Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Monograph
Published: 2016-12-23

Distribution, phenology and host plants of Danish bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. E-mail:
Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark.
Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark.
Hymenoptera Scandinavia mapping database monitoring flight-activity floral records

Abstract

Based on the examination of 47.629 specimens of bees from Denmark (54.6ºN to 57.8ºN) we summarize for the first time the distribution, phenology and host-plants for all 286 known species occurring in the country. The mapped occurrence records distinguish whether species are found only in 1974 or earlier, 1975 or later, or in both periods. Danish bees are recorded active from February 29 through October 21 and have been collected in 79% of the 10x10 km Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) squares covering the country; seven UTM squares have over 100 reported species. Some UTM squares are poorly sampled, including less than five species recorded from 31% of the sampled squares. In addition bees are recorded from 282 different plants representing 50 families with the majority of observations from Asteraceae and Fabaceae (Leguminosae). The data, compiled from all major bee collections in the country, will provide policy makers and scientists a tool for establishing strategies for pollinator conservation and further research.

 

References

  1. Alfken, J.D. (1899) Anthrena afzeliella Kirby und Verwandte. Entomologische Nachrichten, 25, 102–106.

    Alfken, J.D. (1905) Melitta nigricans n.sp., eine neue deutsche Biene (Hym.). Zeitschrift für systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie, 5, 95–96.

    Alfken, J.D. (1913a) Die Bienenfauna von Bremen. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Bremen, 22, 1–220.

    Alfken, J.D. (1913b) Die Bienenfauna von Ostpreden. Schriften der Physikalisch-ökonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg in Pr., 53, 114–182.

    Alfken, J.D. (1914) Halictus minutissimus K. und seine Verwandten (Hym.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1914, 281–282.

    Alfken, J.D. (1919) Prosopis pfankuchi, eine neue deutsche Prosopis-Art. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Bremen, 24, 269–270.

    Amiet, F. (1996) Hymenoptera, Apidae, 1. Teil. Allgemeiner Teil, Gattungsschlüssel, die Gattungen Apis, Bombus und Psithyrus (Vol. 1). Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 98 pp.

    Amiet, F., Herrmann, M., Müller, A. & Neumeyer, R. (2001) Apidae 3. Halictus, Lasioglossum (Vol. 6). Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 208 pp.

    Amiet, F., Herrmann, M., Müller, A. & Neumeyer, R. (2004) Apidae 4. Anthidium, Chelostoma, Coelioxys, Dioxys, Heriades, Lithurgus, Megachile, Osmia, Stelis (Vol. 9). Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 273 pp.

    Amiet, F., Herrmann, M., Müller, A. & Neumeyer, R. (2007) Apidae 5. Ammobates, Ammobatoides, Anthophora, Biastes, Ceratina, Dasypoda, Epeoloides, Epeolus, Eucera, Macropis, Melecta, Melitta, Nomada, Pasites, Tetralonia, Thyreus, Xylocopa (Vol. 20). Neuchâtel: Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft. 356 pp.

    Amiet, F., Herrmann, M., Müller, A. & Neumeyer, R. (2010) Apidae 6. Andrena, Melitturga, Panurginus, Panurgus (Vol. 26). CSCF & Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 316 pp.

    Amiet, F., Müller, A. & Neumeyer, R. (1999) Apidae 2. Colletes, Dufourea, Hylaeus, Nomia, Nomioides, Rhophitoides, Rophites, Sphecodes, Systropha (Vol. 4). Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft, Neuchâtel, 219 pp.

    Bartomeus, I., Ascher, J.S., Gibbs, J., Danforth, B.N., Wagner, D.L., Hedtke, S.M. & Winfree, R. (2013) Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, 4656–4660.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1218503110

    Bogusch, P. & Straka, J. (2012) Review and identification of the cuckoo bees of central Europe (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Sphecodes). Zootaxa, 3311, 1–41.

    Brullé, G.A. (1832) Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. 1. Zoologie. 2. Des animaux articulés. In: Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B.G.M. (Ed.), Expédition scientifique de Morée. Section des sciences physiques. Zoologie. Levrault, Paris, 400 pp.

    Calabuig, I. (2000) Solitary bees and bumblebees in a Danish agricultural landscape. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Population Ecology. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 103 pp.

    Calabuig, I. & Madsen, H.B. (2009) Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier—Del 2: Andrenidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 77, 83–113.

