Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2009-02-20

Antarctic holothuroids from the Bellingshausen Sea, with descriptions of new species (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

Marine Science Department, Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne 3001, Australia
Animal Biology Department. Science Faculty. University of Malaga. Campus de Teatinos s/n. 29071-Malaga. Spain
Spanish Oceanographic Institute. Oceanographic centre of Malaga. Puerto Pesquero s/n. 29640-Fuengirola.Malaga. Spain
Echinodermata Bentart Dendrochirotida Myriotrochidae new genus new species synonymies generic referrals


Three new species of holothuroids from the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea are described, with O’Loughin & Manjón-Cabeza as authors: dendrochirotids Cucumaria dudexa sp. nov., Psolicrux iuvenilesi sp. nov.; myriotrochid Myriotrochus hesperides sp. nov. Parathyonidium incertum Heding is discussed. Two synonymies for Antarctic holothuroids are formalised: Caespitugo citriformis Gutt is a junior synonym of Thyone scotiae Vaney; Caespitugo diversipes Gutt is a junior synonym of Cucumaria psolidiformis Vaney. Cucumaria armata Vaney is removed from inclusion in the Cucumaria georgiana (Lampert) group, and is a junior synonym of Cucumaria psolidiformis Vaney. A synonymy of Cucumaria aspera Vaney with Psolidium (Cucumaria) coatsi Vaney is rejected; Cucumaria aspera Vaney is referred to the Cucumaria georgiana (Lampert) group. Cucumaria conspicua Vaney is removed from synonymy with Psolidium (Cucumaria) coatsi Vaney, and is a junior synonym of Cucumaria psolidiformis Vaney. Thyone scotiae Vaney is referred to Crucella Gutt. Caespitugo Gutt is a junior synonym of Crucella Gutt. A new genus Cucamba O’Loughlin is erected; Cucumaria psolidiformis Vaney is referred to Cucamba O’Loughlin. A synonymy of Staurocucumis grandis (Vaney) with Staurocucumis turqueti (Vaney) is confirmed. The referral of Pseudocolochirus mollis Ludwig & Heding to Psolidiella Mortensen is confirmed. Lists of contemporary synonymies for Antarctic holothuroid species and generic referrals for Antarctic dendrochirotid species are provided. A table of holothuroid species collected from the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea by the Spanish BENTART–2003 and BENTART–2006 cruises is provided.


  1. Cherbonnier, G. (1941) Note sur Cucumaria spatha n. nom. (= C. grandis Vaney) et Cucumaria turqueti Vaney (Holothuries). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, 2 (13) 6, 571–574.

    Cherbonnier, G. (1974) Invertébrés marins des XIIème et XVème expéditions antarctiques Françaises en Terre Adélie. 15. Holothurides. Tethys, 5 (4), 601–610.

    Ekman, S. (1925) Holothurien. Further zoological results of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901–1903, 1 (6), 1–194.

    Ekman, S. (1927) Holothurien der deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901–1903 aus der Ostantarktis und von den Kerguelen. Deutsche Südpolar-Expedition, 19 (Zoology 11), 359–419.

    Gage, J.D. & Billett, D.M.S. (1986) The family Myriotrochidae Théel (Echinodermata: Holothurioidea) in the deep northeast Atlantic Ocean. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 88, 229–276.

    Gebruk, A. & Shirshov, P.P. (1994) Revision of two deep-sea holothurian genera Psychrelpidia Hérouard, 1923 and Rhipidothuria Hérouard, 1901 (Elpidiidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 91, 147–154.

    Gutt, J. (1988) Zur Verbreitung und Ökologie der Seegurken (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) im Weddellmeer (Antarktis). Berichte zur Polarforschung, 41, 1–87.

    Gutt, J. (1990) New Antarctic holothurians (Echinodermata) —I. Five new species with four new genera of the order Dendrochirotida. Zoologica Scripta, 19 (1), 119–127.

    Gutt, J. (1991) Are Weddell Sea holothurians typical representatives of the Antarctic benthos? Meeresforschung, 33 (4), 312–329.

    Hansen, B. (1988) The genus Staurocucumis Ekman and its possible affinity with Echinocucumis Sars (Holothuroidea, Dendrochirota). In: Burke, R.D., Mladenov, P.V., Lambert, P. & Parsley, R.I. (Eds.), Echinoderm Biology. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 301–308.

    Heding, S.G. (1942) Holothurioidea. II. Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 4 (13), 1–39, pls 1–2.

    Heding, S.G. & Panning, A. (1954) Phyllophoridae. Eine bearbeitung der polytentaculaten dendrochiroten holothurien des zoologischen museums in Kopenhagen. Spolia Zoologica Musei Hauniensis, 13, 1–209.

    Hérouard, E. (1901) Note préliminaire sur les holothuries rapportées par l’Expédition Antarctique Belge. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale 3 (9) Notes et Revue, 3 (7), 39–48.

    Lampert, K. (1885) Die Seewalzen. Holothurioidea. Eine Systematische Monographie. In: Semper, C. (Ed.), Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen, 4 (3), 1–310, 1 pl.

    Lampert, K. (1886) Die Holothurien von Süd-Georgien nach der Ausbeute der Deutschen Polarstation in 1882 und 1983. Jahrbuch Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten, 3, 11–22.

    Ludwig, H. (1898) Holothurien. Ergebnisse der Hamburger Magalhaensischen Sammelreise 1892/93, 1, 1–98, 3 pls.

