Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2016-07-22

An integrative taxonomy on the locally endangered species of the Korean Scarabaeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)

Applied Entomology Division, Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Nongsaengmyeongro, 166, Wansan-gu, Jeonju, 565-851, KOREA
Department of Biology, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul, KOREA
Yeongwol Insectarium Center for the Study of Insect Ecology, Yeongwol, 230-874, KOREA
Seodaemun Museum of Natural History, 25 Bangmulgwan-gil, San 5-58, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-703, KOREA
National Science Museum, Daejeon, 305-705, KOREA
Applied Entomology Division, Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Nongsaengmyeongro, 166, Wansan-gu, Jeonju, 565-851, KOREA
Applied Entomology Division, Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Nongsaengmyeongro, 166, Wansan-gu, Jeonju, 565-851, KOREA
Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Scarabaeus typhon Scarabaeus pius COI Korea

Abstract

The ball-rolling dung beetles of the genus Scarabaeus are very ecologically important for the recycling of feces of large herbivores and the related nature management. There has been a significant decline, however, in the numbers of many species at the population and individual levels. S. typhon is currently thought to be the sole member of Scarabaeus distributed in Korea; however, that species underwent serious local extinctions in the 1970s. Before planning a full-scale species recovery, it is important to have an understanding of the exact species diversity and genetic structures of the focal species. We therefore attempted an integrative taxonomy focused on the Korean population of S. typhon and also on S. pius and S. sacer, which were once thought to be distributed in Korea, using both morphological and molecular approaches. The results of both approaches reveal the Korean species of Scarabaeus to be S. typhon and S. pius. In particular, our molecular results inferred from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genetic analysis show that S. typhon should be considered a single species despite having various haplotypes throughout its wide geographical range from Europe to Korea. We identified two distinct lineages of S. pius (groups A and B) across a wide distributional range. We conclude that the Korean specimens of S. pius belong to group A and that S. pius is new to Korea under the current taxonomic treatment.

 

References

  1. Cho, P.S. (1957) A systematic catalogue of Korean Coleoptera. Humanities and Sciences, Korea University, 2, 288–293.

    Cho, P.S. (1969) Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna & plora of Korea (X), Insecta (II). Samhwa Press, Seoul, pp. 623–645.

    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.

    Forgie, S.A., Philips, T.K. & Scholtz, C.H. (2005) Evolution of the Scarabaeini (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Systematic Entomology, 30, 60–97.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2004.00273.x

    Forgie, S.A. Kryger, U., Bloomer, P. & Scholtz, C.H. (2006) Evolutionary relationships among the Scarabaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 662–678.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.04.018

    Halffter, G. & Edmonds, W.D. (1982) The nesting behavior of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae): an ecological and evolutive approach. Man and the Biosphere Program UNESCO, Institúto de Ecología, México, D.F., 177 pp.

    Han, T., Kang, T., Jeong, J., Lee, Y., Chung, H., Park, S., Lee, S., Kim, K. & Park, H. (2012) Pseudocryptic speciation of Chrysochroa fulgidissima (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with two new species from Korea, China and Vietnam. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 164, 71–98.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00763.x

    Han, T.M., Jeong, J.C., Kang, T.H., Lee, Y.B. & Park, H.C. (2010) Phylogenetic relationships of Dorcus koreanus Jang and Kawai, 2008 (Coleoptera, Lucanidae): Species or subspecies? Zoological Science, 27, 362–368.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2108/zsj.27.362

    Hanski, I. & Cambefort, Y. (1991) Dung beetle ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 481 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9781400862092

    Illiger, J.C.W. (1803) Verzeichniss der in Portugal einheimischen Käfer. Erste Lieferung. Magazin für Insectenkunde, 2, 186–258.

    Kang, T.H., Han, T., Okushima, Y. & Park, H. (2012) Integrative taxonomy of Asiopodabrus fragiliformis (Kang and Kim, 2000) (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) and its related species. Zootaxa, 3259, 1–33.

    Kim, J.I. (1984) Taxonomic study on the Korean Laparosticti (Scarabaeoidea, Insecta). I. Scarabaeidae (1). The Korean Journal of Entomology, 14, 51–61.

    Kim, J.I. (2012) Insect fauna of Korea. Laparosticti, Scarabaeoidea, Coleoptera, Insecta, Arthropoda. Insect fauna of Korea, National Institute of Biological Resources, 12 (No. 3), 1–209.

    Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01731581

    Kolbe, H.J. (1886) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Coleoptera-Fauna Koreas. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 52, 139–240.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.28437

    Lee, S.P. (2013) Red data book of endangered insects in Korea II. Red Data book 8. National Institute of Biological Resources, Inchon, 129 pp.

    Linares, M.C., Soto-Calderón, I.D., Lees, D.C. & Anthony, N.M. (2009) High mitochondrial diversity in geographically widespread butterflies of Madagascar: A test of the DNA barcoding approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 50, 485–495.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.11.008

    Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae Per Regna Tria Naturae: Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. 10th Edition. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm, 823 pp. [in Latin]

    Löbl, I. Krell, F.T. & Král, D. (2006) Scarabaeini. In: Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (Eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 3. Scarabaeoidea – Scirtoidea – Dascilloidea – Buprestoidea – Byrrhoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, pp. 176–178

    Lobo, J.M. (2001) Decline of roller dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) populations in the Iberian Peninsula during the 20th century. Biological Conservation, 97, 43–50.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00093-8

    Lobo, J.M. Guéorguiev, B.V. & Chehlarov, E.I. (2011) The species of Scarabaeus Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Bulgaria and adjacent regions: faunal review and potential distribution. Entomologica Fennica, 21, 202–220.

    Masaki, J. (1936) On the insect fauna of various islands of Korea. Kontyu, 10, 260.

    Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University. Available from: http://www.abc.se/~nylander (accessed 6 July 2016)

    Paik, W.H. (1976) Biology of the dung beetles in Korea. Seoul National University, College of Agricultural Bulletin, 1 (No. 2), 1–154.

    Paulian, R. (1959) Coleoptérès Scarabéides. Faune de France. 63. 2e Edition. Lechevalier, Paris, 298 pp.

    Paulian, R. & Baraud, J. (1982) Faune des Coleoptérès de France. II. Lucanoidea et Scaeabaeoidea. Enclyclopédie Entomologique, 63, 1–478.

    Regier, J.C. & Shi, D. (2005) Increased yield of PCR product form degenerate primers with nondegenerate, nonhomologous 5' tails. BioTechniques, 38, 34–38.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/05381BM02

    Regier, J.C. (2008) Protocols, concepts, and reagents for preparing DNA sequencing templates. Version 12/4/08. Available from: http://www.umbi.umd.edu/users/jcrlab/PCR_primers.pdf (accessed 6 July 2016)

    Schimmel, R. & Han, T. (2013) Selatosomus koryeoensis, a new species of the S. puberulus group from Korea (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Genus, 24, 191–198.

    Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckendach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Flook, P. (1994) Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87, 651–701.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/87.6.651

    Sukumaaran, J. & Holder, M.T. (2010) DendroPy: A Python library for phylogenetic computing. Bioinformatics, 26, 1569–1571.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btq228

    Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121

    Untergrasser, A., Cutcutache, I., Koressaar, T.Y.J., Faircloth, B.C., Remm, M. & Rozen, S.G. (2012) Primer3 – new capabilities and interfaces. Nucleic Acids Research, 40, e115.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gks596

    Villalba, S., Lobo, J.M., Martín-Piera, F. & Zardoya, R. (2002) Phylogenetic relationships of Iberian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae): insights on the evolution of nesting behavior. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 55, 116–126.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-002-2314-4

    Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. (2004) Checklist of the genus Scarabaeus Linné (Scarabaeinae: Scarabaeini). Animma. x, 5, 1–30.

    Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. (2005) Supplemental comments on Scarabaeus Linné (Scarabaeinae: Scarabaeini). Animma.x, 9, 1–12.

    Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. (2008) Illustrated keys to Palearctic Scarabaeus Linné (Scarabaeidae). Animma.x, 27, 1–28.

    Zídek, J. & Pokorný, S. (2011) Replacement name for a subgenus of Scarabaeus Linné, and remarks on Scarabaeus isidis (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Scarabaeini). Klapalekiana, 47, 89–90.

    Zur Strassen, R. (1967) Arten-Űbersicht der Gattung Scarabaeus Linnaeus (Scarabaeidae) mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der äthiopischen Formen. Entomologische Blätter für Biologie und Systematik der Käfer, 63, 129–173.

    Zwickl, D.J. (2011) GARLI 2.0. Available from: http:// code.google.com/p/garli (accessed 3 May 2011)