Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2018-12-20

The Relictus case: it is high time that taxonomists follow the Code’s requirements for nomenclatural availability and validity of new zoological nomina

Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité, ISYEB – UMR 7205 – CNRS, MNHN, UPMC, EPHE, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 30, 75005, Paris, France
Association RACINE, 5 allée des cygnes, 35750 Saint Maugan, France
Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité, ISYEB – UMR 7205 – CNRS, MNHN, UPMC, EPHE, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 30, 75005, Paris, France
Code nomenclatural availability electronic publication Zoobank diagnosis characters nomenclatural validity homonymy

Abstract

The new genus-series nomen Relictus, proposed by Sá et al. (2018) for a subgenus of the frog genus Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ, 1904, is unavailable for having been proposed [1] in a paper published online unregistered in Zoobank and [2] without a diagnosis stating in words characters purported to differentiate the taxon. Finally, it is also invalid for being a junior homonym of a generic nomen of fishes. Such mistakes are not new, many other similar ones having been published in the recent years. All taxonomists should give the proper attention to the nomenclatural Rules of the Code when proposing new nomina.

References

  1. Anonymous [International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature] (1999) International code of zoological nomenclature. ‘Fourth edition’. London (International Trust for zoological Nomenclature): i–xxix + 1–306.

    Anonymous [International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature] (2012) Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Bulletin of zoological Nomenclature, 69 (3): 161–169.

    Almendáriz C., A., Brito-M., J., Batallas, D., Vaca-Guerrero, J. & Ron, S. R. (2017) Una especie nueva de rana del género Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae: Gastrophryninae) de la Cordillera del Cóndor, Ecuador. Papéis avulsos de Zoologia, 57 (10): 119–136. <https://doi.org/10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.10>.

    Andersson, L. G. (1945) Batrachians from East Ecuador, collected 1937, 1938 by Wm. Clarke-Macintyre and Rolf Blomberg. Arkiv för Zoologi, 37A (2): 1–88.

    Batsch, A. J. G. C. (1788) Versuch einer Anleitung, zur Kenntniß und Geschichte der Thiere und Mineralien, für akademische Vorlesungen entworfen, und mit den nöthigsten Abbildungen versehen. Erster Theil. Allgemeine Geschichte der Natur; besondre der Säugthiere, Vögel, Amphibien und Fische. Jena (Akademische Buchhandlung): i–viii + 1–528, pl. 1–5. <https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.79854>.

    Batsch, A. J. G. C. (1796) Umriß der gesammten Naturgeschichte: ein Auszug aus den frühern Handbüchern des Verfassers für seine Vorlesungen. Jena & Leipzig (Christian Ernst Gabler): i–xvi + 1–287 + 3–160 + [1–32] + [i–vi] + 1–80.

    Bauer, A. M., Parham, J. F., Brown, R. M., Stuart, B. L., Grismer, L., Papenfuss, T. J., Böhme, W., Savage, J. M., Carranza, S., Grismer, J. L., Wagner, P., Schmitz, A., Ananjeva, N. B. & Inger, R. F. (2010) Availability of new Bayesian-delimited gecko names and the importance of character-based species descriptions. Proceedings of the royal Society, (B), Biological Sciences, 278 (1705): 490–492.

    Boettger, O. (1885) Liste von Reptilien und Batrachiern aus Paraguay. Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften, 58: 213–248.

    Bokermann, W. C. A. (1952) Microhylidae de coleçao do Departamento de Zoologia (Amphibia-Anura). Papéis avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, 10 (16): 271–292.

    Boulenger, G. A. (1888) A list of batrachians from the Province Santa Catharina, Brazil. Annals & Magazine of natural History, (6), 1: 415–417. <https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938809460758>.

    Canedo, C., Dixo, M. & Pombal, J. P., Jr. (2004) A new species of Chiasmocleis Mehelÿ, 1904 (Anura, Microhylidae) from the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia, Brazil. Herpetologica, 60 (4):495–501. <https://doi.org/10.1655/03-66>.

    Caramaschi, U. & Cruz, C. A. G. da (1997) Redescription of Chiasmocleis albopunctata (Boettger) and description of a new species of Chiasmocleis (Anura: Microhylidae). Herpetologica, 53 (2): 259–268.