    Cameron, S.A., Lozier, J.D., Strange, J.P., Koch, J.B., Cordes, N. & Solter, L.F. (2011) Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 662–667.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014743108

    Celary, W. (1995) Nomadini (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anthophoridae) of Poland. Monografie Fauny Polski (Polska Akademia Nauk), 20, 1–281.

    Celary, W. (2005) Melittidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) of Poland - their biodiversity and biology. Kraków: Polish Academy of Sciences, 177 pp.

    Christ, J.L. (1791) Naturgeschichte, Klassification und Nomenclatur der Insekten vom Bienen, Wespen und Ameisengeschlecht; als der fünften Klasse fünfte Ordnung des Linneischen Natursystems von den Insekten: Hymenoptera. Mit häutigen Flügeln. Frankfurt am Main: Hermannische Buchhandlung, 535 pp, 60 pls.

    Colla, S.R., Gadallah, F., Richardson, L., Wagner, D. & Gall, L. (2012) Assessing declines of North American bumble bees (Bombus spp.) using museum specimens. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21, 3585–3595.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0383-2

    Curtis, J. (1828) Hymenoptera, part II [218. Megachile willughbiella]. In: British entomology; being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland: containing coloured figures from nature of the most rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found. Printed for the author, London, p. 218ff.

    Curtis, J. (1831) Hymenoptera, part II [373. Hylaeus dilatatus]. In: British entomology; being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland: containing coloured figures from nature of the most rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found. Printed for the author, London, p. 373ff.

    Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (2014) The National Pollinator Strategy: for bees and other pollinators in England, 36 pp.

    Ebmer, A.W. (1972) Neue westpaläarktische Halictidae (Halictinae, Apoidea). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 48, 225–263.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mmnz.19720480202

    Enghoff, H. & Nielsen, E.S. (1977) Et nyt grundkort til brug for faunistiske undersøgelser i Danmark, baseret på UTM-koordinatsystemet. Entomologiske Meddelelser, 45, 65–74.

    Erlandsson, S. (1963) Notes on Hymenoptera. 2. Contribution to the knowledge of the Aculeate Hymenoptera in the Island of Bornholm. Entomologisk Tidskrift, 84, 65–68.

    Erneberg, M. & Holm, B. (1999) Bee size and pollen transfer in Cypripedium calceolus (Orchidaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany, 19, 363–367.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.1999.tb01128.x

    Eversmann, E.F. (1852) Fauna hymenopterologica volgo-uralensis (Continuatio). Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 25, 1–137.

    Fabricius, J.C. (1775) Systema entomologiae: sistens insectorvm classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibvs, observationibvs. Flensbvrgi et Lipsiae: Officina Libraria Kortii, 832 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.36510

    Fabricius, J.C. (1777) Genera Insectorum: eorumque characteres naturales secundam numerum, figuram, situm et proportionem, omnium partium oris adiecta mantissa specierum nuper detectarum. Litteris, M.F., Bartschii, Chilonii, [16], 310 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.119827

    Fabricius, J.C. (1781) Species insectorum, exhibentes eorum differentias specificas, synonyma auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin, adjectis observationibus, descriptionibus. Hamburgi et Kilonii: Impensis C.E. Bohnii, 552 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.36509

    Fabricius, J.C. (1787) Mantissa insectorum: sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus (Vol. 1). Proft, C.G., Impensis, Copenhagen,348 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.36471

    Fabricius, J.C. (1793) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta: Secundun classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus (Vol. 2). Impensis Christ. Gottl. Proft. Leipzig, 519 pp.

    Fabricius, J.C. (1798) Supplementum Entomologiae systematicae (Vol. 5). Impensis Christ. Gottl. Proft., Leipzig, 572 pp.

    Fabricius, J.C. (1804) Systema Piezatorum: secundum ordines, genera, species: adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Carolum Reichard, Braunschweig, 439, 30 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12548

    Falk, S. & Lewington, R. (2015) Field Guide to the Bees of Great Britain and Ireland. Wildlife Publishing. British, London, 336 pp.

    Field, J. (1996) Patterns of provisioning and iteroparity in a solitary halictine bee, Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) fratellum (Perez), with notes on L. (E.) calceatum (Scop.) and L. (E.) villosulum (K.). Insectes Sociaux, 43, 167–182.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01242568

    Forster, J.R. (1771) Novae species Insectorum. Davies, I.T. & White, B., Centuria, London, viii+100 pp.

