Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2022-04-22

New Serphitidae and Gallorommatidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Microprocta) in the Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber

Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117647, Russia; Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK
Mazraat Yachouh, El-Maten, Lebanon
Conde de Torrecedeira 36, 5C Vigo, Pontevedra 36202, Spain
Faculty of Sciences II, Earth and Life Sciences Department, Lebanese University, PO box 26110217, Fanar, Matn, Lebanon; Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Insecta Hymenoptera Microprocta Serphitoidea Mymarommatoidea Microserphitinae Supraserphitinae fossil insects Lebanon lower Barremian


Three new serphitids (Microserphites libanensis sp. nov., Leptoserphites pabloi gen. et sp. nov. and Leptoserphites iriae gen. et sp. nov.) and a gallorommatid (Cretaceomma libanensis gen. et sp. nov.) from two different outcrops from the lower Barremian Lebanese amber are characterised, described, illustrated and their taxonomic positions are discussed. These serphitids and gallorommatid constitute the earliest records of these Cretaceous fossil families. Galloromma turolensis Ortega et al., 2011 is transferred to the genus Cretaceomma gen. nov.


  1. Arillo, A., Subías, L.S., Chaves Da Rocha, G. & Azar, D. (2019) First fossil oribatid mite from Lebanese amber (Acariformes, Oribatida, Neoliodidae). Palaeoentomology, 2 (6), 611–617.

  2. Azar, D. (1997) A new method for extracting vegetal and insect fossils from the Lebanese amber. Palaeontology, 40, 1027–1029.

  3. Azar, D. (2007) Preservation and accumulation of biological inclusions in Lebanese amber and their significance. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 6, 151–156.

  4. Azar, D. (2012) Lebanese amber: a “Guinness Book of Records”. Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis, 111, 44–60.

  5. Azar, D., Dejax, J. & Masure, E. (2011) Palynological analysis of amber-bearing clay from the Lower Cretaceous of Central Lebanon. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 85 (4), 942–949.

  6. Azar, D., Gèze, R. & Acra, F. (2010a) Chapter 14: Lebanese amber. In: Penney, D. (Ed.), Biodiversity of fossils in amber from the major World deposits. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester, pp. 271–298.

  7. Azar, D., Gèze, R., El-Samrani, A., Maalouly, J. & Nel, A. (2010b) Jurassic amber in Lebanon. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 84, 977–983.

  8. Azar, D. & Nel, A. (1998) Lebanese Lower Cretaceous amber. Meganeura, 2, 18–20.

  9. Azar, D., Nel, A., Solignac, M., Paicheler, J.-C. & Bouchet, F. (1999) New genera and species of phlebotomid and psychodid flies from the Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon (Insecta: Diptera: Phlebotomidae, Psychodidae). Palaeontology, 42 (6), 1101–1136.

  10. Azar, D., Perrichot, V., Néraudeau, D. & Nel, A. (2003) New psychodid flies from the Cretaceous ambers of Lebanon and France, with a discussion about Eophlebotomus connectens Cockerell, 1920 (Diptera, Psychodidae). Annals of the American Society of America, 96 (2), 117–127.[0117:NPFTCA]2.0.CO;2

  11. Azevedo, C.O. & Azar, D. (2012) A new fossil subfamily of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) from the Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber and its phylogenetic position. Zoologia, 29 (3), 210–218.

  12. Basibuyuk, H.H., Rasnitsyn, A.P., Fitton, M.G. & Quicke, D.L.J. (2002) The limits of the family Evaniidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and a new genus from Lebanese amber. Insect Systematic and Evolution, 33, 23–34.

  13. Brothers, D.J. & Rasnitsyn, A.P. (2003) Diversity of Hymenoptera and other insects in the Late Cretaceous (Turonian) deposits at Orapa, Botswana: a preliminary review. African Entomology, 11 (2), 221–226.

  14. Brues, C.T. (1937) Superfamilies Ichneumonoidea, Serphoidea, and Chalcidoidea. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series, 40, 27–44.

