Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Articles
Published: 2006-03-23

Revision of the pentacrinid stalked crinoids of the genus Endoxocrinus (Echinodermata, Crinoidea), with a study of environmental control of characters and its consequences for taxonomy

Laboratoire des Sciences de la Terre, Université de Reims, CREA, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims, France, and UMR CNRS 5561 Biogéosciences
Laboratoire des Sciences de la Terre, Université de Reims, CREA, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims, France, and UMR CNRS 5561 Biogéosciences
Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center, 8000 North Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, Florida 33004, USA
Département des Environnements Aquatiques, Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France, and USM 0401-UMR CNRS 5178
Echinodermata Endoxocrinus Diplocrinus Annacrinus stalked crinoids biogeography phenotypes taxonomy

Abstract

A revision of the stalked crinoid species attributed to the genus Endoxocrinus A.H. Clark, 1908 (Diplocrininae, Pentacrinitidae, Crinoidea, Echinodermata) is conducted using studies on phenotype variation and its relation with environment. Specimens collected via submersible at five sites in the Bahamas exhibit distinct phenotypes that correlate with different apparent ecological niches and serve as references for interpreting specimens dredged in Atlantic and Pacific Oceans where detailed information on their benthic environment is unknown. Documentation of ecophenotypic convergences or divergences allows us to distinguish between adaptive characters and those revealing genetic affinities, and to discuss allopatric evolution and bathymetric zonation. The results suggest the following taxonomy: the genus Endoxocrinus is subdivided into two subgenera, i.e., Endoxocrinus A.H. Clark, 1908 and Diplocrinus Döderlein, 1912 (Annacrinus A. H. Clark, 1923 becomes a junior synonym of Diplocrinus); the subgenus Endoxocrinus is monospecific with E. (E.) parrae [Gervais (in Guérin, 1835)] from the western tropical Atlantic; the subgenus Diplocrinus includes E. (D.) alternicirrus (Carpenter, 1882) from the western and central Pacific, E. (D.) maclearanus (Thomson, 1872) from the western tropical Atlantic, and E. (D.) wyvillethomsoni (Jeffreys, 1870) from the northeastern Atlantic. Endoxocrinus (E.) parrae includes three subspecies adapted to different habitats and depths: E. (E.) parrae parrae usually in 154–518 m with moderate to high current velocity and moderate turbulence to laminar flow, E. (E.) parrae carolinae (A.H. Clark, 1934) in 504–724 m with moderate current velocity and high turbulence, and E. (E.) parrae prionodes H.L. Clark, 1941 in 402–832 m with high current velocity in laminar flow. E. (D.) alternicirrus includes two subspecies, E. (D.) alternicirrus alternicirrus in 625–1476 m and E. (D.) alternicirrus sibogae (Döderlein, 1907) usually in 364–800 m. E. (D.) maclearanus has a depth range of 432–878 m and occurs as a dwarf variety minimus n. var. in high current velocities and high turbulence. E. (D.) wyvillethomsoni from depths of 1214–2070 m lives on various substrates under a variety of hydrodynamic conditions.

References

  1. Agassiz J.L.R. (1836) Prodrome d’une monographie des Radiaires ou Echinodermes. Société de Sciences naturelles de Neuchâtel, Mémoires, 1, 168–199.

    Améziane N., Eléaume M. & Min Chao S. (2006) New record of stalked crinoid fauna (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) from Taïwan. Systematics and Biodiversity, in press

    Améziane N. & Roux M. (1997) Biodiversity and historical biogeography of stalked crinoids (Echinodermata) in the deep sea. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6, 1557–1570.

    Améziane N. & Roux M. (2005) Environmental control versus phylogenic fingerprint in ontogeny : the example of the development of the stalk in the genus Guillecrinus (stalked crinoids, Echinodermata). Natural History, 39 (30) : 2815–2860.

    Améziane-Cominardi N. (1991) Distribution bathymétrique des pentacrines du Pacifique occidental. Essai de modélisation et d’application aux faunes du Lias (problèmes de tectono-eustatisme au cours du rifting téthysien). Documents du Laboratoire de Géologie, Lyon, 116, 1–253.

    Améziane-Cominardi N. & Roux M. (1994) Ontogenèse de la structure en mosaïque du squelette des crinoïdes pédonculés actuels. Conséquences pour la biologie évolutive et la taxonomie. In David B., Guille A., Feral, J.P. & Roux M. (Ed.), Echinoderms through Time. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 185–190.

