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Type: Article
Published: 2016-09-21
Page range: 457–474
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Immature stages and larval chaetotaxy of Notofairchildia stenygros (Quate & Alexander) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Bruchomyiinae)

Laboratório de Phlebotominae e Triatominae, Coordenação de Biodiversidade. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araujo, 2936. Bairro Aleixo. Manaus, CEP 69067-375, Amazonas, Brazil.
Laboratório de Phlebotominae e Triatominae, Coordenação de Biodiversidade. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araujo, 2936. Bairro Aleixo. Manaus, CEP 69067-375, Amazonas, Brazil.
Laboratório de Genética de Populações e Evolução de Mosquitos Vetores, Coordenação de Biodiversidade. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araujo, 2936. Bairro Aleixo. Manaus, CEP 69067-375, Amazonas, Brazil
Diptera taxonomy egg larvae pupae mouthparts scanning electron microscopy


Some authors have hypothesized that Bruchomyiinae is "the most plesiomorphic subfamily of Psychodidae" and its members "are among the most primitive living Diptera". Although Bruchomyiinae is of no medical importance, it is of great evolutionary significance, having long been placed as the sister group of Phlebotominae. In general, species of this subfamily are rarely collected in their natural environment; therefore, adults and, even more so, the immature stages of these flies are poorly known. We describe the egg, larvae and pupae of Notofairchildia stenygros and provide nomenclatural notes on larval chaetotaxy based on analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optic microscopy. The morphology of immature Nt. stenygros is compared with other Bruchomyiinae and Psychodidae species, especially with species of Phlebotominae that are superficially similar to Bruchomyiinae. Results of this study revealed striking morphological differences between the immature stages of Bruchomyiinae and Phlebotominae; the former are lacking abdominal pseudopods and microtrichia on the cephalic integument, both of which are present in the larvae of Phlebotominae. These morphological differences observed in the immature stages between members of the two subfamilies support the findings of recent molecular studies indicating that Bruchomyiinae and Phlebtominae are evolutionarily not closely related. Notofairchildia stenygros is now the fourth species of Bruchomyiinae for which the immature stages are described.



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