    Caramaschi, U. & Cruz., C. A. G. (2001) A new species of Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ, 1904 from Brazilian Amazonia (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae). Boletim do Museu nacional, (Zoologia), 469: 1–8.

    Caramaschi, U. & Pimenta, B. V. S. (2003) Duas novas espécies de Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ, 1904, da Mata Atlântica do Sul da Bahia, Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae). Arquivos do Museu nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 61 (3): 195–202.

    Costa, E. M. da (1776) Elements of conchology: or, An introduction to the knowledge of shells. London (Benjamin White): i–viii + iii–vi + 1–318 + [i], pl. 1–7.

    Cruz, C. A. G., Caramaschi, U. & Freire, E. M. X. (1999) Occurrence of the genus Chiasmocleis (Anura: Microhylidae) in the State of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil, with a description of a new species. Journal of Zoology, 249: 123–126. <https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01065.x>.

    Cruz, C. A. G. da, Caramaschi, U. & Izecksohn, E. (1997) The genus Chiasmocleis Méhely, 1904 (Anura, Microhylidae) in the atlantic rain forest of Brazil, with description of three new species. Alytes, 15 (2): 49–71.

    Cruz, C. A. G., Caramaschi, U. & Napoli, M. F. (2007a) A new species of Chiasmocleis (Anura, Microhylidae) from the Atlantic rain forest of northeastern Bahia, Brazil. South American Journal of Herpetology, 2 (1): 47–51. <https://doi.org/10.2994/1808-9798(2007)2[47:ANSOCA]2.0.CO;2>.

    Cruz, C. A. G., Feio, R. N. & Cassini, C. S. (2007b) Nova espécie de Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ, 1904 (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae) da Serra da Maniqueira, Estado do Minas Gerais, Brasil. Arquivos do Museu nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 65 (1): 33–38.

    Dubois, A. (1999) Miscellanea nomenclatorica batrachologica. 19. Notes on the nomenclature of Ranidae and related groups. Alytes, 17 (1–2): 81–100.

    Dubois, A. (2000) Synonymies and related lists in zoology: general proposals, with examples in herpetology. Dumerilia, 4 (2): 33–98.

    Dubois, A. (2003) The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions. Comptes rendus Biologies, 326 (suppl. 1): S9–S21. <https://doi.org/10.1016/S1631-0691(03)00022-2>.

    Dubois, A. (2005) Proposed Rules for the incorporation of nomina of higher-ranked zoological taxa in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 1. Some general questions, concepts and terms of biological nomenclature. Zoosystema, 27 (2): 365–426.

    Dubois, A. (2006) Naming taxa from cladograms: a cautionary tale. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 42: 317–330. <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.06.007>.

    Dubois, A. (2007) Naming taxa from cladograms: some confusions, misleading statements, and necessary clarifications. Cladistics, 23: 390–402. <https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2007.00151.x>.

    Dubois, A. (2008) Phylogenetic hypotheses, taxa and nomina in zoology. In: A. Minelli, L. Bonato & G. Fusco (ed.), Updating the Linnaean heritage: names as tools for thinking about animals and plants, Zootaxa, 1950: 51–86.

    Dubois, A. (2011) The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature must be drastically improved before it is too late. Bionomina, 2: 1–104. <https://doi.org/10.11646/bionomina.2.1.1>.

    Dubois, A. (2012a) The distinction between introduction of a new nomen and subsequent use of a previously introduced nomen in zoological nomenclature. Bionomina, 5: 57–80. <https://doi.org/10.11646/bionomina.5.1.2>.

    Dubois, A. (2012b) New synonymies in the order Urodela Duméril, 1805 (Amphibia, Batrachia), with comments on the use of the formula ‘new taxon’ to designate new nomina. Zootaxa, 3563: 65–68.

    Dubois, A. (2013) Zygoidy, a new nomenclatural concept. Bionomina, 6: 1–25. <https://doi.org/10.11646/bionomina.6.1.1>.

    Dubois, A. (2015) The Duplostensional Nomenclatural System for higher zoological nomenclature. Dumerilia, 5: 1–108.