    Ausich W.I. (1980) A model for niche differentiation in Lower Mississipian crinoid communities. Journal of Paleontology, 54, 273–288.

    Barrier P., Di Geronimo I., Montenat C., Roux M. & Zibrowius H. (1989) Présence de faunes bathyales atlantiques dans le Pliocène et le Pléistocène de Méditerranée (détroit de Messine, Italie). Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 8, 5, 787–796.

    Bather F.A. (1898) Pentacrinus: a name and its history. Natural science, 12, 245.

    Baumiller, T.K. & Rome, E.F. (1998) The interference avoidance hypothesis and the spatial distribution of Endoxocrinus parrae (Crinoidea, Echinodermata). In Mooi, R. & Telford, M. (Ed.), Echinoderms: San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam, 133–137.

    Blumenbach, 1804 Abbildungen naturhistorischer Gegenstände. Göttingen, 7, 70, 4 pp.

    Bourseau J.P., Améziane-Cominardi N., Avocat, R. & Roux M. (1991) Echinodermata : Les crinoïdes pédonculés de Nouvelle-Calédonie. In Crosnier, A. (Ed.), Résultats des campagnes Musorstom, 8, Mémoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, A, 151, 229–333.

    Bourseau J.P., Cominardi N. & Roux M. (1988) La zonation bathymétrique des crinoïdes pédonculés actuels: un modèle de référence pour les reconstitutions paléobathymétriques. Géologie Méditerranéenne, Marseille, 15, 1, 83–89.

    Bourseau J.P. & Roux M. (1989) Echinodermes : Crinoïdes Pentacrinidae (Musorstom 2 & Corindon 2). In : Forest, J. (Ed.), Résultats des campagnes Musorstom, 4, Mémoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, A,143, 113–201.

    Carpenter P.H. (1882) The stalked crinoids of the Caribbean Sea. In: Reports on the results of dredging under the supervision of Alexander Agassiz, in the gulf of Mexico (1877–78), and in the Carribbean Sea (1878–79), by the U.S. Coast Survey Steamer “Blake”, Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, USA, 10, 4, 165–181.

    Carpenter P.H. (1884) Report upon the crinoidea collected during the voyage of H.M.S. “Challenger” during the years 1873–1876, Part I, General morphology, with description of the stalked crinoids, 11, 1–442.

    Clark A.H. (1908a) The crinoid genus Comatula Lamarck, with a note on the Encrinus parrae of Guérin. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, 33, 1585, 683–688.

    Clark A.H. (1908b) Two new crinoid genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 21, 149–152.

    Clark A.H. (1909) Description of seventeen new species of recent crinoids. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, 36, 633–651.

    Clark A.H. (1910) Proisocrinus, a new genus of recent crinoids. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, 38, 387–390.

    Clark A.H. (1912) The crinoids of the Indian Ocean. Echinodermata of the Indian Museum, Part VII, Crinoidea, Calcutta, 325 pp.

    Clark A.H. (1923) A revision of the recent representatives of the crinoid family Pentacrinidae, with the diagnoses of two new genera. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 13, 1, 8–12.

    Clark A.H. (1934) Two new crinoids. Report on the collections obtained by the first Johnson-Smithsonian deep-sea expedition to the Puerto Rican deep. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Washington , 91, 4, 1–5.

    Clark H.L. (1941) Reports on the scientific results of the Atlantis expeditions to the West Indies under the joint auspices of the University of Havana and Harvard University. Memorias del Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural “Felipe Poey”, 15, 1, 1–154.

    Conan G., Roux M. & Sibuet M. (1981) A photographic survey of a population of the stalked crinoid Diplocrinus (Annacrinus) wyvillethomsoni (Echinodermata) from the bathyal slope of the Bay of Biscay. Deep-sea Research, 28A, 5, 441–453.

    David J. (1998) Adaptation morphologique, croissance et production bioclastique chez les crinoïdes pédonculés actuels et fossiles (Pentacrines et Millericrinina). Application paléoécologique aux gisements du Jurassique supérieur des Charentes et du Nord-Est du Bassin de Paris. Thèse, Université de Reims, Sciences de la Terre, 2 vol., 551 pp.

    David J., Messing C.G., Baumiller T., Améziane N. & Roux M. (1998) Mesures directes et modélisation de la croissance rapide d’un crinoïde pédonculé bathyal (Echinodermata) au large des Bahamas. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, 3, 321, 771–775.

