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (Amphibia: Anura). Caldasia, 12, 383–495, 1 pl. [1979.aa].

    Arribas, O.J. (2016) Why Caucasilacerta Harris, Arnold & Thomas, 1998 is a nomen nudum? Russian Journal of Herpetology, 23 (4) 305–306.

    Ashlock, P.D. (1971) Monophyly and associated terms. Systematic Biology, 20, 63–69.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/20.1.63

    Ashlock, P.D. (1984) Monophyly: its meaning and importance. In: Duncan, T. & Stuessy, T.F. (Eds.), Cladistics: perspectives on the reconstruction of evolutionary history. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 39–46.

    https://doi.org/10.7312/dunc90660-006

    Aubekerova-Tleuberdina, P.A. (1977) Сопоставление Есекартканской фауны с гиппарионовыми и позднегиппарионовыми фаунами Азии. [The comparison of the Esekartkan fauna with Hipparion and late Hipparion faunas of Asia]. In: Мезокайнозойская фауна и флора северо-западного Казахстана [Fauna and flora of Mesozoic and Cainozoic [sic] periods in north-western Kazakhstan], Материалы по истории фауны и флоры Казахстана [Materials on the history of fauna and flora·of Kazakhstan], 7, 75–81. [In Russian]. [1977.ab].

    Auffenberg, W. (1958) A new family of Miocene salamanders from the Texas coastal plain. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences, 21 (2), 169–176. [1958.aa].

    Auffenberg, W. & Goin, C.J. (1959) The status of the salamander genera Scapherpeton and Hemitrypus of Cope. American Museum Novitates, 1979, 1–12. [1959.aa].

    Austin, J., Lougheed, S., Tanner, K., Chek, A.A., Bogart, J. & Boag, P. (2002) A molecular perspective on the evolutionary affinities of an enigmatic neotropical frog, Allophryne ruthveni. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 134, 335–346.

    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1096-3642.2002.00011.x

    Averianov, A. & Sues, H.-D. (2012) Correlation of late Cretaceous continental vertebrate assemblages in middle and central Asia. Journal of Statigraphy, 36 (2), 462–485. [2012.aa].

    Avise, J.C. (2008) Clonality. The genetics, ecology, and evolution of sexual abstinence in vertebrate animals. Oxford University Press, New York, i–xi + 237 pp.

    Avise, J.C. & Johns, G.C. (1999) Proposal for a standardized temporal scheme of biological classification for extant species. Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences, 96, 7358–7363.

    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.13.7358

    Avise, J.C. & Liu, J.-X. (2011) On the temporal inconsistencies of Linnean taxonomic ranks. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 102, 707–714.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01624.x

    Avise, J.C. & Mitchell, D. (2007) Time to standardize taxonomies. Systematic Biology, 56, 130–133.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150601145365

    Ayarzagüena, J., Señaris, J.C. & Gorzula, S. (1993) Un nuevo género para les especies de grupo Osteocephalus rodriguezi (Anura: Hylidae). Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias naturales La Salle, 52, 213–221.

    Ax, P. (1984) Das phylogenetische System: Systematisierung der lebenden Natur aufgrund ihrer Phylogenese. Fischer, Stuttgart & New York, 349 pp. [Not seen].

    Baêta, D., Giasson, L., Pombal, J. & Haddad, C. (2016) Review of the rare genus Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) with description of a new species. Herpetological Monographs, 30, 49–78.

    https://doi.org/10.1655/HERPMONOGRAPHS-D-15-00009.1

    Báez, A.M. & Pugener, L.A. (2003) Ontogeny of a new Palaeogene pipid frog from southern South America and xenopodinomorph evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139, 439–476. [2003.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00085.x

    Baird, S.F. (1850) Revision of the North American Tailed-Batrachia, with descriptions of new genera and species. Journal of the Academy of natural Sciences of Philadelphia, ‘1849’, (2) 1, 281–294. ⌠P07⌡ [1850.ba].

    Baird, S.F. (1851) Vertebrata. Class II. Reptilia. In: Heck, J.G. (Ed.), Iconographic encyclopedia of science, literature, and art. Vol. 2. Botany, zoology, anthropology, and surgery, Rudolph Garrigue, New York, pp. 244–289. [1851.ba].

    Baldo, D., Cotichelli, L., Pereyra, M.O., Borteiro, C., Netto, F., Kolenc, F., Brusquetti, F. & Bidau, C. (2012) A cytotaxonomic survey of the genus Melanophryniscus Gallardo, 1961 (Anura: Bufonidae). Journal of Herpetology, 46, 25–32.

    https://doi.org/10.1670/10-293

    Baldo, D., Vera Candioti, F., Haad, B., Kolenc, F., Borteiro, C., Pereyra, M., Zank, C., Colombo, P., Bornschein, M., Netto, F., Brusquetti, F., Conte, C., Costa, P., Almeida-Santos, P. & Pie, M. (2014) Comparative morphology of pond, stream and phytotelm-dwelling tadpoles of the South American redbelly toads (Anura: Bufonidae: Melanophryniscus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 112, 417–441.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12296

    Barbadillo, L.J., García-París, M. & Sanchíz, B. (1997) Orígenes y relaciones evolutivas de la herpetofauna ibérica. In: Pleguezuelos, J.M. (Ed.), Distribución y biogeografía de los anfibios y reptiles en España y Portugal, Universidad de Granada & Asociación Herpetológica Española, Granada, Spain, pp. 47–100. [1997.ba].