  15. Deans, A.R., Basibuyuk, H.H., Azar, D. & Nel, A. (2004) Descriptions of two new Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) ensign wasp genera (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) from Lebanese amber. Cretaceous Research, 25, 509–516.

  16. Debauche, H.R. (1948) Étude sur les Mymarommidae et les Mymaridae de la Belgique (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea). Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 108, 1–248, 24 pls.

  17. Engel, M.S. (2015) A new family of primitive serphitoid wasps in Lebanese amber (Hymenoptera: Serphitoidea). Novitates Palaeoentomologicae, 13, 1–22.

  18. Engel, M.S. & Grimaldi, D.A. (2006) The first Cretaceous sclerogibbid wasp (Hymenoptera: Sclerogibbidae). American Museum Novitates, 3515, 1–7.[1:TFCSWH]2.0.CO;2

  19. Engel, M.S. & Grimaldi, D.A. (2007) Cretaceous Scolebythidae and phylogeny of the family (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea). American Museum Novitates, 3568, p. 1–16.[1:CSAPOT]2.0.CO;2

  20. Gibson, G.A.P., Read, J. & Huber, J.T. (2007) Diversity, classification and higher relationships of Mymarommatoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 16, 51–146.

  21. Granier, B., Toland, C., Gèze, R., Azar, D. & Maksoud, S. (2016) Some steps toward a new story for the Jurassic–Cretaceous transition in Mount Lebanon. Carnets de Géologie, 16 (8), 247–269.

  22. Harris, R. (1979) A glossary of surface sculpturing. Occasional Papers in Entomology, 28, 1–31.

  23. Jell, P.A. (2004) Fossil insects of Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 50, 1–123.

  24. Johnson, N.F., Musetti, L. & Masner, L. (2008) The Cretaceous Scelionid genus Proteroscelio Brues (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidae). American Museum Novitates, 3603, 1–7.[1:TCSGPB]2.0.CO;2

  25. Kozlov, M.A. & Rasnitsyn, A.P. (1979) On the limits of the family Serphitidae (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 58 (2), 402–416. [In Russian, with English summary]

  26. Krogmann, L., Azar, D., Rajaei, H. & Nel, A. (2016) Mymaropsis baabdaensis sp. n. from Lower Cretaceous Lebanese amber–the first spathiopetrygid wasp and the first female known for the family. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 15, 483–487.

  27. Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. L. Salvii, Holmiae [= Stockholm], 824 pp.

  28. Maksoud, S. & Azar, D. (2020) Lebanese amber: latest updates. Palaeoentomology, 3 (2), 125–155.

  29. Maksoud, S., Azar, D., Granier, B. & Gèze, R. (2017) New data on the age of the Lower Cretaceous amber outcrops of Lebanon. Palaeoworld, 26 (2), 331–338.

  30. Maksoud, S., Maalouf, M., Maalouf, R. & Azar, D. (2021a) Baskinta and Bqaatouta: Two new early Barremian fossiliferous amber outcrops from Central Lebanon. Palaeoentomology, 4 (4), 367–373.

  31. Maksoud, S., Taleb, K. & Azar, D. (2019) Four new Lower Barremian amber outcrops from Northern Lebanon. Palaeoentomology, 2 (4), 333–339.

  32. Maksoud, S., Taleb, K. & Azar, D. (2021b) New early Barremian fossiliferous amber outcrop from North Lebanon. Palaeoentomology, 4 (1), 23–26.

  33. Maksoud, S., Zaidan, O.T. & Azar, D. (2021c) Kfar Selouan: A new early Barremian fossiliferous amber outcrop from Lebanon. Palaeoentomology, 4 (3), 257–265.

  34. Maksoud, S., Ziadé, K., Gèze, R. & Azar, D. (2020) New early Barremian amber outcrops from Central Lebanon. Palaeoentomology, 3 (4), 415–422.

  35. Mashimo, Y., Müller, P. & Beutel, R.G. (2019) Zorotypus pecten, a new species of Zoraptera (Insecta) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Zootaxa, 4651 (3), 565–577.

