Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2022-02-25
Page range: 090–098
Abstract views: 308
PDF downloaded: 14

A new genus and species of gall midges the tribe Winnertziini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from lower Eocene Fushun amber from China

All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection Russian Academy of Science, Shosse Podbelskogo 3, St.-Petersburg – Pushkin, 196608, Russia


Laboratory of biocontrol, Professor, Dr. Sci. (Entomology), leading researcher

Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, B. Khmelnitskogo 15, Kiev, 01601, Ukraine, A.A. Borissiak Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Str. 123, Moscow, 117647, Russia
Department of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Scotland, Chambers St., Edinburgh EH1 1JF, UK


Principal Curator of Palaeobiology, Professor, PhD

Institute of Geosciences, University of Bonn, Bonn 53115, Germany, State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Fushuniola mai Rhipidoxylomyia China new taxa Palaearctic region new records biodiversity distribution fauna


The new taxon, Fushuniola mai Fedotova & Perkovsky, gen. et sp. nov., is described from a single female from the lower Eocene (Ypresian) Fushun amber from China. This is the second record of Cecidomyiidae known from Fushun amber. The first record is Cecidomyia bujunensis Naora. The new species is characterized by possessing flagellomeres with short neck and hair-shaped sensoria, very long mouth parts and palpi, wide head, short wings and very long apical lobes of ovipositor. It is distinctly different from all known Winnertziini by the very recurved vein R5 and very wide cells between veins C and R5. A diversity of gall midges from lower Eocene amber is presented. The new genus is close to the extant genus Rhipidoxylomyia, known from upper Eocene Rovno amber.


