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Type: Article
Published: 2020-06-30
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Phylogenetic overview of flat wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) reveals Elektroepyrinae, a new fossil subfamily

Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil
Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, 01030, Ukraine Borissiak Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117647, Russia
Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil
Hymenoptera Bethylidae Aculeata Eocene French amber Oise amber


The flat wasps, Bethylidae, are cosmopolitan and one of the most diverse families of Chrysidoidea. Bethylidae have 2,920 described extant species and almost 90 fossil species. The oldest geological record of the family is the Lower Cretaceous, from Lebanese and Spanish ambers and Transbaikalian rock fossils. Here we describe and illustrate one new fossil subfamily of Bethylidae: †Elektroepyrinae subfam. nov. represented by †Elektroepyris Perrichot & Nel from the lowermost Eocene Oise amber (France), which was cladistically assessed against all other eight subfamilies of Bethylidae. The new taxon is easily distinguished from other subfamilies by the forewing venation with the third abscissa of Cu present. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of all subfamilies of Bethylidae, with a matrix with 69 morphological characters and 22 terminal taxa from where †Elektroepyrinae subfam. nov. emerged as independent lineage from all other subfamilies.


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