Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2016-09-21
Page range: 515–539
Abstract views: 33
PDF downloaded: 0

Three new brackish-water thalassocypridine species (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Paracyprididae) from the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

Center for Molecular Biodiversity Research, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba 305-0005, Japan.
Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.
Crustacea Ostracoda Paracyprididae brackish species Okinawa Island Ishigaki Island COI


We describe three new species of brackish-water ostracods representing two genera in the ostracod tribe Thalassocypridini from mangrove forests in the Ryukyu Islands, subtropical southwestern Japan, and provide their barcoding sequences for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Mangalocypria ryukyuensis sp. nov. was found on Okinawa Island. We also found a Mangalocypria population on Ishigaki Island that was morphologically identical to M. ryukyuensis on Okinawa, but an individual differed by 4.7% in COI sequence (K2P distance) from an individual from Okinawa. This is the first record for Japan of a species in Mangalocypria. Paracypria longiseta sp. nov., obtained from Okinawa Island, is similar to Pontoparta hartmanni. Paracypria plumosa sp. nov. from Ishigaki Island is similar to Pa. adnata described from Yakushima Island, Japan. The COI genetic distance between individuals of Pa. longiseta and Pa. plumosa was roughly as large as that between either of these species and individuals in the Mangalocypria populations. Our study underscores that genera in Thalassocypridini may not represent natural groups, and that this tribe needs taxonomic revision.



  1. Bode, S.N.S., Adolfsson, S., Lamatsch, D.K., Martens, M.J.F., Schmit, O., Vandekerkhove, J., Mezquita, F., Namiotko, T., Rossetti, G., Schön, I., Butlin, R.K. & Martens, K. (2010) Exceptional cryptic diversity and multiple origins of parthenogenesis in a freshwater ostracod. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 54, 542–552.

    Boom, R.C.J., Sol, C.J., Salimans, M.M., Jansen, C.L., Wertheim-van Dillen, P.M. & van der Noordaa, J.P.M.E. (1990) Rapid and simple method for purification of nucleic acids. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 28, 495–503.

    Brandão, S.N., Sauer, J. & Schön, I. (2010) Circumantarctic distribution in southern ocean benthos? A genetic test using the genus Macroscapha (Crustacea, Ostracoda) as a model. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55, 1055–1069.

    Broodbakker, N.W. & Danielopol, D.L. (1982) The chaetotaxy of Cypridacea (Crustacea, Ostracoda) limbs: proposals for a descriptive model. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 52, 103–120.

    Bucklin, A., Steinke, D. & Blanco-Bercial, L. (2011) DNA barcoding of marine Metazoa. Annual Review of Marine Science, 3, 471–508.

    Coissac, E., Hollingsworth, P.M., Lavergne, S. & Taberlet, P. (2016) From barcodes to genomes: extending the concept of DNA barcoding. Molecular Ecology, 25, 1423–1428.

    Danielopol, D.L. (1969) Recherches sur la morphologie de l’organe copulateur mâle chez quelques ostracodes du genre Candona Baird (Fam. Cyprididae Baird). In: Neale, J.W. (Ed.), The Taxonomy, Morphology and Ecology of Recent Ostracoda. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, pp. 136–153.

    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.

    Hadley, A. (2010) CombineZP Image Stacking Software. Release date: 6 June 2010. Available from: (accessed 19 February 2016)

    Harding, J.P. (1962) Mungava munda and four other new species of ostracod crustaceans from fish stomachs. Natural History of Rennell Island, British Solomon Islands, 4, 51–62.

    Hartmann, G. (1974) Zur Kenntnis des Eulitorals der afrikanischen Westküste zwischen Angola und Kap der Guten Hoffnung und der afrikanischen Ostküste von Südafrika und Moçambique unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Polychaeten und Ostracoden. Teil III. Die Ostracoden des Untersuchungsgebietes. Mitteilungen aus dem hamburgischen zoologischen Museum und Institut, Supplement 69, 229–520.

    Hartmann, G. & Puri, H.S. (1974) Summary of neontological and paleontological classification of Ostracoda. Mitteilungen aus dem hamburgischen zoologischen Museum und Institut, 70, 7–73.

    Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L. & deWaard, J.R. (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the royal society B, 270, 313–321.

    Hebert, D.N. & Gregory, R. (2005) The promise of DNA barcoding for taxonomy. Systematic Biology, 54, 852–859.

    Hiruta, S. & Smith, R.J. (2001) Living freshwater and shallow marine Ostracoda in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. In: Guidebook of Excursion Exc. E: Eastern Hokkaido. The Organizing Committee of the 14th International Symposium on Ostracoda, Shizuoka, pp. 107–125.

    Hu, C.-H. & Tao, H.-J. (2008) Studies on the ostracod fauna of Taiwan and its adjacent seas. National Taiwan Museum Special Publication Series, 13, 1–910.

    Johnson, K.P., Yoshizawa, K. & Smith, V.S. (2004) Multiple origins of parasitism in lice. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271, 1771–1776.

    Karanovic, I. & Lee, W. (2012) A review of candonid ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Podocopida) from East Asia, with descriptions of five new species from South Korea. Zootaxa, 3368, 7–49.

    Keyser, D. (1975) Ostracoden aus den Mangrovegebieten von Südwest-Florida (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Podocopa). Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, 18, 255–290.

