Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Correspondence
Published: 2023-08-28
Page range: 325–328
Abstract views: 262
PDF downloaded: 8

New record of Libanochlites neocomicus Brundin, 1976 from the lower Barremian amber outcrop of Bqaatouta, Lebanon

State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China; Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences II, Department of Life & Earth Sciences, Fanar, Lebanon
Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences II, Department of Life & Earth Sciences, Fanar, Lebanon
Mazraat Yachouh, El-Maten, Lebanon
New record lower Barremian amber


Amber, dubbed by Ross (1998, 2010) as a “natural time capsule”, is a fossil resin renowned for its remarkable preservation fidelity of biological inclusions. Its unique property to capture organisms in pristine condition has offered scientists the opportunity to access to some minute details permitting as such to better evaluate the evolutionary stages of different animal and vegetal groups, and to open a portal to past environments and ecological dynamics of early periods in the natural history of the Earth (Azar et al., 2010).


  1. Azar, D., Gèze, R. & Acra, F. (2010) Chapter 14: Lebanese amber. In: Penney, D. (Ed.), Biodiversity of fossils in amber. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester, pp. 271–298.
  2. Azar, D. & Nel, A. (2012) Evolution of hematophagy in “non-biting midges” (Diptera: Chironomidae). Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews, 5 (1), 15–34.
  3. Azar, D., Nel, A. & Gèze, R. (2003a) Use of Lebanese amber inclusions in paleoenvironmental reconstruction, dating and paleobiogeography. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 46 (suppl.—Fossil Insects), 393–398.
  4. Azar, D., Perrichot, V., Néraudeau, D. & Nel, A. (2003b) New psychodids from the Cretaceous ambers of Lebanon and France, with a discussion of Eophlebotomus connectens Cockerell, 1920 (Diptera, Psychodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96 (2), 117‒126.[0117:NPFTCA]2.0.CO;2
  5. Azar, D., Veltz, I. & Nel, A. (2008) Mandibulate chironomids: primitive or derived? (Diptera: Chironomidae). Systematic Entomology, 33 (4), 688–699.
  6. Brundin, L. (1976) A neocomian chironomid and Podonominae‐Aphroteniinae (Diptera) in the light of phylogenetics and biogeography. Zoologica Scripta, 5 (1–4), 139–160.
  7. Cai, C.Y. & Huang, D.Y. (2014) The oldest micropepline beetle from Cretaceous Burmese amber and its phylogenetic implications (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Naturwissenschaften, 101, 813–817.
  8. Fu, Y.Z., Li, Y.D., Su, Y.T., Cai, C.Y. & Huang, D.Y. (2021) Application of confocal laser scanning microscopy to the study of amber bioinclusions. Palaeoentomology, 4 (3), 266–278.
  9. Granier, B., Toland, C., Gèze, R., Azar, D. & Maksoud, S. (2016) Some steps toward a new story for the Jurassic—Cretaceous transition in Mount Lebanon. Carnets de Géologie [Notebooks on Geology], 16 (8), 247–269.
  10. Grimaldi, D.A. & Engel, M.S. (2005) Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 772 pp.
  11. Maksoud, S. & Azar, D. (2020) Lebanese amber: latest updates. Palaeoentomology, 3 (2), 125–155.
  12. Maksoud, S., Azar, D., Granier, B. & Gèze, R. (2017) New data on the age of the Lower Cretaceous amber outcrops of Lebanon. Palaeoworld, 26 (2), 331–338.
  13. Maksoud, S., Granier, B.R.C. & Azar, D. (2022) Palaeoentomological (fossil insects) outcrops in Lebanon. Carnets de Géologie [Notebooks on Geology], 22 (16), 699–743.
  14. Maksoud, S., Maalouf, M., Maalouf, R. & Azar, D. (2021) Baskinta and Bqaatouta: Two new early Barremian fossiliferous amber outcrops from Central Lebanon. Palaeoentomology, 4 (4), 367–373.
  15. Ross, A.J. (1998) Amber: The natural time capsule. Natural History Museum, London, 73 pp.
  16. Ross, A.J. (2010) Amber: The natural time capsule. Revised edition. Natural History Museum, Earth Science Publications, London, 112 pp.
  17. Veltz, I., Azar, D. & Nel, A. (2007) New chironomid flies in Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber (Diptera: Chironomidae). African Invertebrates, 48 (1), 169–191.