    Dubois, A. (2017) Diagnoses in zoological taxonomy and nomenclature. Bionomina, 12: 64–88. <https://doi.org/10.11646/bionomina.12.1.8>.

    Dubois, A. & Bour, R. (2010) The distinction between family-series and class-series nomina in zoological nomenclature, with emphasis on the nomina created by Batsch (1788, 1789) and on the higher nomenclature of turtles. Bonn zoological Bulletin, 57 (2): 149–171.

    Dubois, A., Bour, R. & Ohler, A. (2015a) What is an online ‘preliminary version’ of a publication in the meaning of Article 9.9 of the Code?—One more step on the trail of the Asian elephant. Bulletin of zoological Nomenclature, 72 (1): 6–18. <https://doi.org/10.21805/bzn.v72i1.a13>.

    Dubois, A., Bour, R. & Ohler, A. (2015b) Nomenclatural availability of preliminary electronic versions of taxonomic papers: in need of a clear definition. Bulletin of zoological Nomenclature, 72 (3): 252–265. <https://doi.org/10.21805/bzn.v72i3.a1>.

    Dubois, A., Crochet, P.-A., Dickinson, E. C., Nemésio, A., Aescht, E., Bauer, A. M., Blagoderov, V., Bour, R., de Carvalho, M. R., Desutter-Grandcolas, L., Frétey, T., Jäger, P., Koyamba, V., Lavilla, E. O., Löbl, I., Louchart, A., Malécot, V., Schatz, H. & Ohler, A. (2013) Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany. Zootaxa, 3735 (1): 1–94. <https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3735.1.1>.

    Dubois, A., Ohler, A. & Biju, S. D. (2001) A new genus and species of Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura) from south-western India. Alytes, 19 (2–4): 53–79.

    Dubois, A. & Raffaëlli, J. (2012) A new ergotaxonomy of the order Urodela Duméril, 1805 (Amphibia, Batrachia). Alytes, 28 (3–4): 77–161.

    Duellman, W. E. & Mendelson, J. R. (1995). Amphibians and Reptiles from northern departamento Loreto, Peru: taxonomy and biogeography. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 55 (10): 329–376. <https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.779>.

    Dunn, E. R. (1949) Notes on South American frogs of the family Microhylidae. American Museum Novitates, 1419: 1–21.

    Forlani, M. C., Tonini, J. F. R., Cruz, C. A. G., Zaher, H. & Sá, R. O. de (2017) Molecular and morphological data reveal three new cryptic species of Chiasmocleis (Mehely 1904) (Anura, Microhylidae) endemic to the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. PeerJ, 5 (e3005): 1–43.

    Fuhn, I. E. (1960) Amphibia. Fauna Republicii Populare Romîne, Bucuresti (Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne), 14 (1): 1–288.

    Funk, W. C. & Cannatella, D. C. (2009) A new, large species of Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ, 1904 (Anura: Microhylidae) from the Iquitos region, Amazonian Peru. Zootaxa, 2247: 37–50.

    Hubbs, C. L. & Miller, R. R. (1972) Diagnoses of new cyprinid fishes of isolated waters in the Great Basin of western North America. Transactions of the San Diego Society of natural History, 17 (8): 101–106.

    Kaiser, H., Crother, B. I., Kelly, C. M. R., Luiselli, L., O’Shea, M., Ota, H., Passos, P., Schleip, W. D. & Wüster, W. (2013) Best practices: in the 21st century, taxonomic decisions in herpetology are acceptable only when supported by a body of evidence and published via peer-review. Herpetological Review, 11 (1): 8–23.

    Krell, F.-T. (2015) A mixed bag: when are early online publications available for nomenclatural purposes? Bulletin of zoological Nomenclature, 72 (1): 19–32.

    Krügel, P. & Richter, S. (1995) Syncope antenori—a bromeliad breeding frog with free-swimming nonfeeding tadpoles (Anura: Microhylide). Copeia, 1995 (4): 955–963. <https://doi.org/10.2307/1447045>.

    Lima, A. P., Magnusson, W. E., Menin, M., Erdtmann, L. K., Rodrigues, D. J., Keller, C & Hödl, W. (2006) Guide to the frogs of Reserva Adolpho Ducke Central Amazonia. / Guia de sapos de Reserva Adolpho Ducke Amazônia Central. Manaus (Attema Design Editorial): 1–168.