  1. Azar, D. & Nel, A. (2020) New Cecidomyiidae from the Lower Cretaceous Lebanese amber (Diptera). Palaeoentomology, 3 (5), 525–540.
  2. Dorchin, N., Harris, K.M. & Stireman, J.O., III (2019) Phylogeny of the gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiinae): systematics, evolution of feeding modes and diversification rates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 140, 1–15.
  3. Engel, M.S., Herhold, H.W., Davis, S.R., Wang, B. & Thomas, J.C. (2021) Stingless bees in Miocene amber of southeastern China (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Melittology, 105, 1–83.
  4. Evenhuis, N.L. (1994) Catalogue of the fossil flies of the world (Insecta: Diptera). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, 600 pp.
  5. Fedotova, Z.A. (2000) [Phytophagous gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) of deserts and mountains of Kazakhstan: morphology, biology, distribution, phylogeny, and taxonomy.] Samara: SamVen, Samara State Agricultural Academy, 804 pp. [In Russian]
  6. Fedotova, Z.A. (2014) Classification of the gall midge tribe Aphidoletini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae: Aphidoletidi) with descriptions of a new genus and a new species from the Kurile Islands. Entomological Review, 94 (7), 1031–1051.
  7. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2005) New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from the Rovno amber: subfamily Porricondylinae (tribes Bryocryptini and Winnertziini) and subfamily Lasiopterinae (tribes Brachineurini and Oligotrophini). Paleontological Journal, 39 (1), 41–51.
  8. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2008) New taxa of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from Dubrovitsa (Rovno amber). Vestnik Zoologii, 42 (1), 27–40.
  9. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2009) New gall midges of the tribe Leptosynini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from the Late Eocene ambers and the classification of the supertribe Heteropezidi. Paleontological Journal, 43 (9), 1101–1179.
  10. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2016a) New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyioidea) from Late Cretaceous amber of the Taimyr Peninsula. Paleontological Journal, 50 (9), 1001–1026.
  11. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2016b) A new genus and species of gall midges of the supertribe Heteropezidi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) found in Eocene amber from Sakhalin. Paleontological Journal, 50 (9), 1033–1037.
  12. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2017) New tribe, genus, and species of paedogenetic gall midges (Diptera, Lestremiidae: Krassiloviolini trib. nov.) from the late Cretaceous Taimyr amber. Paleontological Journal, 51 (5), 520–532.
  13. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2019) First findings of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyioidea, Cecidomyiidae) of the tribes Karshomyiini (Mexican amber) and Bremiini (Dominican amber). Paleontological Journal, 53 (10), 78–91.
  14. Fedotova, Z.A. & Perkovsky, E.E. (2020) Mesozoic gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyoidea) with a description of a new genus and species from the Santonian amber of Taimyr (Ugolyak). Paleontological Journal, 54 (12), 1400–1409.
  15. Fedotova, Z.A. & Sidorenko, V.S. (2007) New taxa of gall midges from tribes Porricondylini, Bryocryptini, Asynaptini and Winnertziini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from the Russian Far East. An International Journal of Dipterological Research, 18 (2), 69–103.
  16. Gagné, R.J. (1989) The plant-feeding gall midges of North America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, xi + 356 pp.
  17. Gagné, R.J. & Jaschhof, M. (2021) A catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the world. 5th Edition. Digital. 813 pp.
  18. Giłka, W., Zakrzewska, M., Baranov, V., Wang, B. & Stebner, F. (2016) The first fossil record of Nandeva Wiedenbrug, Reiss & Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae) in early Eocene Fushun amber from China. Alcheringa, An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 40 (3), 390–397.
  19. Grimaldi, D.A. & Ross, A.J. (2017) Extraordinary Lagerstätten in amber, with particular reference to the Cretaceous of Burma. In: Fraser, N.C. & Sues H.-D. (Eds), Terrestrial conservation Lagerstätten: windows into the evolution of life on land. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd, Edinburgh, pp. 287–342.
  20. Hong, Y.C. (1979) On Eocene Philolimnias gen. nov. (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) in amber from Fushun Coalfield, Liaoning Province. Scientia Sinica, 22 (5), 331–339.