    Fourcroy, A.F. (1785) Entomologia Parisiensis; sive catalogus insectorum quæ in agro Parisiensi reperiuntur; secundum methodum Geoffræanam in sectiones, genera & species distributus: cui addita sunt nomina trivialia & fere trecentæ novæ species (Vol. 2). Via et Aedibus Serpentineis. Parisiis, pp. 233–544.

    Friese, H. (1885) Ueber einige seltene, zum Theil neue Apiden. Entomologische Nachrichten, 11, 81–87.

    Friese, H. (1887) Species aliquot novae generis Andrena Fabr. Természetrajzi Füzetek, 11, 21–26.

    Friese, H. (1893) Die Bienenfauna von Deutschland und Ungarn. Friedländer, R. & Sohn, Berlin,

    Förster, A. (1871) Monographie der Gattung Hylaeus F. (Latr.). Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 21, 873–1084.

    Gerstäcker, A. (1869) Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss einiger Bienen-Gattungen. Entomologische Zeitung, 30, 139–184, 315–367.

    Giraud, J.-E. (1863) Hyménoptères recueillis aux environs de Suse, en Piémont, et dans le département des Hautes-Alpes, en France; et Description de quinze espèces nouvelles. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 13, 11–46.

    Gorski, S.B. (1852) Analecta ad entomographiam provinciarum occidentali-meridionalium imperii Rossici. Prostat in libraria Nicolai, F., Berolini, xix, 214 pp., pls. 1–3.

    Gusenleitner, F. & Schwarz, M. (2003) Weltweite Checkliste der Bienengattung Andrena mit bemerkungen und Ergänzungen zu paläarktischen Arten (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andreninae, Andrena). Entomofauna, Suppl. 12, 1–1280.

    Herrich-Schaeffer, G.A.W. (1839) Auseinandersetzung der europäischen Arten einiger Bienengattungen. Gattung Nomada. Zeitschrift für Entomologie (Leipzig), 1, 267–288.

    Hijmans, R.J., Guarino, L., Cruz, M. & Rojas, E. (2001) Computer tools for spatial analysis of plant genetic resources data: 1. DIVA-GIS. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, 127, 15–19.

    Illiger, K. (1806) William Kirby's Familien der Bienenartigen Insekten mit Zusätzen, Nachweisungen und Bemerkungen. Magazin für Insektenkunde, 5, 28–175.

    Imhoff, L. (1832) Entomologica. Isis von Oken (Jena), 9, 1198–1208.

    Imhoff, L. (1868) Die schweizerischen Arten der Gattung Andrena F. (partim), Latr. (maxima parte), Leach. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellshaft, 2, 33–48.

    Jensen, H.A., Amklit, F. & Jensen, J. (2003) Anbefalede plantenavne. Recommended Scientific and Danish Plant Names. København: Ministeriet for Fødevarer, Landbrug og Fiskeri, Plantedirektoratet, forfatterne og G.E.C. Gads Forlag. 372 pp.

    Jurine, L. (1807) Nouvelle méthode de classer les hyménoptères et les diptères. Avec figures (Vol. 1). Paschoud, J.J. , Genève, iv, 320, 4 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.60886

    Jørgensen, L. (1921) Bier. Danmarks Fauna. Vol. 25. GEC Gad, København, 264 pp.

    Kirby, W.F. (1802) Monographia apum Angliæ; or, An attempt to divide into their natural genera and families, such species of the Linnean genus Apis as have been discovered in England; with descriptions and observations. To which are prefixed some introductory remarks upon the class Hymenoptera, and a synoptical table of the nomenclature of the external parts of these insects. Raw, J., Ipswich, Vol. 1, xxii+258 pp., pls. 1–14; Vol. 2, [i]+388 pp., pl. 15–18.

    Klug, J.C.F. (1807) Über die Geschlectsverschiedenheit der Piezaten. Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der gesammten Naturkunde, 2, 48–63.

    Kriechbaumer, J. (1873) Hymenopterologische Beiträge. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 23, 49–68.