    Barbour, T. (1938) Notes on ‘Nectophryne’. Proceedings of the biological Society of Washington, 51, 191–196.

    Barej, M.F., Schmitz, A., Günther, R., Loader, S.P., Mahlow, K. & Rödel, M.-O. (2014) The first endemic West African vertebrate family—a new anuran family highlighting the uniqueness of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot. Frontiers in Zoology, 11 (8), [i] + 1–10 + online additional file (1–27). [2014.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-11-8

    Barej, M., Schmitz, A., Penner, J., Doumbia, J., Sandberger-Loua, L., Petersen, M., Brede, C., Emmrich, M., Germain Kouamé, N., Hillers, A., Gonwouo, N., Nopper, J., Adeba, P., Bangoura, M., Gage, C., Anderson, G. & Rödel, M.-O. (2015) Life in the spray zone—overlooked diversity in West African torrent-frogs (Anura, Odontobatrachidae, Odontobatrachus). Zoosystematics and Evolution, 91, 115–149.

    https://doi.org/10.3897/zse.91.5127

    Barigozzi, C. (Ed.) (1982) Mechanisms of speciation. Liss, New York, i‒xiv + 546 pp.

    Barrio, A. (1968) Incorporación a la batracofauna argentina de la familia Centrolenidae (Anura). Physis, 28, 165–169. [1968.ba].

    Barrow, L.N., Ralicki, H.F., Emme, S.A. & Lemmon, E.M. (2014) Species tree estimation of North American chorus frogs (Hylidae: Pseudacris) with parallel tagged amplicon sequencing. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 75, 78–90.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.007

    Batista, A., Hertz, A., Mebert, K., Köhler, G., Lotzkat, S., Ponce, M. & Vesely, M. (2014) Two new fringe-limbed frogs of the genus Ecnomiohyla (Anura: Hylidae) from Panama. Zootaxa, 3826 (3), 449–474.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3826.3.2

    Batsch, A.J.G.C. (1788) Versuch einer Anleitung, zur Kennniss und Geschichte der Thiere und Mineralien. Erster Theil. Akademischen Buchhandlung, Jena, i–viii + 528 pp., pls. 1–5. [1788.ba].

    Batsch, A.J.G.C. (1789) Versuch einer Anleitung, zur Kenntniß und Geschichte der Thiere und Mineralien, für akademische Vorlesungen entworfen, und mit den nöthigsten Abbildungen versehen. Zweyter Theil. Besondre Geschichte der Insekten, Gewürme und Mineralien. Akademische Buchhandlung, Jena, [i] + 520–690 pp. + [i–ii].

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.79854

    Batsch, A.J.G.C. (1796) Umriß der gesammten Naturgeschichte: ein Auszug aus den frühern Handbüchern des Verfassers für seine Vorlesungen. Christian Ernst Gabler, Jena & Leipzig, i–xvi + 1–287 pp + 3–160 pp + [1–32 pp] + [i–vi] + 1–80 pp. {Q} [1796.ba].

    Bauer, A.M., Parham, J.F., Brown, R.M., Stuart, B.L., Grismer, L., Papenfuss, T.J., Böhme, W., Savage, J.M., Carranza, S., Grismer, J.L., Wagner, P., Schmitz, A., Ananjeva, N.B. & Inger, R.F. (2010) Availability of new Bayesian-delimited gecko names and the importance of character-based species descriptions. Proceedings of the royal Society, (B), Biological Sciences, 278 (1705), 490–492.

    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.1330

    Bauer, L. (1985) Considerations about Rana with a proposal of new genera. / Overpeinzingen betreffende Rana met een voorstel van nieuwe genusnamen. Ripa, 1 November 1985, E 1–9 + D N1–N7. [1985.ba].

    Bauer, L. (1986) The lightly armed mud soldier. Essay on some African anurans with a resurrection and a new genus. Ripa, April 1986, [i–viii]. [1986.ba].

    Bauer, L. (1987a) Dikkoptypen. Herwaardering van bekende gegevens en een nieuwe typering van dikkopjes. Ripa, February 1987, 1–9. [1987.ba].

    Bauer, L. (1987b) Maar het is geen Dendrobates! D. silverstonei hoort thuis in een ondergeslacht van Phyllobates. Aanvulling/correctie bij twee eerdere artikelen. Ripa, April 1987, 1–8. [1987.bb].

    Bauer, L. (1987c) Thoughts on phylogeny and classification of anurans. In: Van Gelder, J.J., Strijbosch H. & Bergers, P.J.M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Ordinary General Meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Nijmegen, 17–21 August 1987, pp. 49–54. [1987.bc].

    Bauer, L. (1988) Pijlgifkikkers en verwanten: de familie Dendrobatidae. Het Paludarium November 1988, D 1–6, D-E 5–6. [1988.ba].

    Bayer, F. (1885) O kostře žab z čeledi pelobatid. Příspěvek srovnávací osteilogii obojživelníkův. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften ‘1884’, (6), 12 (13), 1–24, pl. 1–2. [In Czech]. ⌠P00⌡ [1885.ba].