  21. Hong, Y.C. (1981) Eocene fossil Diptera (Insecta) in amber of Fushun Coalfield. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, vi + 166 pp. [In Chinese]
  22. Hong, Y.C. (2002a) Amber insects of China. Beijing Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 653 pp. [In Chinese]
  23. Hong, Y.C. (2002b) Atlas of amber insects of China. Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House, Henan, 394 pp. [In Chinese]
  24. Hong, Y.C., Yang, T.C., Wang, S.T., Wang, S.E., Li, Y.K., Sun, M.R., Sun, H.C. & Tu, N.C. (1974) Stratigraphy and palaeontology of Fushun Coalfield, Liaoning Province. Acta Geologica Sinica, 2, 113–149.
  25. Huang, D.Y. & Zhang, Z.J. (2019) Deep mourning with the loss of Professor Youchong Hong—a pioneer palaeoentomologist of China. Palaeoentomology, 2 (4), 309–311.
  26. Jaschhof, M. (2021) A review of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) described from Mesozoic deposits. Palaeoentomology, 4 (1), 1–14.
  27. Jiang, Y.X. & Bu, W.J. (2004) Six new species of the genus Rhipidoxylomyia from China (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 29, 357–364.
  28. Kieffer, J.-J. (1913) Diptera. Fam. Cecidomyidae. Genera Insectorum, 152, 346 pp, 15 pls.
  29. Knor, S., Skuhravá, M., Wappler, T. & Prokop, J. (2013) Galls and gall makers on plant leaves from the lower Miocene (Burdigalian) of the Czech Republic: Systematic and palaeoecological implications. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 188, 38–51.
  30. Kovalev, V.G. (1990) [Diptera: Muscida]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, 239, 123–177. [In Russian]
  31. McAlpine, J.F., Peterson, B.V., Shewell, G.E., Teskey, H.J., Vockeroth, J.R. & Wood D.M. (coordinators) (1981) Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 1. Agriculture Canada Monograph, 27, 674 pp.
  32. Mamaev, B.M. (1964) [Gall midges of the USSR. 6. New species of the tribe Porricondylini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).] Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 43 (4), 894–913. [In Russian]
  33. Mamaev, B.M. & Krivosheina, N.P. (1965) [Larvae of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Comparative morphology, biology and keys.] Nauka, Moskow-Leningrad, 278 pp. [In Russian]
  34. Meunier, F. (1904) Monographie des Cecidomyiidae, Sciaridae, Mycetophilidae et Chironomidae de l’ambre de la Baltique. Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles, 28, pls. I–XVI, 12–275.
  35. Naora, N. (1933) [Notes on some fossil insects from East-Asiatic Continent, with descriptions of three new species.] Entomological World, 1, 208–219. [In Japanese]
  36. Nel, A. (2021) New Cecidomyiidae from the Lowermost Eocene French amber (Diptera). Palaeoentomology, 4 (6), 620–628.
  37. Nel, A. & Prokop, J. (2006) New fossil gall midges from the earliest Eocene French amber (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Geodiversitas, 28, 37–54.
  38. Newman, E. (1834) Attempted division of British insects into natural orders. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History: Zoology, Botany, and Geology, 2, 379–431.
  39. Panelius, S. (1965) A revision of the European gall midges of the subfamily Porricondylinae (Diptera: Itonididae). Acta Zoologica Fennica, 113, 1–157.
  40. Perkovsky, E.E. & Fedotova, Z.A. (2016) Rovnodiplosis eduardi gen. et sp. nov., the first record of a fossil gall midge of the supertribe Mycodiplosidi (Diptera, Cecidomyioidea, Cecidomyiidae) in the late Eocene of the Rovno amber. Paleontological Journal, 50 (9), 1027–1032.
  41. Perkovsky, E.E. & Fedotova, Z.A. (2017) The second Cretaceous gall midge genus of the tribe Diallactiini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from the Late Cretaceous Burmese amber. Vestnik Zoologii, 51 (2), 117–124.
  42. Perrichot, V. (2004) Early Cretaceous amber from south-western France: insight into the Mesozoic litter fauna. Geologica Acta, 2 (1), 9–22.
  43. Ping, C. (1931) On a blattoid insect in the Fushun amber. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, 11, 205–207.
  44. Plakidas, J.D. (2017) The wood midges (Diptera: Lestremiidae) of Allegheny County Pennsylvania. Loyalfield Publishing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 127 pp.
  45. Plakidas, J.D. (2018) Identification of the Porricondylinae and Winnertziinae larvae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae sensu stricto). Loyalfield Publishing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 4 color pls., 88 pp.
  46. Plakidas, J.D. (2019) New species and new distribution records of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from Allegheny County Pennsylvania. Loyalfield Publishing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 89 pp.