  36. Nel, A. & Azar, D. (2005) The oldest parasitic Scelionidae: Teleasinae (Hymernoptera: Platygastroidea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 74, 333–338.

  37. Nohra, Y., Azar, D., Gèze, R., Maksoud, S., El-Samrani, A. & Perrichot, V. (2013) New Jurassic outcrops from Lebanon. Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews, 6, 27–51.

  38. Olmi, M. (2000) New fossil Dryinidae from Baltic and Lebanese amber (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Frustula Entomologica, N.S., 21, 48–67.

  39. Olmi, M., Perkovsky, E.E., Martynova, K.V., Contarini, M., Bückle, C. & Guglielmino, A. (2020) An important intermediate step in the evolution of pincer wasps: an extraordinary new type of chela from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae). Cretaceous Research, 111, 104420.

  40. Ortega-Blanco, J., Peñalver E., Delclòs, X. & Engel, M.S. (2011a) False fairy wasps in Early Cretaceous amber from Spain (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatoidea). Palaeontology, 54 (3), 511–523.

  41. Ortega-Blanco, J., Delclòs, X., Peñalver, E. & Engel, M.S. (2011b) Serphitid wasps in Early Cretaceous amber from Spain (Hymenoptera: Serphitidae). Cretaceous Research, 32, 143–154.

  42. Ostin, T. (2007) 11.18 Hymenoptera: bees, wasps and ants. In: Martill, D.M., Bechly, G. & Loveridge, R.F. (Eds), The Crato Fossil Beds of Brazil. Window into an ancient World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge etc., 657 pp.

  43. Perrichot, V., Ortega-Blanco, J., McKellar, R.C, Delclòs, X., Azar, D., Nel, A., Tafforeau, P. & Engel, M.S. (2011) New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae). ZooKeys, 130, 421–453.

  44. Poinar, G.O. & Milki, R. (2001) Lebanese amber: the oldest insect ecosystem in fossilized resin. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon, 96 pp.

  45. Poropat, S.F., Martin, S.K., Tosolini, A.M.P., Wagstaff, B.E., Bean, L.B., Kear, B.P., Vickers-Rich, P. & Rich, T.H. (2018) Early Cretaceous polar biotas of Victoria, southeastern Australia–an overview of research to date. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 42 (2), 157–229.

  46. Prentice, M.A., Poinar, G.O. Jr. & Milki, R. (1996) Fossil scolebythids (Hymenoptera: Scolebythidae) from Lebanese and Dominican amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98, 802–811.

  47. Rasnitsyn, A.P., Bashkuev, A.S., Kopylov, D.S., Lukashevich, E.L., Ponomarenko, A.G., Popov, Yu.A., Rasnitsyn, D.A., Ryzhkova, O.V., Sidorchuk, E.A., Sukatsheva, I.D. & Voronskov, D.D. (2016) Sequence and scale of changes in the terrestrial biota during the Cretaceous (based on materials from fossil resins). Cretaceous Research, 61, 234–255.

  48. Rasnitsyn, A.P. & Öhm-Kühnle, C. (2018) Three new female Aptenoperissus from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea, Aptenoperissidae): Unexpected diversity of paradoxical wasps suggests insular features of source biome. Cretaceous Research, 91, 168–175.

  49. Rasnitsyn, A.P. & Öhm-Kühnle, C. (2019a) New serphitoid wasp Supraserphites draculi gen. et sp. nov. in Burmese amber (Hymenoptera, Serphitidae: Supraserphitinae). Cretaceous Research, 99, 46–50.

  50. Rasnitsyn, A.P. & Öhm-Kühnle, C. (2019b) Revision of the Cretaceous Proctotrupomorpha (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Australia. Cretaceous Research, 100, 91–96.

  51. Rasnitsyn, A.P. & Öhm-Kühnle, C. (2020) Two new species of Supraserphites (Hymenoptera, Serphitidae) in Burmese amber. Palaeoentomology, 3 (2): 158–162.