    Beaulieu, F., Dowling, A.P.G., Klompen, H., De Moraes, G.J. & Walter, D.E. (2011) Superorder Parasitiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.), Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3148 (1), 123–128.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3148.1.23

    Bedriaga, J. v. (1881) Die Amphibien und Reptilien Griechenlands. Bulletin de la Société impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 56 (2), 242‒310.

    Bell, R.C. & Zamudio, K.R. (2012) Sexual dichromatism in frogs: natural selection, sexual selection and unexpected diversity. Proceedings of the royal Society, (B), 279, 4687–4693.

    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.1609

    Bell, C.L. (1839) A history of British Reptiles. J. van Oorst, London, i–xxiv + 142 pp. [1839.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10835

    Bell, T. (1836) Amphibia. In: Todd, R.B. (Ed.), The cyclopedia of anatomy and physiology. 1. A-DEA, Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts, London, pp. 90–107. [1836.ba].

    Benton, M.J. (1993) The fossil record. 2. Chapman & Hall, London, i–xvii + 529–845 pp. {Q}.

    Benton, M.J. (2000) Stems, nodes, crown clades, and rank-free lists: is Linnaeus dead? Biological Reviews, 75 (4), 633–648.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2000.tb00055.x

    Bernardi, G. (1956) Contribution à l’étude des catégories taxonomiques. I. Avant-propos, nomenclature et définitions. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 61 (9–10), 194–200.

    Bernardi, G. (1957) Contribution à l’étude des catégories taxonomiques. II. Les Règles internationales de la nomenclature zoologique et la notation des catégories taxonomiques. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 62 (9–10), 224–250.

    Bernardi, G. (1980) Les catégories taxonomiques de la systématique évolutive. In: Bocquet, C., Génermont, J. & Lamotte, M. (Eds.), Les problèmes de l’espèce dans le règne animal 3, Mémoires de la Société zoologique de France, 40, pp. 373–425.

    Berthold, A.A. (1827) Latreille’s natürliche Familien des Thierreichs aus dem aus dem Französischen mit Anmerkungen und Zusätzen. Landes-Industrie Comptoir, Weimar, i–x + 606 pp. [1827.ba].

    Bertrand, Y., Pleijel, F. & Rouse, G.W. (2006) Taxonomic surrogacy in biodiversity assessments, and the meaning of Linnaean ranks. Systematics & Biodiversity, 4 (2), 149–159.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1477200005001908

    Betta, E. de (1857) Erpetologia delle provincie venete e del Tirolo meridionale. Vicentini & Franchini, Verona, i–xvi + 1–365. [1857.ba].

    Betta, E. de (1864) Monografia degli anfibi urodeli italiani e più diffusamente delle specie viventi nelle provincie venete. Memorie dell’Istituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere ed Arti, (3) 11, 495–569, pl. 25. [1864.ba].

    Beukema, W., De Pous, P., Donaire-Barroso, D., Bogaerts, S., Garcia-Porta, J., Escoriza, D., Arribas, O.J., El Mouden, E.H. & Carranza, S. (2013) Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians. Zootaxa, 3661 (1), 1–60.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3661.1.1

    Bewick, A.J., Chain, F.J.J., Heled, J. & Evans, B.J. (2012) The pipid root. Systematic Biology, 61 (6), 913–926. [2012.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys039

    Biju, S.D. (2003) Reproductive mode in the shrub frog Philautus glandulosus (Jerdon, 1853) (Anura: Rhacophoridae). Current Science, 84, 283–284.

    Biju, S.D. & Bossuyt, F. (2003) New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature, 425, 711–714. [2003.bb].

    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02019

    Biju, S.D. & Bossuyt, F. (2005a) Two new Philautus (Anura: Ranidae: Rhacophorinae) from Ponmudi Hill in the Western Ghats of India. Copeia, 2005, 29–37.

    https://doi.org/10.1643/CH-04-194R1

    Biju, S.D. & Bossuyt, F. (2005b) New species of Philautus (Anura: Ranidae, Rhacophorinae) from Ponmudi Hill in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of Herpetology, 39, 349–353.

    https://doi.org/10.1670/133-04A.1

    Biju, S.D. & Bossuyt, F. (2006) Two new species of Philautus (Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae) from the Western Ghats, India. Amphibia-Reptilia, 27, 1–9.

    https://doi.org/10.1163/156853806776051985

    Biju, S.D. & Bossuyt, F. (2009) Systematics and phylogeny of Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Anura, Rhacophoridae) in the Western Ghats of India, with description of 12 new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155, 374–444.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00466.x

    Biju, S.D., Kamei, R.G., Mahony, S., Thomas, A. & Garg, S. (2013) Taxonomic review of the tree frog genus Rhacophorus from the Western Ghats, India (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of ontogenetic colour changes and reproductive behaviour. Zootaxa, 3636 (2), 257–289.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3636.2.3

    Biju, S.D., Roelants, K. & Bossuyt, F. (2008) Phylogenetic position of the montane treefrog Polypedates variabilis Jerdon, 1853 (Anura: Rhacophoridae), and description of a related species. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution, 8, 267–276.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ode.2007.11.004

    Biju, S.D., Senevirathne, G., Garg, S., Mahony, S., Kamei, R.G., Thomas, A., Shouche, Y., Raxworthy, C.J., Meegaskumbura, M. & Bocxlaer, I. Van (2016) Frankixalus, a new rhacophorid genus of tree hole breeding frogs with oophagous tadpoles. PloS One, 11 (e0145727), 1–17.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145727

    Biju, S.D., Shouche, Y., Dubois, A., Dutta, S.K. & Bossuyt, F. (2010) A ground-dwelling rhacophorid frog from the highest mountain peak of the Western Ghats of India. Current Science, 98, 1119–1125.