    Ludwig, H. & Heding, S.G. (1935) Die holothurien der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. 1. Fusslose und dendrochirote formen. Wissenschaftliche Ergeb-nisse der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf dem dampfer Valdivia 1898–1899, 24, 123–214.

    Massin, Cl. (1992) Three new species of Dendrochirotida (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 62, 179–191.

    Massin, C. (1994) Ossicle variation in Antarctic dendrochirote holothurians (Echinodermata). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 64, 129–146.

    Mortensen, T. (1925a) Echinoderms of New Zealand and the Auckland–Campbell Islands. III–V. Asteroidea, Holothurioidea, Crinoidea. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening i Kobenhavn, 79 (29), 261–420, text figs 1–70, pls 12–14.

    Mortensen, T. (1925b) On a small collection of echinoderms from the Antarctic Sea. Arkiv för Zoologi, 17A (31), 12, 8 figs.

    O'Loughlin, P.M. (2000) A review of the cucumariid genus Psolidiella Mortensen (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea). Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 58 (1), 25–37.

    O'Loughlin, P.M. (2002) Report on selected species of BANZARE and ANARE Holothuroidea, with reviews of Meseres Ludwig and Heterocucumis Panning (Echinodermata). Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 59 (2), 297–325.

    O’Loughlin, P.M. & Ahearn, C. (2008) Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic species of Psolidium Ludwig (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Psolidae). Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 65, 23–42.

    O’Loughlin, P.M., Bardsley, T.M. & O’Hara, T.D. (1994) A preliminary analysis of diversity and distribution of Holothurioidea from Prydz Bay and the MacRobertson Shelf, eastern Antarctica. In: David, B., Guille, A., Féral, J-P. & Roux, M. (Eds.), Echinoderms through Time. Proceedings of the Eighth International Echinoderm Conference, Dijon, France, 6–10 September, 1993. Balkema: Rotterdam, pp. 549–555, 1 fig., 2 tables.

    Panning, A. (1949) Versuch einer Neuordnung der Familie Cucumariidae (Holothurioidea, Dendrochirota). Zoologische Jahrbücher Abtheilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere, 78, 404–470.

    Panning, A. (1955) Bemerkungen über die Holothurien-Familie Cucumariidae (Ordnung Dendrochirota). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 53, 33–47.

    Panning, A. (1971) Bemerkungen über die holothurien-familie Cucumariidae (Ordnung Dendrochirota). 6. Die gattungen um Ocnus Forbes 1841 und um Pentacta Goldfuss 1820. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 67, 29–51.

    Pawson, D.L. (1969) Holothuroidea. In: Bushnell, V.C. & Hedgpeth, J.W. (Eds.), Distribution of Selected Groups of Marine Invertebrates in Waters South of 35º S Latitude. Antarctic Map Folio Series (II). American Geographical Society, New York, pp. 36–38, 1 pl.

    Pawson, D.L. (1970) The marine fauna of New Zealand: Sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Bulletin of the New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 201, 7–65, 10 figs, 2 pls.

    Philippi, A. (1857) Vier neue Echinodermen des Chilenschen Meeres. Archiv Naturgeschicht, 23, 130–134.

    Risso, A. (1826) Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionales et particulièrment de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes. Levrault, Paris, 4, 439 pp.

    Semper, C. (1868) Holothurien. Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen, 1, 1–288, pls 1–40.

    Smirnov, A.V. & Bardsley, T.M. (1997) Myriotrochus antarcticus sp. nov. (Apodida: Myriotrochidae), a new holothurian species from eastern Antarctica. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 109 (1), 109–111.

    Théel, H. (1876) Note sur l’Elpidia genre nouveau du groupe des Holothuries. Bihang Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 4 (4), 7 pp.

    Théel, H. (1879) Preliminary report on the Holothuridae of the exploring voyage of H.M.S. Challenger. 1. Bihang till Kongl.Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 5 (19), 1–20, pls 1–2.

    Théel, H. (1882) Report on the Holothurioidea, 1. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, 1873–1876, Zoology, 4, 13, 1–176, pls 1–46.

    Théel, H. (1886a) Report on the Holothurioidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, Zoology, 14 (39), 1–290, 16 pls.

    Théel, H. (1886b) Report on the Holothurioidea. Reports on the results of dredging, in the Gulf of Mexico (1877–1878), in the Caribbean Sea (1879–1880), and along the eastern coast of the United States, by the U.S. Coast Survey Steamer Blake. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, 13 (1) 30, 1–21, 1 pl.

    Vaney, C. (1906a) Deux nouvelles holothuries du genre Thyone provenant des Orcades du Sud. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, 12, 400–402.

    Vaney, C. (1906b) Note préliminaire sur les holothuries recueillies per l’Expédition Antarctique Française du Dr Charcot. Bulletin du Muséum D’Histoire naturelle de Paris, 12, 402–407.

    Vaney, C. (1906c) Holothuries Expédition Antarctique Française (1903–1905). Sciences Naturelles: Documents Scientifiques, 30 pp., 2 pls, 1 map.

    Vaney, C. (1908) Les Holothuries de l’Expédition Antarctique Nationale Écossaise. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 46, 405–441, 5 pls.

    Vaney, C. (1914) Holothuries. Deuxième Expédition Antarctique Française (1908–10). Sciences Naturelles: Documents Scientifiques, 54 pp., 5 pls.