    Klie, W. (1939) Ostracoden aus den marinen Salinen von Bonaire, Curaçao und Aruba. Capita Zoologica, 8, 1–19.

    Koenders, A., Martens, K., Halse, S. & Schön, I. (2012) Cryptic species of the Eucypris virens species complex (Ostracoda, Crustacea) from Europe have invaded western Australia. Biological Invasions, 14, 2187–2201.

    Maddocks, R.F. (2005) New thalassocypridine Ostracoda from anchialine caves of the Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia (Podocopida, Paracypridinae). Micropaleontology, 51, 169–216.

    Maddocks, R.F. & Iliffe, T.M. (1993) Thalassocypridine Ostracoda from anchialine habitats of Jamaica. Journal of Crustacean Research, 13 (1), 142–164.

    Martens, K. (1987) Homology and functional morphology of the sexual dimorphism in the antenna of Sclerocypris Sars, 1924 (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Megalocypridinae). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 57, 183‒190.

    Matzen da Silva, J., Creer, S., Dos Santos, A., Costa, A.C., Cunha, M.R., Costa, F.O. & Carvalho, G.R. (2011) Systematic and evolutionary insights derived from mtDNA COI barcode diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca). PLoS One, 6 (5), e19449.

    McKenzie, K.G. (1968) A new species of Paracypria (Ostracoda: Cyprididae) from Victoria, Australia. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 180, 384–389.

    Meisch, C. (1996) Contribution to the taxonomy of Pseudocandona and four related genera, with the description of Schellencandona nov. gen., a list of the Candoninae genera, and a key to the European genera of the subfamily (Crustacea, Ostracoda). Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois, 97, 211–237.

    Meisch, C. (2000) Freshwater Ostracoda of Western and Central Europe. Süßwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa 8/3. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, 522 pp.

    Meisch, C., Mary-Sasal, N., Colin, J.-P. & Wouters, K. (2007) Freshwater Ostracoda (Crustacea) collected from the islands of Futuna and Wallis, Pacific Ocean, with a checklist of the non-marine Ostracods of the Pacific Islands. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois, 108, 89–103.

    Nakano, Y. & Tsukagoshi, A. (2002) Brackish-water Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Obitsu River Estuary, central Japan. Species Diversity, 7 (1), 67–115.

    Nation, J.L. (1983) A new method using hexamethyldisilazane for preparation of soft insect tissues for scanning electron microscopy. Stain Technology, 58, 347–351.

    Okubo, I. (1980) Three new species of the family Candonidae (Ostracoda) from the Inland Sea of Japan. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology, 18, 18–27.

    Ratnasingham, S. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2013) A DNA-based registry for all animal species: The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e66213.

    Sars, G.O. (1905) Pacifische Plankton-Crustaceen (Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific, Schauinsland 1896-1897). II. Brackwasser-Crustaceen von den Chatham-Inseln. Zoologisches Jahrbuch, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie, 21, 399–414.

    Sars, G.O. (1910) Zoological results of the third Tanganyika Expedition, conducted by Dr. W.A. Cunnington, F.Z.S., 1904–1905. Reports on the Ostracoda. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 65, 732–760.

    Sars, G.O. (1923) An account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species. vol. 9. Ostracoda, Bergen Museum, Bergen, 3/4, 33–72.

    Schön, I., Pinto, R.L., Halse, S., Smith, A.J., Martens, K. & Birky, Jr. C.W. (2012) Cryptic species in putative ancient asexual darwinulids (Crustacea, Ostracoda). PLoS ONE, 7(7), e39844.

    Sheue, C.-R., Liu, H.-Y. & Yong, J.-W. (2003) Kandelia obovata (Rhizophoraceae), a new mangrove species from Eastern Asia. Taxon, 52 (2), 287–294.

    Smith, R.J. & Kamiya, T. (2003) Three brackish-water ostracods (Crustacea) from Ushimado, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Species Diversity, 8 (1), 79–91.

    Smith, R.J. & Kamiya, T. (2006) Six new species of fresh and brackish water ostracods (Crustacea) from Yakushima, Southern Japan. Hydrobiologia, 559, 331–355.

    Smith, R.J. & Matzke-Karasz, R. (2008) The organ on the first segment of the cypridoidean (Ostracoda, Crustacea) antennule: morphology and phylogenetic significance. Senckenbergiana Lethaea, 88 (1), 127–140.

    Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.

    Thiel, M. & Gutow, L. (2005) The ecology of rafting in the marine environment. II. The rafting organisms and community. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 279–418.

    Vávra, W. (1901) Die Ostracoden vom Bismarck-Archipel. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 61, 179–186.

    Wakushima, S., Kuraishi, S. & Sakurai, N. (1994) Soil salinity and pH in Japanese mangrove forests and growth of cultivated mangrove plants in different soil conditions. Journal of Plant Research, 107 (1), 39–46.

    Waugh, J. (2007) DNA barcoding in animal species: progress, potential and pitfalls. BioEssays, 29, 188–197.

    Wouters, K. (1998) A new thalassocypridine genus (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from brackish waters in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with the description of a new species. Bulletin de l’Institut royal des sciences naturelles de Belgique, Biologie, 68, 111–122.