    Biju, S.D., Van Bocxlaer, I., Giri, V.B., Loader, S.P. & Bossuyt, F. (2009) Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India. BMC Research Notes, 2, 1–6.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-2-241

    Bishop, P.J. (1985) A new species of Arthroleptella in South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 81, 209.

    Bittencourt-Silva, G., Conradie, W., Siu-Ting, K., Tolley, K., Channing, A., Cunningham, M., Farooq, H., Menegon, M. & Loader, S. (2016) The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 99, 89–102.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.021

    Blackburn, D.C. & Duellman, W.E. (2013) Brazilian marsupial frogs are diphyletic (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 68, 709–714.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.04.021

    Blackburn, D.C. & Wake, D.B. (2011) Class Amphibia, Gray, 1825. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.), Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness, Zootaxa, 3148 (1), pp. 39–55. {Q} [2011.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3148.1.8

    Blackwelder, R.E. (1967) Taxonomy: a text and reference book. John Wiley & Sons, New York, i–xv + 698 pp.

    Blainville, [H.D.] de (1839) Notice historique sur la place assignée aux Cécilies dans la série zoologique. Compte rendu des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, 9, 663–675. [1839.bb].

    Blainville, H.D. de (1835) Description de quelques espèces de Reptiles de la Californie, précédée de l’analyse d’un système général d’erpétologie et d’amphibiologie. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle, 4, 233–296, 4 pl. [1835.ba].

    Blainville, H. de (1816a) Prodrome d’une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal. Bulletin des Sciences de la Société philomatique de Paris, Juillet 1816, ‘105–112’ [113–120] + 121–124. [1816.ba].

    Blainville, H. de (1816b) Prodrome d’une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d’Histoire naturelle et des Arts, Octobre 1816, 83, 244–267. [1816.bb].

    Blainville, H. de (1818) Vorläufige Anzeige einer neuen systematischen Eintheilung des Thierreichs. Isis von Oken, 1818, 1365–1384. [1818.ba].

    Blair, W.F. (Ed.) (1972) Evolution in the genus Bufo. University of Texas Press, Austin & London, i–viii + 1–459, pls. 1–6.

    Blanchard, R. (1885) Remarques sur la classification des Batraciens Anoures. Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France, 10, 584–589. [1885.bb].

    Blanchard, R. (Ed.) (1905) Règles internationales de la nomenclature zoologique adoptées par les Congrès Internationaux de Zoologie. Rudeval, Paris, 64 pp.

    Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. (1993) Systematic relationships of the Mantellinae Laurent 1946 (Anura Ranoidea). Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, 5, 199–218. [1993.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1080/08927014.1993.9523105

    Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A. & Blanc, C.P. (1991) Amphibiens (première partie). Faune de Madagascar, 75, 1–379.

    Blotto, B.L., Nunez, J.J., Basso, N.G., Ubeda, C.A., Wheeler, W.C. & Faivovich, J. (2013) Phylogenetic relationships of a Patagonian frog radiation, the Alsodes + Eupsophus clade (Anura: Alsodidae), with comments on the supposed paraphyly of Eupsophus. Cladistics, 29 (2), 113‒131.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00417.x

    Bock, P. E. & Gordon, D. P. (2013) Phylum Bryozoa Ehrenberg, 1831. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.), Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classificationand survey of taxonomic richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa, 3703 (1), 67–74.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.14

    Boettger, C.R. (1952) Die Stämme des Tierreichs in ihrer systematischen Gliederung. Abhandlungen der Braunschweigischen Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, 4, 238–300.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-02236-7_1

    Boettger, O. (1895) Neue Frösche und Schlangen von den Liukiu-Inseln. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 18: 266–270.

    Bogart, J.P. & Tandy, M. (1981) Chromosome lineages in African ranoid frogs. Monitore zoologico italiano, New Series, 15 (Supplement), 15, 55–91. [1981.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1981.10736629

    Böhme, M., Winklhofer, M. & Ilg, A. (2011) Miocene precipitation in Europe: temporal trends and spatial gradients. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 304, 212–218 + online supplementary [1–8]. [2011.bb].

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.09.028

    Böhme, W. & Köhler, J. (2005) Do endings of adjective flecticle species names affect stability? A final note on the gender of Podarcis Wagler, 1830 (Reptilia, Lacertidae). Bonner zoologische Beiträge, 53 (3–4), 293–295.

    Boie, H. (1828) Bemerkungen über die Abtheilungen im natürlichen Systeme und deren Characteristik. Isis von Oken, 21 (4), 351–364. [1828.ba].

    Bokermann, W.C.A. (1952) Microhylidae da coleçao do Departamento de zoologia (Amphibia-Anura). Papeis avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia Secretaria de Agricultura São Paulo, 10, 271–292.