    Latreille, P.A. (1805) Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Ouvrage faisant suite à l'Histoire Naturelle générale et particulière, composée par Leclercq de Buffon, et rédigée par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusiers Sociétés savantes (Vol. 14). Dufart, F., Paris, 432 pp.

    Latreille, P.A. (1809) Mémoire sur le genre d'anthidie, Anthidium, de Fabricius, classe des insectes, orde des hyménoptères, famille des Apiaires. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), 13, 24–53.

    LeBuhn, G., Droege, S., Connor, E.F., Gemmill-Herren, B., Potts, S.G., Minckley, R.L., Griswold, T.L., Jean, R., Kula, E., Roubik, D.W., Cane, J.H., Wright, K.W., Frankie, G.W. & Parker, F.D. (2013) Detecting insect pollinator declines on regional and global scales. Conservation Biology, 27, 113–120.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01962.x

    Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, A.L.M. (1832) Observations sur l'ouvrage intitulé: bombi scandinaviæ monographicè tractati, etc., à Gustav. Dahlbom. Londini Gothorum, 1832; auxquelles on a joint les caractères des genres Bombus et Psithyrus, et la description des espèces qui appartiennent au dernier. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 1, 366–382.

    Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, A.L.M. (1841) Histoire naturelle des insectes. Hyménoptères (Vol. 2). Librairie encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 680 pp.

    Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, A.L.M. & Audinet-Serville, J.G. (1825) Parasites, etc. In: Latreille, P.A. (Ed.), Encyclopédie méthodique, histoire naturelle, entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des crustacés, des arachnides et des insectes. Agasse, Paris, 344 pp.

    Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum charateribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio Decima (Vol. 1). Salvii, L., Impensis, Stockholm, [4], [1–5], 6, 823, [1] pp.

    Linnaeus, C. (1761) Fauna Suecica sistens animalia Suecica regni: Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, Vermes. Distributa per classes & ordines, genera & species, cum differentiis specierum, synonymis auctorum, nominibus incolarum, locis natalium, descriptionibus insectorum. Stockholmiae: Sumtu & Literis Direct. Laurentii Salvii. [45]+578 pp.

    Linnaeus, C. (1767) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum charateribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, 12th ed. (Vol. 1 (part 2)). Salvii, L., Impensis, Stockholm, 533–1328 pp.

    Madsen, H.B. (2009) Humlebier. In: Wind, P. (Ed.), Den danske rødliste. National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus. Available from: http://redlist.dmu.dk (accessed 25 October 2016)

    Madsen, H.B. & Calabuig, I. (2008) Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier—Del 1: Colletidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 76, 145–163.

    Madsen, H.B. & Calabuig, I. (2010) Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier—Del 3: Melittidae & Megachilidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 78, 73–99.

    Madsen, H.B. & Calabuig, I. (2011) Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier—Del 4: Halictidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 79, 85–115.

    Madsen, H.B. & Calabuig, I. (2012) Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier—Del 5: Apidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 80, 7–52.

    Madsen, H.B., Schmidt, H.T., Bygebjerg, R. & Rasmussen, C. (2015) Tre nye arter af bier for den danske fauna (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 83, 21–29.

    Madsen, H.B., Schmidt, H.T. & Rasmussen, C. (2016) Distriktskatalog over Danmarks bier (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 83, 43–70.

    Michener, C.D. (2007) The bees of the world, second edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xvi+953 pp.

    Morawitz, F.F. (1866) Bemerkungen über einige vom Prof. Eversmann beschriebene Andrenidae, nebst Zusätzen. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae, 4, 3–28.

    Morawitz, F.F. (1867) Ein Beitrag zur Hymenopteren-Fauna des Ober-Engadins. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae, 5, 39–71.

    Morawitz, F.F. (1869) Die Bienen des Gouvernements von St. Petersburg. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae, 6, 27–71.

    Morawitz, F.F. (1871) Beitrag zur Bienenfauna Russlands [Schluss]. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae, 7, 321–333.

    Morawitz, F.F. (1872) Ein Beitrag zur Bienenfauna Deutschlands. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 22, 355–388.

    Morawitz, F.F. (1874(“1873”)) Die Bienen Daghestans. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae, 10, 129–189.

    Mossberg, B. & Stenberg, L. (1994) Den store nordiske flora. København: GEC Gad. 710 pp.

    Müller, O.F. (1766) Manipulus insectorum taurinensium. Mélanges de Philosophie et de Mathématique de la Société Royale de Turin, 3, 185–198.