    David J. & Roux M. (2000) Convergence phénotypique chez les pentacrines Endoxocrinus et Diplocrinus (Crinoïdes pédonculés, Echinodermes) liées aux contraintes environnementales. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Vie, 323, 281–286.

    Döderlein L. (1907) Die gestielten Crinoiden der Siboga-Expedition: Siboga expeditie. Uitkomsten op zoologish, botanish, oceanographish Oost-Indie (1899–1900), Leiden, 42a, 1–54.

    Döderlein L. (1912) Die gestielten Crinoiden der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. Wissenschaftl. Ergebnisse deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition auf dem Dampfer “Valvidia“ (1898–1899), Gustav Fisher (Ed.) Jena, 17, 1, 1–34.

    Donovan S.K. (2001) Evolution of Caribbean echinoderms during the Cenozoic : moving towards a complete picture using all the fossils. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Paleoecology, 166, 177–192.

    Featherstone, C. M., Messing, C.G. & McClintock, J. B. (1998) Dietary composition of two bathyal stalked crinoids: Neocrinus decorus and Endoxocrinus parrae (Echinodermata: Crinoidea: Isocrinidae). In: Mooi, R. & Telford, M. (Ed.) Echinoderms: San Francisco. Balkema, Rotterdam, 155–160.

    Foote M. (1997) Sampling, taxonomic description and out evolving knowledge of morphological diversity. Paleobiology, 23, 2: 181–206.

    Gervais F.L.P. (1835) Encrines. In: Guérin, Dictionnaire pittoresque d’histoire naturelle et des phénomènes de la nature, Lenormand (Ed.), Paris, 3, 48–49.

    Gislèn T. (1924) Echinoderm studies. Zoologiska bidrag fran Uppsala, 9, 1–316.

    Gould S.J. (1977) Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 501 pp.

    Gray J.E. (1842) Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum. 44th ed., London, 308 pp.

    Guettard, J.E. (1761) Mémoire sur les Encrinites et les pierres Etoilées, dans lequel on traitera aussi des Entroques. Mémoires de Mathématique et de Physique tirés des Registres de l’Académie Royale des Sciences de l’année MDCCLV, Paris, 224–263.

    Jeffreys G.J. (1870) Preliminary report of the scientific exploration of the deep-sea in H.M.S. “Porcupine” during the summer of 1869. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 19, 157.

    Koehler R. & Vaney C. (1910) Note préliminaire sur les crinoïdes du « Travailleur » et du « Talisman ». Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 16, 26–32.

    Kogo I. (1998) Crinoids from Japan and adjacent waters. Special Publications from Osaka Museum of Natural History, 30, 1–148.

    Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de M. de. (1816) Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Paris, 2, 568 pp.

    Leaman, K.D., Molinari, R.L. & Vertes, P.S. (1987) Structure and variability of the Florida Current at 27oN: April 1982–July 1984. Journal of Physical Oceanogaphy., 17, 5, 565–583.

    Linnaeus, C. (1767) Systema Naturae. 12th ed., 1, Part 2, Laurentius Salvius, Holmiae, Stockholm, 533–1327.

    Llewellyn G. & Messing C.G. (1993) Compositional and taphonomic variations in modern crinoid-rich sediments from the deep-water margin of a carbonate bank. Palaios, 8, 554–573.

    Lütken C. (1865) On Vestindiens Pentacriner, med nogle Bemaerkninger om Pentacriner og Sölilier i Almindelighed. Videnskabelige Meddellser gra den Danske naturhistorisk Forening i Kjöbenhavn, 13–16, 195–245.

    Macurda D.B. & Meyer D.L. (1974) Feeding posture of modern stalked crinoids. Nature, 247, 394–396.

    Macurda D.B. & Meyer D.L. (1975) The microstructure of the crinod endoskeleton. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 74, 1–22.

    Macurda D.B. & Meyer D.L. (1976) The identification and interpretation of stalked crinoids (Echinodermata) from deep-water photographs. Bulletin of Marine Science, 26, 2, 205–215.

    Macurda D.B., Meyer D.L. & Roux M. (1978) The crinoid stereom. In: Moore, R.C. & Teichert, C., Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology, Part T, 1, Echinodermata 2, Geological Society of America (Ed.), Boulder, and University of Kansas, Lawrence, T217–229.