    Bokermann, W.C.A. (1965) Hyla langei, a new frog from Paraná, Southern Brasil. Journal of the Ohio herpetological Society, 5, 49–51.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1562630

    Bokermann, W.C.A. (1975) Três espécies novas de Eleutherodactylus do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil (Anura, Leptodactylidae). Revista brasileira de Biologia, 34, 11–18.

    Bolkay, S.J. (1919) Osnove uporedne osteologije anurskih batrahija sa dodatkom o porijeklu Anura i sa skicom naravnoga sistema istih. Glasnik Zemaljskog Muzeja u Bosni i Hercegovini, 31, 277–357. {Q} [1919.ba].

    Bolkay, S.J. (1928) Die Schädel der Salamandrinen, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf ihre systematische Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte, Abtheilung 1, 86, 259–319.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02117989

    Bolkay, S.J. (1929) Die Amphibien und Reptilien von Sarajevo und Umgebung. Glasnik Zemaljskog Muzeja u Bosni i Hercegovini, 41, 57–77, pl. 10. [1929.ba].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1831a) Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati. Antonio Boulzaler, Roma, 78 pp. [1831.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.48624

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1831b) Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli animali vertebrati a sangue freddo. Giornale Arcadico di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 52, 129–209. [1831.bb].

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.48624

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1838a) Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Vol. 2. Fasciculo 22. Salviucci, Roma: (1) Hyla viridis, Raganella arborea: [193–198], pl. [79]; (2) Rana esculenta, Ranocchia verde: [199–202], pl. [79]; (3) Pelodytes punctatus, Pelodite puntato: [207–208], pl. [80]. ⌠P05⌡ [1838.ba].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1838b) Amphibiorum tabula analytica. Nuovi Annali delle Scienze naturali, 1 (1), 391–397. {Q} [1838.bb].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1838c) Classification des animaux vertébrés. Compte rendu des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences, 7, 656–658. [1838.bc].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1838d) Synopsis vertebratorum systematis. Nuovi Annali delle Scienze naturali, 1 (2), 105–133. [1838.bd].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1839a) Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Vol. 2. Fasciculo 24. Salviucci, Roma: (1) Discoglossus sardus, Discogloso sardo: [pp. 219–221], pl. [81]; (2) Bufo vulgaris, Rospo comune: [pp. 223–228], pl. [82]. ⌠P05⌡ [1839.bc].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1839b) Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Vol. 2. Fasciculo 26. Salviucci, Roma: Euproctus platycephalus, Euprotto del Rusconi: [pp. 259–266], pl. [85]. [1839.bd].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1839c) Synopsis vertebratorum systematis (proseguimento e fine). Annali medico-chirurgici, 1 (5), 268–279. [1839.be].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1839d) Systema amphybiorum. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences naturelles de Neuchâtel, 2, 15–16. [1839.bf].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1840a) A new systematic arrangement of vertebrated animals. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 18 (3), 247–304. [1840.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1838.tb00177.x

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1840b) Amphibia Europaea ad systema nostrum vertebratorum ordinata. Memorie della reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, (2) 2, 385–456. [1840.bb].

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.4058

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1845) Specchio generale dei sistemi erpetologico ed anfibiologico. Atti della sesta Riunione degli Scienzati italiani, tenuta in Milano nel Settembre del MDCCCXLIV, Luigi di Giacomo Pirola, Milano, pp. 376–378. [1845.ba].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1850) Conspectus systematum herpetologiae et amphibiologiae. Editio altera reformata. E. J. Brill, Lugduni Batavorum, 1 pl. ⌠P07⌡ {Q} [1850.bb].

    Bonaparte, C.L. (1852) Conspectus systematum herpetologiae et amphibiologiae. Editio altera reformata. (Continuazione). Nuovi Annali delle Scienze naturali, Bologna, (3) 5, 477–480. [1852.ba].

    Borah, M.M., Bordoloi, S., Purkayastha, J., Das, M., Dubois, A. & Ohler, A. (2013) Limnonectes (Taylorana) medogensis (Fei, Ye & Huang, 1997) from Arunachal Pradesh (India), and the identity of some diminutive ranoid frogs (Anura, Dicroglossidae, Occidozygidae). Herpetozoa, 26 (1–2), 39–48. [2013.ba].

    Borkin, L.J. & Litvinchuk, S.N. (2013) Амфибии Палеарктики: Таксономический состав. [Amphibians of the Palearctic: taxonomic composition]. Trudy zoologicheskogo Instituta, Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk, [Proceedings of the zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences], 317, 494–541. [In Russian]. [2013.bb].

    Borkin, L.J. & Litvinchuk, S. (2014) Зоогеография северного полушария и амфибии: Палеарктика и неарктика или голарктика? [Zoogeography of the northern hemisphere and amphibians: the Palearctic and the Nearctic vs. the Holarctic?]. Trudy zoologicheskogo Instituta, Rossiyskoy Akademii Nauk, [Proceedings of the zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences], 318, 433–485. [In Russian].

    Bory de Saint-Vincent, [J.B.G.M.] (1828) Résumé d’herpétologie, ou d’histoire naturelle des Reptiles. Bureau de l’Encyclopédie Portative, Paris, i–viii + 292 pp. + 20 pp., pl. 1–52 + front. [1828.bb].