    Müller, O.F. (1776) Zoologiæ Danicæ prodromus, seu animalium Daniæ et Norvegiæ indigenarum characteres, nomina et synonyma imprimis popularium. Havniæ: Hallageriis. xxxii, 274 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.13268

    Nieto, A., Roberts, S.P.M., Kemp, J., Rasmont, P., Kuhlmann, M., Criado, M.G., Biesmeijer, J.C., Bogusch, P., Dathe, H.H., Rúa, P.D.l., Meulemeester, T.D., Dehon, M., Dewulf, A., Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J., Lhomme, P., Pauly, A., Potts, S.G., Praz, C., Quaranta, M., Radchenko, V.G., Scheuchl, E., Smit, J., Straka, J., Terzo, M., Tomozii, B., Window, J. & Michez, D. (2015) European Red List of Bees. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union. 98 pp.

    Nylander, W. (1848) Adnotationes in expositionem monographicam Apum borealium. Notiser ur Sällskapets pro Fauna et Flora Fennica Förhandlingar, 1, 165–282, pl. 163.

    Nylander, W. (1852) Supplementum adnotationum in expositionem Apum borealium. Notiser ur Sällskapets pro Fauna et Flora Fennica Förhandlingar, 2, 93–107.

    Olesen, J.M., Bascompte, J., Dupont, Y.L., Elberling, H., Rasmussen, C. & Jordano, P. (2011) Missing and forbidden links in mutualistic networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 278, 725–732.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.1371

    Ollerton, J., Erenler, H., Edwards, M. & Crockett, R. (2014) Extinctions of aculeate pollinators in Britain and the role of large-scale agricultural changes. Science, 346, 1360–1362.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1257259

    Pallas, P.S. (1772) Specilegia Zoologica Quibus Novae Imprimus et Obscurae Animalum Species Iconibus, Descriptionibus atque Commentariis Illustrantur (Vol. 1, Fasc. 9). Reimer, Berolini, 1772. 86 pp., 5 pls.

    Panzer, G.W.F. (1796–1809) Favnae insectorvm Germanicae initia oder Devtschlands Insecten gesammelt und herausgegeben. Felsseckerschen Buchhandlung, Nürnberg.

    Pedersen, B.V. (1999) Stenhumlen Bombus lapidarius er nu almindelig på Bornholm - Bornholm er stadig et fristed for humlebier. Fjælstaunijn, Bornholms Natur, 23, 60–62.

    Peeters, T.M. J., Nieuwenhuijsen, H., Smit, J., van der Meer, F., Raemakers, I.P., Heitmans, W.R.B., Achterberg, C. v., Kwak, M., Loonstra, A.J., de Rond, J., Roos, M. & Reemer, M. (2012) De Nederlandse Bijen (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.) (Vol. 11). Naturalis Biodiversity Center & European Invertebrate Survey, Leiden, 560 pp.

    Pérez, J.M. (1902) Espèces nouvelles de Mellifères palearctiques. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux [Procès Verbaux des Séances de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux], 57, lvii–lxviii, cxix–cxxii, clxxiv–clxxix.

    Pérez, J.M. (1903) Diagnoses d'espèces nouvelles de Mellifères. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux [Procès Verbaux des Séances de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux], 58, lxxviii–xciii, ccviii–ccxxxvi.

    Perkins, R.C.L. (1914) Synopsis of the British forms of the Andrena minutula group. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 50, 71–75.

    Pesenko, Y.A., Banaszak, J., Radchenko, V.G. & Cierzniak, T. (2000) Bees of the family Halictidae (excluding Sphecodes) of Poland: taxonomy, ecology, bionomics. Bydgoszcz: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Wyzszej Szkoly Pedagogicznej w Bydgoszczy. ix, 348 pp.

    Potts, S.G., Biesmeijer, J.C., Kremen, C., Neumann, P., Schweiger, O. & Kunin, W.E. (2010) Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 345–353.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.007

    Prŷs-Jones, O.E. & Corbet, S.A. (2011) Bumblebees, 3rd edition. Exeter: Pelagic Publishing. 130 pp.