  47. Rappsilber, I. (2016) Fauna und Flora des Bitterfelder Bernsteinwaldes. Eine Auflistung der bis 2014 publizierten Organismentaxa aus dem Bitterfelder Bernstein. Ampyx-Verlag, Dr. Andreas Stark, Halle (Saale), 78 pp.
  48. Ross, A. (2014) Palaeontology: Chinese amber insects bridge the gap. Current Biology, 24 (14), R642–R643.
  49. Ross, A. & Sheridan, A. (2013) Amazing amber. National Museums Scotland, Enterprises Limited Publishing, Edinburgh, 48 pp.
  50. Schlüter, T. (1978) Zur Systematik und Palökologie harzkonservierter Arthropoda einer Taphozönose aus dem Cenomanium von NW-Frankreich. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 9, 1–181.
  51. Schmidt, A.R., Kaulfuss, U., Bannister, J.M., Baranov, V., Beimforde, C., Bleile, N., Borkent, A., Busch, A., Conran, J.G., Engel, M.S., Harvey, M., Kennedy, E.M., Kerr, P., Kettunen, E., Kiecksee, A.P., Lengeling, F., Lindqvist, J.K., Maraun, M., Mildenhall, D.C., Perrichot, V., Rikkinen, J., Sadowski, E.M., Seyfullah, L.J., Stebner, F., Szwedo, J., Ulbrich, P. & Lee, D.E. (2018) Amber inclusions from New Zealand. Gondwana Research, 56, 135–146.
  52. Ševčík, J., Kaspřák, D., Mantič, M., Fitzgerald, S., Ševčíková, T., Tóthová, A. & Jaschhof, M. (2016) Molecular phylogeny of the megadiverse insect infraorder Bibionomorpha sensu lato (Diptera). PeerJ, 4, e2563, 1–30.
  53. Sikora, T., Jaschhof, M., Mantič, M., Kaspřák, D. & Ševčík, J. (2019) Considerable congruence, enlightening conflict: molecular analysis largely supports morphology-based hypotheses on Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 185, 98–110.
  54. Skuhravá, M. (1997) Chapter 2.7. Family Cecidomyiidae. In: Papp, L. & Darvas, B. (Eds), Contribution to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance): Nematocera and Lower Brachycera. Vol. 2, Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 71–204.
  55. Stebner, F., Szadziewski, R. & Wang, B. (2016) Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Fushun amber reveal further biotic links between Asia and Europe during the Eocene. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.3.31A, 1–9.
  56. Szadziewski, R., Szwedo, J., Sontag, E. & Wang, B. (2016) The oldest species of the relic extant genus Mesochria from Eocene Fushun amber of China (Diptera: Anisopodidae: Mycetobiinae). Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.12A, 1–11.
  57. Tastás-Duque, R. (2000) Phylogenetic relationships within Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) as indicated by cladistic analyses. Paper V (manuscript). In: Ultrastructural and systematic studies of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). [PhD Thesis, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University], 1–23.
  58. Wang, W.L. (1993) Discovery of Eocene Aphis (Insect: Homoptera) in amber from Fushun, Liaoning Province, China. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 27–28, 175–182.
  59. Wang, Q., Ferguson, D.K., Feng, G.P., Ablaev, A.G., Wang, Y.F., Yang, J., Li, Y.L. & Li, C.S. (2010) Climatic change during the Palaeocene to Eocene based on fossil plants from Fushun, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 295, 323–331.
  60. Wang, B., Rust, J., Engel, M.S., Szwedo, J., Dutta, S., Nel, A., Fan, Y., Meng, F., Shi, G., Jarzembowski, E.A., Wappler, T., Stebner, F., Fang, Y., Mao, L., Zheng, D. & Zhang, H. (2014) A diverse paleobiota in early Eocene Fushun amber from China. Current Biology, 24, 1606–1610.
  61. Wang, B., Kathirithamby, J. & Engel, M.S. (2016) The first twisted-wing parasitoid in Eocene amber from northeastern China (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae). Journal of Natural History, 50, 1305–1313.
  62. Wang, B., Shi, G., Xu, C., Spicer, R.A., Perrichot, V., Schmidt, A.R., Feldberg, K., Heinrichs, J., Chény, C., Pang, H., Liu, X., Gao, T., Wang, Z., Ślipiński, A., Solórzano-Kraemer, M.M., Heads, S.W., Thomas, M.J., Sadowski, E.-M., Szwedo, J., Azar, D., Nel, A., Liu, Y., Chen, J., Zhang, Q., Zhang, Q., Luo, C., Yu, T., Zheng, D., Zhang, H. & Engel, M.S. (2021) The mid-Miocene Zhangpu biota reveals an outstandingly rich rainforest biome in East Asia. Science Advances, 7 (18): eabg0625, 1–7.
  63. Wang, B., Zhang, H.C. & Azar, D. (2011) The first Psychodidae (Insecta: Diptera) from the lower Eocene Fushun amber of China. Journal of Paleontology, 85 (6), 1154–1159.
  64. Zachos, J.C., Dickens, G.R. & Zeebe, R.E. (2008) An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature, 451, 279–283.
  65. Zhang, Q.Q., Nel, A., Azar, D. & Wang, B. (2016) New Chinese psocids from Eocene Fushun amber (Insecta: Psocodea). Alcheringa. An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 40 (3), 366–372.