    Bossuyt, F. (2002) A new species of Philautus (Anura: Ranidae) from Western Ghats of India. Journal of Herpetology, 36, 656–661.

    https://doi.org/10.1670/0022-1511(2002)036[0656:ANSOPA]2.0.CO;2

    Bossuyt, F. & Dubois, A. (2001) A review of the frog genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae). Zeylanica, 6, 1–112.

    Bossuyt, F. & Milinkovitch, M.C. (2000) Convergent adaptive radiations in Madagascan and Asian ranid frogs reveal covariation between larval and adult traits. Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences, 97, 6585–6590.

    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.12.6585

    Bossuyt, F. & Milinkovitch, M.C. (2001) Amphibians as indicators of early Tertiary ‘out-of-India’ dispersal of Vertebrates. Science, 292, 93–95. [2001.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1058875

    Bossuyt, F. & Roelants, K. (2009) Frogs and toads (Anura). In: Hedges, S.B. & Kumar, S. (Ed.), The Timetree of Life, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 357–364. [2009.ba].

    Bossuyt, F., Brown, R.M., Hillis, D.M., Cannatella, D.C. & Milinkovitch, M.C. (2006) Phylogeny and biogeography of a cosmopolitan frog radiation: late Cretaceous diversification resulted in continent-scale endemism in the family Ranidae. Systematic Biology, 55, 579–594.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150600812551

    Bossuyt, F., Roelants, K., Spithoven, L. & Daro, M.-H. (2001) Philautus bombayensis (Bombay Oriental shrub-frog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review, 32, 34–35.

    Boulenger, E.G. (1914) Reptiles and Batrachians. Dent & Sons, Ltd., London, i–xiv + 278 pp., 80 pls. {Q}.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1882a) Reptilia and Batrachia. The zoological Record, 18, 1–16. [1882.ba].

    Boulenger, G.A. (1882b) Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum. Second edition. Trustees of the British Museum, Natural History, London, i–xvi + 503 pp., pls. 1–30. {Q} [1882.bb].

    Boulenger, G.A. (1882c) Catalogue of the Batrachia Gradientia s. Caudata and Batrachia Apoda in the collection of the British Museum. Second edition. Trustees of the British Museum, Natural History, London, i–ix + 127 pp., pls. 1–9. {Q} [1882.bc].

    Boulenger, G.A. (1883) Descriptions of new species of lizards and frogs collected by Herr A. Forrer in Mexico. Annals and Magazine of natural History, (5), 11, 342–344.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938309459162

    Boulenger, G.A. (1884) Diagnoses of new Reptiles and Batrachians from the Solomon Islands, collected and presented to the British Museum by H. B. Guppy, Esq. Proceedings of the zoological Society of London, 1884, 210–213. [1884.ba].

    Boulenger, G.A. (1885) Description of a new frog of the genus Megalophrys. Proceedings of the zoological Society of London, 1885, 850, 1 pl.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1887) An account of the Batrachians obtained in Burma by M. L. Fea of the Genoa Civic Museum. Annali del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Genova, 25, 418–424, 3 pl.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1888) Note on the classification of the Ranidae. Proceedings of the zoological Society of London, 1888, 204–206. [1888.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1888.tb06694.x

    Boulenger, G.A. (1890a) Second report on additions to the batrachian collection in the Natural-History Museum. Proceedings of the zoological Society of London, 1890, 323–328, pls. 25–26. [1890.ba].

    Boulenger, G. A. (1890b) The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, i–xviii + 541 pp.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1893) Reptilia and Batrachia. The zoological Record, 29, 1–41. [1893.ba].

    Boulenger, G.A. (1893) Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. LII. Concluding report on the Reptiles and Batrachians obtained in Burma by Signor L. Fea, dealing with the collection made in Pegu and the Karin Hills in 1887–88. Annali del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Genova, 33, 304–347, 6 pls.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1896) Descriptions of new Batrachians in the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of natural History, (6), 17, 401–405.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939608680389

    Boulenger, G.A. (1898) The tailless batrachians of Europe. Part II. Ray Society, London, 211–376 pp., 4 pls. + pls. 11–24.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1903) Report on the Batrachians and Reptiles. In: Annandale, N. & Robinson, H.C. (Ed.), Fasciculi malayenses, Anthropological and zoological results of an expedition to Perak and the Siamese Malay States 1901–1902 undertaken by Nelson Annandale and Herbert C. Robinson under the auspices of the University of Edinburgh and the University of Liverpool, Zoology, Part 1, Longmans, Green & Co., London, pp. 127–176.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1906) Description of two new Indian frogs. Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 2, 385–386.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1909) Descriptions of four new frogs and a new snake discovered by Mr. H. Sauter in Formosa. Annals and Magazine of natural History, 4, 492–495.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930908692704

    Boulenger, G.A. (1910) Les Batraciens et principalement ceux d’Europe. Octave Doin et Fils, Paris, [i–iv] + 305 pp. {Q}.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1917) On a second species of the batrachian genus Amphodus. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (8), 20, 184–185.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222931709486988

    Boulenger, G.A. (1920a) A monograph of the American frogs of the genus Rana. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 55, 413–480.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/20025810

    Boulenger, G.A. (1920b) A monograph of the South Asian, Papuan, Melanesian and Australian frogs of the genus Rana. Records of the Indian Museum, 20, 1–226.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12471

    Bour, R. & Dubois, A. (1985) Nomenclature ordinale et familiale des Tortues (Reptilia). Studia geologica salmanticensia. Vol. especial 1. Studia palaeocheloniologica. 1. Ediciones Universidad, Salamanca, pp. 77–86.

