Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Problematode: an enigmatic new genus of Membracidae (Hemiptera) with two new species from Venezuela



The new Neotropical genus Problematode gen. nov. is described and illustrated to accommodate two new closely related species from the Coastal Montane Forests of Venezuela, P. sakakibarai sp. nov. and P. inerme sp. nov. Problematode gen. nov. appears to be closely related to Euwalkeria Goding on the basis of the reticulate venation of the forewing and lack of posterior pronotal processes, and to Smergotomia Dietrich and Smerdalea Fowler in the configuration of the anal veins of the forewing. The widely separated mid- and hind coxae, exposing the thoracic ventral sternites, and the fused mesothoracic trochanter and femur are unique features of these taxa, which are considered of uncertain position within Membracidae.



Hemiptera, conservation, Homoptera

Full Text:



Albertson, J.L. & Dietrich, C.H. (2005) Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 22 (1), 231–283.

Cryan, J.R. & Bartlett, C.R. (2002) A Redescription of the Caribbean Treehopper Genus Antillotolania Ramos (Hemiptera: Membracidae), with Two New Species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 95, 302–308.

Deitz, L.L. (1975) Classification of the higher categories of the New World Treehoppers (Homoptera: Membracidae). North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 225, 1–177.

Deitz, L.L. & Dietrich, C.H. (1993) Superfamily Membracoidea (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha). I. Introduction and revised classification with new family-group taxa. Systematic Entomology, 18, 287–286.

Dietrich, C.H. & Deitz, L.L. (1993) Superfamily Membracoidea (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha). II. Cladistic analysis and conclusions. Systematic Entomology, 18, 297–311.

Dietrich, C.H. (2008) Some remarkable new Neotropical treehoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Membracidae). Zootaxa, 1727, 29–38.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D’Amico, J.A., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Lamoreux, J.F., Ricketts, T.H., Itoua, I., Wettengel, W.W., Kura, Y., Hedao, P. & Kassem, K. (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: A new map of life on Earth. BioScience, 51 (11), 933–938.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 1175-5326 (Print Edition) & ISSN 1175-5334 (Online Edition)
Published by Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand