Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2009-04-14

Potential cryptic speciation in Mediterranean populations of Ophioderma (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Frescativ. 40, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden
UMR 6540-DIMAR, Centre d’Océanologie de Marseille, Station Marine d'Endoume, Chemin de la Batterie des Lions, 13007 Marseille, France
UMR 6540-DIMAR, Centre d’Océanologie de Marseille, Station Marine d'Endoume, Chemin de la Batterie des Lions, 13007 Marseille, France
Echinodermata brooding taxonomy phylogeny morphology mt-COI

Abstract

Ophioderma longicauda is a large brittlestar species, common in the Mediterranean Sea and spread across the subtropical-tropical eastern Atlantic Ocean. Recently, a morphologically similar brooding form of O. longicauda was discovered in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The brooding period is restricted to late May and early June and the largest females brood over 1,000 juveniles, all of the same ontogenetic stage. Brooders differ from non-brooding O. longicauda in body colour (dominated by green instead of red), gonad colour (in alcohol white instead of oliveto reddish-brown) and size (up to 17 mm disk diameter instead of 30 mm). These characters overlap between both forms though. Molecular data (mt-COI sequences) lend weak support to the existence of two separate species, but suggest that if a split occurred it is recent and both forms interbreed. Alternatively, the eastern Mediterranean populations could represent a poecilogonous subgroup of O. longicauda.

References

  1. Bruzelius, N. (1805) Dissertatio sistens species cognitas asteriarum, quamr. sub praesidio D.M.And.J. Retzii, pro laurea modeste exhibet Nicolaus Bruzelius. Lund, pp. 1–37.

    Byrne, M., Cisternas, P. & O’Hara, T. (2008) Brooding of pelagic-type larvae in Ophiopeza spinosa: reproduction and development in a tropical ophiodermatid brittlestar. Invertebrate Biology, 127, 98–107.

    Byrne, M., Hart, M.W., Cerra, A. & Cisternas, P. (2003) Reproduction and larval morphology of broadcasting and viviparous species in the Crypasterina species complex. Biological Bulletin, 205, 285–294.

    Clark, H.L. (1911) North Pacific Ophiurans in the collection of the United States National Museum. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin, 75, 1–302.

    Delle Chiaje, S. (1828) Memorie sulla storia e anotomia degli animali senza vertebre del Regno di Napoli (Vol. 3). Naples.

    Döderlein, L. (1910) Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea. In: L. Schultze (Ed.), Zoologische und Anthropologische Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise im westlichen und zentralen Südafrika ausgeführt 1903–1905. Gustav Fischer, Jena, pp. 246–258.

    Fell, H.B. (1946) The embryology of the viviparous ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata (D.Ch.). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 75, 419–464.

    Fenaux, L. (1969) Le développement larvaire chez Ophioderma longicauda (Retzius). Cahier de Biologie Marine, 10, 59–62.

    Fenaux, L. (1972) Evolution saisonniere des gonades chez l’Ophiure Ophioderma longicauda (Retzius), Ophiuroidea. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, 27, 257–262.

    Fourgon, D., Jangoux, M. & Eeckhaut, I. (2007) Biology of a “babysitting” symbiosis in brittle stars: analysis of the interactions between Ophiomastix venosa and Ophiocoma scolopendrina. Invertebrate Biology, 126, 385–395.

    Geiger, D.L., Marshall, B.A., Ponder, W.F., Sasaki, T. & Warén, A. (2007) Techniques for collecting, handling, preparing, storing and examining small molluscan specimens. Molluscan Research, 27, 1–50.

    Greeff, R. (1882) Echinodermen beobachtet auf einer Reise nach der Guinea-Insel Sao-Thomé. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 107, 156–159.

    Guindon, S. & Gascuel, O. (2003) A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Systematic Biology, 52, 696–704.

    Hasegawa, M., Kishino, H. & Yano, T. (1985) Dating of human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 22, 160–172.

    Hendler, G. (1979) Sex-reversal and viviparity in Ophiolepis kieri, n. sp. with notes on viviparous brittlestars from the Caribbean (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society in Washington, 92, 783–795.

    Hendler, G. (1982) An echinoderm vitellaria with a bilateral larval skeleton: evidence for the evolution of ophiuroid vitellariae from ophioplutei. Biological Bulletin, 163, 431–437.

    Hendler, G. (1991) Ophiuroidea. In: Giese, A.C., Pearse, J.S. & Pearse, V.B. (Eds.), Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates. Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, pp. 355–511.

    Hendler, G., Grygier, M.J., Maldonado, E. & Denton, J. (1999) Babysitting brittle stars: heterospecific symbiosis between ophiuroids (Echinodermata). Invertebrate Biology, 118, 190–201.

    Hendler, G. & Littman, B.S. (1986) The ploys of sex: relationships among the mode of reproduction, body size and habitats of coral-reef brittlestars. Coral Reefs, 5, 31–42.

    Hendler, G., Miller, J.E., Pawson, D.L. & Kier, P.M. (1995) Sea stars, sea urchins, and allies. Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Hendler, G. & Tran, L.U. (2001) Reproductive biology of a deep-sea brittle star Amphiura carchara. Marine Biology, 138, 113–123.

    International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (2000) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th ed.). London: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature 1999.

    Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.

    Koehler, R. (1911) Asteries, Ophiures et Echinides. Reports on the scientific investigations of the British Antarctic Expedition 1907–9, 2, 25–66, pls 24–28.

    Krug, P.J., Ellingson, R.A., Burton, R. & Valdés, Á. (2007) A new poecilogonous species of sea slug (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa) from California: comparison with the planktotrophic congener Alderia modesta (Lovén, 1844). Jorunal of Molluscan Studies, 73, 29–38.

    Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M. (2004) Mega 3: an integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 5, 150–163.

    Lanave, C., Preparata, G., Saccone, C. & G., S. (1984) A new method for calculating evolutionary substitution rates. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 20, 86–93.

    Lessios, H.A., Kessing, B.D. & Pearse, J.S. (2001) Population structure and speciation in tropical seas: global phylogeography of the sea urchin Diadema. Evolution, 55, 955–975.

    Madsen, F.J. (1970) West African ophiuroids. Atlantidae Report, 11, 151–243.

    Melville, R.V. (1980) Opinion 1152. Ophiura Lamarck, 1801 and Ophioderma Müller & Troschel, 1840 (Ophiuroidea): ruling on application of these names. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 37, 78–80.

    Melville, R.V. & Smith, J.D.D. (1987) Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology. In: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.

    Mifsud, C. (1995) Ersilia mediterranea (Monterosato, 1869) (Gastropoda, Eulimidae), an ectoparasite of Ophioderma longicaudum (Retzius, 1805) (Ophiuroidea) in the Maltese Islands. La Conchiglia, 27, 4–6.

    Mladenov, P.V. (1985) Development and metamorphosis of the brittle star Ophiocoma pumila: evolutionary and ecological implications. Biological Bulletin, 168, 285–295.

    Mortensen, T. (1936) Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea. Discovery Report, 12, 199–348.

    Palumbi, S. R. (1996) Nucleic acids II: the polymerase chain reaction. In: Hillis, D.M., Mable, B.K. & Moritz, C. (Eds.), Molecular Systematics. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA, pp. 205–247.

    Por, F.D. (1978) Lessepsian Migration. The influx of Red Sea biota into the Mediterranean by way of the Suez Canal. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.

    Sarà, M. (1985) Ecological factors and their biogeographic consequences in the Mediterranean ecosystems. In: M. Moaraitou-Apostolopoulou & V. Kiortsis (Eds.), Mediterranean Marine Ecosystems. Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 1–17.

    Sars, G.O. (1872) Nye Echinodermer fra den norske kyst. Videnskabelige Selskabets Forhandlinger 1871, 1–31.

    Say, T. (1825) On the species of the Linnaean genus Asterias inhabiting the coast of the U.S. Journal of the Academy of natural sciences of Philadelphia, 5, 141–154.

    Schulze, S.R., Trice, S.A., Simon, J.L. & Karl, S.A. (2000) Evolution of Poecilogony and the biogeography of North American populations of the polychaet Streblospio. Evolution, 54, 1247–1259.

    Stöhr, S. (2005) Who's who among baby brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea): postmetamorphic development of some North Atlantic forms. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143, 543–576.

    Stöhr, S. & O'Hara, T.D. (2007) World Ophiuroidea database. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/ophiuroidea (accessed 19 October 2007)

    Tortonese, E. (1983) Remarks on the morphology and taxonomy of Ophioderma longicaudum (Retz.) from the Mediterranean. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in Milano, 124, 21–28.

    Walker, C.W. & Lesser, M.P. (1989) Nutrition and development of brooded embryos in the brittlestar Amphipholis squamata: do endosymbiotic bacteria play a role? Marine Biology, 103, 519–530.

    Ziesenhenne, F.C. (1955) A review of the genus Ophioderma M. & T. Essays in the natural sciences in honour of Captain Alan Hancock, 185–201.