    Bour, R. & Dubois, A. (1986) Nomenclature ordinale et familiale des Tortues (Reptilia). Note complémentaire. Bulletin mensuel de la Société linnéenne de Lyon, 55, 87–90.

    https://doi.org/10.3406/linly.1986.10749

    Bourbaki, N. (1970) Eléments de mathématique. Théorie des ensembles. Diffusion C.C.L.S., Paris, 1–51 pp + 1–52 pp. + 1–99 pp. + 1–101 pp. + 1–45 pp. + [I].

    Bourret, R. (1942) Les Batraciens de l’Indochine. Institut Océanographique de l’Indochine, Hanoi, i–x + 547 pp., 4 pl.

    Bowley, D.R. & Smith, H.M. (1968) The dates of publication of Louis Agassiz’s Nomenclator Zoologicus. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of natural History, 5 (1), 35–36. [1968].

    https://doi.org/10.3366/jsbnh.1968.5.1.35

    Bozóki-Ernycy, K. (Ed.) (2007) European preventive archaeology. National Office of Cultural Heritage, Hungary & Council of Europe, Directorate of Culture and Cultural and Natural Heritage, 222 pp.

    Brame, A. (1967) A list of the world’s recent and fossil salamanders. Herpeton, 2 (1), 1–26. [1967.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1441584

    Brame, A.H. (1957) A list of the world‘s recent Caudata. University of Southern California, [i] + a–b + 21 pp. [1957.ba].

    Brame, A.H. (1958) A list of the world’s fossil Caudata. University of Southern California, [i] + 5 pp. + a–b. [1958.ba].

    Brame, A.H., Hochnadel, R., Smith, H.M. & Smith, R.B. (1978) Bionumeric codes for Amphibians and Reptiles of the world. I. Salamanders. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Sciences, 81 (1), 43–56. [1978.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.2307/3627356

    Brandt, J.F. (1835) Prodromus descriptionis animalium ab H. Mertensio observatorum. Fascic. I. Polypos, Acalephas Discophoras et Siphonophoras, nec non Echinodermata continens. Recueil des Actes des Séances publiques de l’Académie impériale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg, 1834, 201–275.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10196

    Breen, J.F. (1974) Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, 576 pp. {Q}.

    Bremer, K., Bremer, B., Karis, P.O. & Källersjö, M. (1990) Time for change in taxonomy. Nature, 343, 202.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/343202a0

    Bridge, P.D., Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Panchal, G. (2003) On the unreliability of published DNA sequences. New Phytologist, 160 (1), 43–48.

    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00861.x

    Brimley, C.S. (1915) List of Reptiles and Amphibians of North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell scientific Society, 30 (4), 195–206.

    Brocchi, P. (1881) Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l’Amérique Centrale. Recherches zoologiques. Troisième partie, deuxième section. Etude des Batraciens de l’Amérique Centrale. Imprimerie Nationale, Paris, 56 pp., pl. 1–5, 9, 10. ⌠P10⌡ [1881.ba].

    Brongniart, A. (1800a) Essai d’une classification naturelle des Reptiles. Iere partie. Etablissement des ordres. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société philomatique, 2 (35), 81–82. ⌠P01⌡ [1800.ba].

    Brongniart, A. (1800b) Essai d’une classification naturelle des Reptiles. IIe partie. Formation et disposition des genres. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société philomatique, 2 (36), 89–91.

    Bronn, H.G. (1849) Handbuch einer Geschichte der Natur. Dritter Band. Zweite Abtheilung. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, i–iii + 1106 pp. [1849.ba].

    Bronn, H.G. (1853) Lethaea geognostica oder Abbildung und Beschreibung der für die Gebirgs-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. Dritter Band. Third edition. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, i–viii + 1130 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.3931/e-rara-23714

    Brookes, J. (1828) A prodromus of a Synopsis Animalium, comprising a Catalogue Raisonné of the zootomical collection of Joshua Brookes, Esq. F.R.S. etc. Gold & Walton, London, 76 pp. [1828.bc].

    Brothers, D.J. (1983a) Nomenclature at the ordinal and higher levels. Systematic Zoology, 32 (1), 34–42.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/32.1.34

    Brothers, D.J. (1983b) Comments on Rasnitsyn’s proposal to regulate the names of taxa above the family group. Bulletin of zoological Nomenclature, 40 (2), 72–73.

    Brower, A.V.Z. (2016) What is a cladogram and what is not? Cladistics, 32, 573–576.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12144

    Brown, J.L., Twomey, E., Amezquita, A., Souza, M.B. de, Caldwell, J.P., Loetters, S., May, R. von, Melo-Sampaio, P.R., Mejia-Vargas, D., Perez-Pena, P., Pepper, M., Poelman, E.H., Sanchez-Rodriguez, M. & Summers, K. (2011) A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae). Zootaxa, 3083 (1), 1–120.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3083.1.1

    Brown, R.M, Siler, C.D., Richards, S.J., Diesmos, A.C. & Cannatella, D.C. (2015) Multilocus phylogeny and a new classification for Southeast Asian and Melanesian forest frogs (family Ceratobatrachidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 174, 130–168 + supplementary online information (Figure S1). [2015.ba].

    https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12232

    Bruch, C. (1862) Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte und Classification der nackten Amphibien. Würzburger Naturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift, 3, 181–224. {Q} [1862.ba].