    Rasmussen, C., Dupont, Y.L., Mosbacher, J.B., Trøjelsgaard, K. & Olesen, J.M. (2013) Strong impact of temporal resolution on the structure of an ecological network. PLoS ONE, 8 (12), e81694.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081694

    Schenck, A.L. (1853) Nachtrag zu der Beschreibung nassauischer Bienenarten (Heft VII., Abth. 2). Jahrbücher des Vereins für Naturkunde im Herzogthum Nassau, 9, 88–306.

    Schenck, A.L. (1861) Die Nassauischen Bienen. Revision und Ergänzung der früheren Bearbeitungen. Jahrbücher des Vereins für Naturkunde im Herzogthum Nassau, 14, 1–414.

    Schenck, A.L. (1870) Beschreibung der nassauischen Bienen, Zweiter Nachtrag, enthaltend Zusätze zu nassauischen Arten und die Beschreibung der übrigen deutschen Arten. Jahrbücher des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde (Wiesbaden), 21–22, 269–382.

    Scheuchl, E. (2000) Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen der Wildbienen Deutschlands und Österreichs. Band I: Anthophoridae. Eigenverlag, Velden, 158 pp.

    Scheuchl, E. (2006) Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen der Wildbienen Deutschlands und Österreichs für Osmia s.l. unter Berücksichtigung der Arten der Schweiz, Norditaliens, Ungarns, Sloweniens und der Slowakei. Band II: Schlüssel der Arten der Familien Megachilidae und Melittidae. 2. erweiterte Auflage. Apollo, Steenstrup, 192 pp.

    Schmid-Egger, C. & Scheuchl, E. (1997) Illustrierte Bestimmungstabellen der Wildbienen Deutschlands und Österreichs und Berücksichtigung der Arten der Schweiz. Band III: Schlüssel der Arten der Familie Andrenidae. Eigensverlag, Velden, 180 pp.

    Schmidt, H.T., Poulsen, K.R. & Madsen, H.B. (2013) Fem nye arter af bier for den danske fauna (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 81, 62–71.

    Schrank, F.v.P. (1781) Enumeratio insectorum Austriae indigenorum. Vienna: Apub Viduam E. Klett et Frank. 548 pp., 4 pls.

    Scopoli, G.A. (1763) Entomologia Carniolica exhibens insecta Carnioliæ indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates methodo Linnæana. Trattner, I.T., Vindobonae, 420 pp.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.119976

    Scopoli, G.A. (1770) I. Dissertatio de Apibus. In: Annus IV Historico-Naturalis. Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, Leipzig, pp. 7–47.

    Seidl, W.B. (1837) Die in Böhmen vorkommenden Hummelarten. Beiträge zur gesammten Natur- und Heilwissenschaft, 2, 65–73.

    Smith, F. (1842) Memoir on the genus Hylaeus, with descriptions of several new British species. Journal of Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London, 1841, 58.

    Smith, F. (1844a) Descriptions of the British species of leaf-cutter bees (Megachile of authors). The Zoologist (London), 2, 689–697.

    Smith, F. (1844b) Notes on various hymenopterous insects, and descriptions of two new British bees. The Zoologist (London), 2, 405–410.

    Smith, F. (1845) Descriptions of the British species of bees belonging to the genus Sphecodes of Latreille. The Zoologist (London), 3, 1011–1015.

    Smith, F. (1846a) Description of the British species of bees comprised in the genera Colletes of Latreille and Macropis of Klug; with observations on their economy. The Zoologist (London), 4, 1274–1281.

    Smith, F. (1846b) A supplementary paper containing descriptions of a few species of bees recently discovered, or omitted in the descriptions of the genera to which they belong. The Zoologist (London), 4, 1566–1568.

    Smith, F. (1847) Description of British bees belonging to the genus Andrena of Fabricius. The Zoologist (London), 5, 1662–1670, 1732–1753, 1916–1931.

    Smith, F. (1848) Description of the British species of bees belonging to the genus Halictus of Latreille. The Zoologist (London), 6, 2037–2044, 2100–2108, 2167–2175.

    Smith, F. (1849) Descriptions of new species of British bees. The Zoologist (London), 7, lvii–lx.

    Smith, F. (1851) List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata. British Museum, London, 134 pp.

    Smith, F. (1853) Catalogue of the Hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part I, Andrenidæ and Apidæ. British Museum (Natural History), London, 266 pp.