    Miranda-Ribeiro, A. de (1920) Os Engystomatideos do Museu Paulista (com um genero e tres especies novos). Revista do Museu Paulista, 12 (2): 281–288, 2 pl.

    Morales, V. R. & McDiarmid, R. W. (2009) A new species of Chiasmocleis (Anura: Microhylidae) from southern Amazonian Peru with comments on some other microhylids. Biotempo, 9: 71–76.

    Moravec, J. & Köhler, J. (2007) A new species of Chiasmocleis (Anura: Microhylidae) from the Iquitos region, Amazonian Peru, with possible direct development. Zootaxa, 1605: 59–67.

    Nelson, C. E. (1975) Another new miniature 4-toed South American microhylid frog (genus: Syncope). Journal of Herpetology, 9 (1): 81–84. <https://doi.org/10.2307/1562693>.

    Ohler, A. & Dubois, A. (2012) Validation of two familial nomina nuda of Amphibia Anura. Alytes, 28 (3–4): 162–167.

    Ortega-Andrade, H. M. & Valencia, J. H. (2010) First country records of Pristimantis luscombei (Duellman and Mendelson) and Syncope tridactyla (Duellman and Mendelson) in eastern lowlands of Ecuador (Amphibia: Anura: Strabomantidae, Microhylidae). Herpetology Notes, 3: 251–256.

    Parker, H. W. (1940) Undescribed anatomical structures and new species of reptiles and amphibians. Annals & Magazine of natural History, (11), 5: 257–274. <https://doi.org/10.1080/00222934008527045>.

    Peloso, P. L. V. & Sturaro, M. J. (2008) A new species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Chiasmocleis Méhelÿ 1904 (Anura, Microhylidae) from the Amazonian rainforest of Brazil. Zootaxa, 1947: 39–52.

    Peloso, P. L. V., Sturaro, M. J., Forlani, M. C., Gaucher, P., Motta, A. P. & Wheeler, W. C. (2014) Phylogeny, taxonomic revision, and character evolution of the genera Chiasmocleis and Syncope (Anura, Microhylidae) in Amazonia, with descriptions of three new species. Bulletin of the American Museum of natural History, 386: 1–96, pl. 1–15. <https://doi.org/10.1206/834.1>.

    Prado, C. P. A. & Haddad, C. F. B. (2005) Size-fecundity relationships and reproductive investment in female frogs in the Pantanal, south-western Brazil. Herpetological Journal, 15 (3): 181–189.

    Rodríguez, L. O. & Duellman, W. E. (1994). Guide to the frogs of the Iquitos Region, Amazonian Peru. The University of Kansas, Special publication, 22: 1–80, pl. 1–12.

    Sá, R. O. de, Tonini, J. F. R., Huss, H. van, Long, A., Cuddy, T., Forlani, M. C., Peloso, P. L. V., Zaher, H. & Haddad, C. F. B. (2018) Multiple connections between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest shaped the phylogenetic and morphological diversity of Chiasmocleis Mehely, 1904 (Anura: Microhylidae: Gastrophryninae). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution, 130: 198–210. [Online publication unregistered in Zoobank]. <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.10.021>.

    Tonini, J. F. R., Forlani, M. C. & Sá, R. O. de (2014) A new species of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) from the Atlantic forest of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. ZooKeys, 428: 109–132. <https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.428.7352>.

    Tschudi, J. J., von (1838) Classification der Batrachier, mit Berücksichtigung der fossilen Thiere dieser Abtheilung der Reptilien. Neuchâtel (Petitpierre): 1–98, pl. 1–6 + [i–ii].

    Walker, C. F. (1973) A new genus and species of microhylid frog from Ecuador. Occasional Papers of the Museum of natural History, University of Kansas, 20: 1–7. <https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.21780>.

    Walker, C. F. & Duellman, W. E. (1974) Description of a new species of microhylid frog, Chiasmocleis, from Ecuador. Occasional Papers of the Museum of natural History, University of Kansas, 26: 1–6. <https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.4068>.