    Brummitt, R.K. (1997) Taxonomy versus cladonomy, a fundamental controversy in biological systematics. Taxon, 46, 723–734.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1224478

    Brunetti, A., Hermida, G., Luna, M., Barsotti, A., Jared, C., Antoniazzi, M., Rivera-Correa, M., Von Muller Berneck, B. & Faivovich, J. (2015) Diversity and evolution of sexually dimorphic mental and lateral glands in Cophomantini treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae: Hylinae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114, 12–34.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12406

    Burbrink, F.T & Gehara, M. (2018) The biogeography of deep time phylogenetic reticulation. Systematic Biology, 67 (5), 743–755.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syy019

    Burton, M. & Burton, R. (1970) Systematic index. In: The international wildlife encyclopedia. 20. B.P.C. Publishing limited, Paris, pp. 2796–2800. {Q}.

    Burton, T.C. (1986) A reassessment of the Papuan subfamily Asterophryinae (Anura: Microhylidae). Record of the South Australian Museum, 19 (19), 405–450. [1986.bb].

    Cai, H.X., Che, J., Pang, J.F., Zhao, E.M. & Zhang, Y.P. (2007) Paraphyly of Chinese Amolops (Anura, Ranidae) and phylogenetic position of the rare Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus. Zootaxa, 1531 (1), 49–55.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1531.1.4

    Cain, A.J. & Harrison, G.A. (1960) Phyletic weighting. Proceedings of the zoological Society of London, 135, 1–31.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1960.tb05828.x

    Camp, C., Peterman, W., Milanovich, J., Lamb, T., Maerz, J. & Wake, D. (2009) A new genus and species of lungless salamander (family Plethodontidae) from the Appalachian highlands of the south‐eastern United States. Journal of Zoology, 279, 86–94.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/2804896

    Camp, W.H. & Gilly, C.L. (1943) The structure and origin of species. Brittonia, 4 (3), 323–385.

    Campbell, J. & Duellman, W. (2000) New species of stream-breeding hylid frogs from the northern versant of the highlands of Oaxaca, Mexico. Scientific Papers, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas, 16, 1–28.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.16165

    Campbell, V. & Lapointe, F.-J. (2009) The use and validity of composite taxa in phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Biology, 58, 560–572.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syp056

    Candolle, A.P. de (1813) Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l’art de décrire et d’étudier les végétaux. Déterville, Paris, i–viii + 527 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.39705

    Canedo, C., Dixo, M. & Pombal, J.P. (2004) A new species of Chiasmocleis Mehely, 1904 (Anura, Microhylidae) from the Atlantic Rainforest of Bahia, Brazil. Herpetologica, 60, 495–501.

    https://doi.org/10.1655/03-66

    Cannatella, D.C. (1986) A new genus of bufonid (Anura) from South America, and phylogenetic relationships of the Neotropical genera. Herpetologica, 42, 197–205.

    Cannatella, D.C. & Hillis, D.M. (1993) Amphibian relationships: phylogenetic analysis of morphology and molecules. Herpetological Monographs, 7, 1–7. [1993.ca].

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1466947

    Cannatella, D.C. & Trueb, L. (1988) Evolution of the pipoid frogs: intergeneric relationships of the aquatic frog family Pipidae (Anura). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 94, 1–38. [1988.ca].

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1988.tb00880.x

    Cannatella, D.C. & Hillis, D.M. (2004) Amphibians: leading a life of slime. In: Cracraft, J. & Donoghue, M.J. (Eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life, Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 430–450.

    Canseco-Márquez, L., Ramírez-González, C.G. & González-Bernal, E. (2017) Discovery of another new species of Charadrahyla (Anura, Hylidae) from the cloud forest of northern Oaxaca, México. Zootaxa, 4329 (1), 64–72.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4329.1.2

    Cantino P.D. & Queiroz, K. de (2007) International code of phylogenetic nomenclature. Version 4b.

    http://www.phylocode.org

    Cantino, P.D. & Queiroz, K. de (2010) International code of phylogenetic nomenclature. Version 4c. 102 pp.

    http:// www.ohio.edu/PhyloCode4c

    Cantino, P.D. & Queiroz, K. de (2020) International code of phylogenetic nomenclature (PhyloCode). Boca Raton, London & New York (CRC Press), i‒xl + 149 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429446320

    Caramaschi, U. & Da Cruz, C.A.G. (1997) Redescription of Chiasmocleis albopunctata (Boettger) and description of a new species of Chiasmocleis (Anura: Microhylidae). Herpetologica, 53, 259–268.

    Caramaschi, U. & Feio, R. (1990) A new species of Hyla (Anura, Hylidae) from southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Copeia, 1990, 542–546.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1446357

    Caramaschi, U., Lula Salles, R.D.O. & Goncalves Cruz, C.A. (2012) A new species of Stereocyclops Cope (Anura, Microhylidae) from southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 3583 (1), 83–88.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3583.1.7