    Macurda D.B. & Roux M. (1981) The skeletal morphology of the isocrinid crinoids Annacrinus wyvillethomsoni and Diplocrinus maclearanus. Contribution from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 25, 9, 169–219.

    McKinney M.L. (1988) Heterochrony in Evolution. A multidisciplinary approach. Topics in Geobiology, Plenum Press, New York, 7, 348 pp.

    McNamara K.J. (1995) Evolutionary change and heterochrony. John Wiley & Sons, 286 pp.

    Messing C.G. (1985) Submersible observations of deep-water crinoid assemblages in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean. In: Keegan, B.F. & O’Connor, B.D.S. (Ed.), Echinodermata, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 185–193.

    Messing C.G. (1993) Depth, current flow and morphological variations among living crinoids. Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Abstracts, 25, 6, 104.

    Messing C.G. (1994a) Crinoid meadows of the West Indies: distribution, response to flow, disarticulation, sediment production and taphonomy. In: David, B., Guille, A., Feral, J.P. & Roux, M. (Ed.), Echinoderms through Time. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 245.

    Messing, C.G. (1994b) In situ stalk growth and sediment production rates in a living stalked crinoid (Chladocrinus decorus) (Echinodermata). Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Abstracts, 26, 7:A428.

    Messing C.G. (2001) Stalk growth rates of Isocrinidae: a summary of a decade of in situ experiments. In: Baker, M. (Ed.), Echinoderms 2000, Sweets & Zellinger, Lisse : 125.

    Messing C.G. (2004) Biozonation on deep-water carbonate mounds and associated hardgrounds along the western margin of Little Bahama Bank, with notes on the Caicos Platform island slope. In: Lewis, R.D. & Panuska, B.C. (Ed.), 11th Symposium on the Geology of the Bahamas and other Carbonate Regions, Gerace Research Center, San Salvador, Bahamas, 107–115.

    Messing C.G., RoseSmyth C., Mailer S.R. & Miller J.E. (1988) Relocation movement in a stalked crinoid (Echinodermata). Bulletin of Marine Science, 42, 3, 480–487.

    Messing C.G. & Lewellyn G. (1991) Variations in posture, morphology and distribution relative to current flow and topography in an assemblage of living stalked crinoids. Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Abstracts, 23, 5, 343–344.

    Messing C.G., Neumann A.C. & Lang J.C. (1990) Biozonation of deep-water lithoherms and associated hardgrounds in the Northeastern Straits of Florida. Palaios, 5, 15–33.

    Meyer D.L., Messing C.G. & D.B. Macurda (1978) Zoogeography of tropical western Atlantic Crinoidea (Echinodermata). Bulletin of Marine Science, 28, 3, 412–441.

    Meyer H. von (1836) Mittheilungen an Professor Bronngerchtet. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, 55–61.

    Miller J.S. (1821) A natural history of crinoidea or lily-shaped animals with observations on the genera Asteria, Euryale, Comatula and Marsupites. Frost (Ed.), Bristol, 150 pp.

    Müller J. (1843) Uber den Bau des Pentacrinus caput-medusae. Abhandlungen Der Königer Akademie Der Wissenscghaften, 177–248.

    Neumann, A.C., Kofoed, J.W. & Keller, G.H. (1977) Lithoherms in the Straits of Florida, Geology, 5, 1, 4–10.

    New T.R. (1999) Descriptive taxonomy as a facilitating discipline in invertebrate conservation. In: Ponder, W. & Lunney, D. (Ed.). The other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates, Mosma, Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 154–158.

    Oersted (1857) Efter at nogle Skrive eller Trykfeil ere rettede, lyder Diagnosen saaledes. Skand. Naturforsk, 7de Möde i Christiana, Forhandlung, 202–203.

    Oji T. (1989) Distribution of the stalked crinoids from Japanese and nearby waters. In: Science and Culture, University Museum, University of Tokyo, 27–43.

    Oji T. (1990a) Dimorphism and geographic distribution of two phenotypes of a west Atlantic stalked crinoid Endoxocrinus parrae (Gervais). Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, new series, 159, 603–606.

    Oji T. (1990b) Miocene Isocrinidae (stalked crinoids) from Japan and their biogeographic implication. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, new series, 157, 412–429.

    Oji T. (1996) Is predation intensity reduced with increasing depth? Evidence from the west Atlantic stalked crinoid Endoxocrinus parrae (Gervais) and implications for the Mesozoic marine revolution. Paleobiology, 22, 3: 339–351.