    Sparre Schneider, H.J. (1918) Die Hummeln der Kristiana-Gegend. Tromsø Museums Årshefter, 40 (1917), 1–45.

    Spinola, M. (1808) Insectorum Liguriae species novæ aut rariores, quas in agro Ligustico nuper detexit, descripsit, et iconibus illustravit (Vol. 1). Gravier, Y., Genuæ, xvii, 159 pp.

    Straka, J., Rezkova, K., Batelka, J. & Kratochvíl, L. (2011) Early nest emergence of females parasitised by Strepsiptera in protandrous bees (Hymenoptera Andrenidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, 23, 97–109.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03949370.2011.554880

    Sörensen, U., Mauss, V. & Schindler, M. (1999) Nachweise von Bienen und Wespen im Kreis Nordfriesland (Schleswig-Holstein) und Umgebung (Hymenoptera Aculeata: Chrysididae, Apidae, "Sphecidae", Pompilidae, Vespidae, Tiphiidae, Mutillidae). Faunistisch-ökologische Mitteilungen (Kiel), 7, 497–508.

    Thomson, C.G. (1870) [Forsök till gruppering af Sveriges Apiarier] Conspectus specierum Sveciæ. Opuscula Entomologica (Lund), 2, 90–100, 140–156, 251–261, 305–316.

    Thomson, C.G. (1872) Hymenoptera Scandinaviae auctore, (Apis Lin.) [Skandinaviens Hymenoptera innehållande slägtet Apis Lin.] (Vol. 2). Berlingske boktryckeriet, Lund, 286 pp.

    van der Vecht, J. (1927) Über eine neue holländische Andrena-art aus der A.ovatula K.-Gruppe, Andrena gelriae n. sp. Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden), 10, 87–89.

    Vanbergen, A.J., Baude, M., Biesmeijer, J.C., Britton, N.F., Brown, M.J.F., Brown, M., Bryden, J., Budge, G.E., Carvell, C., Challinor, A.J., Connolly, C.N., Evans, D.J., Feil, E.J., Garratt, M.P., Greco, M.K., Heard, M.S., Jansen, V.A.A., Keeling, M.J., Kunin, W.E., Marris, G.C., Memmott, J., Murray, J.T., Nicolson, S.W., Osborne, J.L., Paxton, R.J., Pirk, C.W.W., Polce, C., Potts, S. G., Priest, N.K., Raine, N.E., Roberts, S., Ryabov, E.V., Shafir, S., Shirley, M.D.F., Simpson, S. J., Stevenson, P.C., Stone, G.N., Termansen, M. & Wright, G.A. (2013) Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11, 251–259.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/120126

    Verhoeff, P.M.F. (1943) Opmerkingen over Hymenoptera aculeata. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 86, xxxix–xlii.

    Viereck, H.L. (1916) Preoccupied names in the genus Andrena (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 29, 127.

    Vogt, O. (1911) Studien über das Artproblem. 2. Mitteilung. Über das Variieren der Hummeln. 2. Teil (Schluss). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, 1911, 31–74.

    von Hagens, J. (1874) Ueber die Genitalien der männlichen Bienen, besonders der Gattung Sphecodes. Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift, 18, 25–43.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.18740180106

    von Hagens, J. (1875) Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der deutschen Sphecodes-Arten (Siehe Berl. entom. Zeitschr. 1874. S. 25.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1875, 315–318.

    von Hagens, J. (1882) Ueber die männlichen Genitalien der Bienen-Gattung Sphecodes. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1882, 209–228, pls. 206–207.

    Walckenaer, C.A. (1802) Faune parisienne, insects. Ou Histoire abrégée des insects des environs de Paris, classés d'aprés le systême de Fabricius; précédée d'un discours sur les insects en général, pour servir d'introduction à l'étude de l'entomologie. Dentu, Paris, 438 pp.

    Warncke, K. (1973) Die westpaläarktischen Arten der Bienenfamilie Melittidae (Hymenoptera). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 43, 97–126.

    Zetterstedt, J.W. (1838) Sectio secunda. Hymenoptera. In: Insecta Lapponica. Leopold Voss, Lipsiae, pp. 317–476.

How to Cite

RASMUSSEN, C., SCHMIDT, H. T., & MADSEN, H. B. (2016). Distribution, phenology and host plants of Danish bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Zootaxa, 4212(1), 1–100. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4212.1.1