    Orbigny A. d’ (1851) Cours élémentaire de paléontologie et de géologie stratigraphique. Masson (Ed.), Paris, 2, 1, 382 pp.

    Parra A. (1787) Decripcion de differentes piezas de historia natural las mas del ramo maritimo, representadas en sententa y cinco laminas, Cuba, 191 pp.

    Rasmussen H.W. (1961) A monograph on cretaceous Crinoidea. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Skrifter, 12, 1, 1–428.

    Rasmussen H.W. & Sieverts-Doreck H. (1978) Articulata, Classification. In: Moore, R.C. & Teichert, C., Treatise on invertebrate palaeontology, Part T, Echinodermata 2, Geological Society of America (Ed.), Boulder, Colorado and Univiversity of Kansas, Lawrence, T813–928.

    Rodgers A.D. (1994) The biology of seamounts. Advance in Marine Biology, 40, 305–350.

    Roux M. (1970) Introduction à l’étude des microstructures des tiges de crinoïdes. Géobios, Lyon, 3, 3, 79–98.

    Roux M. (1976) Aspects de la variabilité et de la croissance au sein d’une population de la pentacrine actuelle: Annacrinus wyvillethomsoni Jeffreys (Crinoidea). Thallassia Jugoslavica, 12, 1, 307–320.

    Roux M. (1977) The stalk-joints of recent Isocrinidae (Crinoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 32, 3, 45–64.

    Roux M. (1978) Ontogenèse et évolution des crinoïdes pédonculés depuis le Trias. Implications océanographiques. Thèse d’état - Université Paris-Sud (centre d’Orsay), 167 pp.

    Roux M. (1980) Découverte de sites à Crinoïdes pédonculés (genres Diplocrinus et Proisocrinus) au large de Tahiti. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, D, 290, 119–122.

    Roux M. (1981) Echinodermes: Crinoïdes Isocrinidae. In: Forest, J. (Ed.), Résultats des Campagnes Musortom I - Philippines (18–28 mars 1976). Mémoires O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, 91, 477–543.

    Roux M. (1987) Evolutionary ecology and biogeography of recent stalked crinoids as a model for the fossil record. In: Jangoux, M. & Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.), Echinoderm Studies. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2, 1–53.

    Roux M., Améziane N. & David J. (1997) Compromis adaptatifs et ontogenèse chez les Crinoïdes pédonculés. Géobios, Lyon, Mémoires Spéciaux, 21, 319–327.

    Roux M., Messing C.G. & Améziane N. (2002) Artificial keys to the genera of living stalked crinoids (Echinodermata). Bulletin of Marine Science, 70, 3, 799–830.

    Roux M. & Plaziat J.C. (1978) Inventaire des crinoïdes et interprétation paléobathymétrique de gisements du Paléogène pyrénéen franco-espagnol. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 7, 20, 299–308.

    Sieverts-Doreck H. (1971) Über Chladocrinus Agassiz (Isocrinidae) und die nomenklatorishe Verankerung dieser Gattung. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie, Paläontologie, Monatsh., 34–320.

    Simms M.J. (1988) The phylogeny of post paleozoic crinoids. In: Paul, C.R.C. & Smith, A.B. (Ed.), Echinoderm phylogeny and evolutionary biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 269–284.

    Tommasi L.R. (1969) Nova contribuceao a lista dos crinoides recentes do Brasil. Contrubucoes Instituto Oceanografico Univiversidade Sao Paulo, Oceanografia Biologica, 17, 1–8.

    Tommasi L.R. (1971) Equinodermos da regiao entre o Amapa (Brasil) e a Florida (E.U.A.). Crinoidea. Contrubucoes Instituto Oceanografico Univiversidade Sao Paulo, Oceanografia Biologica, 23, 1–8.

    Thomson C.W. (1864) Sea lilies. The Intellectual Observer, 6, 1–11.

    Thomson C.W. (1872a) The depths of the sea. London, 442 pp.

    Thomson C.W. (1872b) On the crinoids of the “Porcupine” deep sea dredging expedition. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 7, 764–773.

    Thomson C.W. (1877) The Atlantic. A preliminary account of the general results of the exploring voyage of H.M.S. “Challenger” (1873–1876), 2, London, 123–126.

    Webster G.D. & Jell P.A. (1999) New Permian crinoids from Australia. Memoirs Queensland Museum, 43, 1, 279–339.