Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2017-01-10
Page range: 457–481
Abstract views: 71
PDF downloaded: 4

The jumping lynx spider Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 and its Neotropical relatives (Araneae: Oxyopidae)

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. CEP 31270-901.
Araneae Lycosoidea taxonomy natural history geographic distribution


The spider genus Oxyopes Latreille occurs throughout the world, but is insufficiently known in South America and the Caribbean. In this study, three apparently related species of this genus are reported from the region. Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 is redescribed and illustrated, and extreme variation in colour pattern and in female genitalia is reported within this species. Oxyopes m-fasciatus Piza, 1938 and Oxyopes nigrolineatus Mello-Leitão, 1941 are both considered junior synonyms of O. salticus. The material examined in this study, together with information from the literature, show this species is widely distributed throughout the continental Americas and the Caribbean. Oxyopes crewi Bryant, 1948 is redescribed and illustrated, and its geographic distribution is extended to Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Saint Kitts. A new species, Oxyopes incantatus sp. nov., is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens from the Galápagos Islands.



  1. Álvarez-Padilla, F. & Hormiga, G. (2008) A protocol for digesting internal soft tissues and mounting spiders for scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Arachnology, 35, 538–542.

    Armendano, A. & González, A. (2010) Comunidad de arañas (Arachnida, Araneae) del cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Revista de Biología Tropical, 58 (2), 757–767.

    Armendano, A. & González, A. (2011) Spider fauna associated with wheat crops and adjacent habitats in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 82 (4), 1176–1182.

    Baert, L., Maelfait, J.-P. & Desender, K. (1989a) Results of the Belgian 1986-expedition: Araneae, and provisional checklist of the spiders of the Galápagos archipelago. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Entomologie, 58, 29–54.

    Baert, L., Maelfait, J.-P. & Desender, K. (1989b) Results of the Belgian 1988-expedition to the Galápagos islands: Araneae. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Entomologie, 59, 5–22.

    Baert, L., Desender, K. & Maelfait, J.-P. (1991) Spider communities of Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos, Ecuador). Journal of Biogeography, 18, 333–340.

    Baert, L., Maelfait, J.-P., Hendrickx, F. & Desender, K. (2008) Distribution and habitat preference of the spiders (Araneae) of Galápagos. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Entomologie, 78, 39–111.

    Banks, N. (1901) Some spiders and other Arachnida from Porto Rico. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 24, 217–227.

    Banks, N. (1902) Some spiders and mites from the Bermuda Islands. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 11 (2), 267–275.

    Banks, N. (1903) A list of Arachnida from Hayti; with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 55, 340–345.

    Banks, N. (1909) Arachnida of Cuba. Estación Central Agronómica de Cuba, Second Report, II, 150–174.

    Blackwall, J. (1862) Descriptions of newly discovered spiders captured in Rio de Janeiro, by John Gray and the Rev. Hamlet Clark [part]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 10 (3), 348–360.

    Boeris, G. (1889) Aracnidi raccolti nel Sud America dal Dott. Vincenzo Ragazzi. Atti della Societa dei Naturalisti di Modena, 8, 123–135.

    Bonnet, P. (1958) Bibliographia araneorum. Toulouse, 2 (4), 3027–4230.

    Brady, A.R. (1964) The lynx spiders of North America, north of Mexico (Araneae: Oxyopidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 131, 429–518.

    Brady, A.R. (1969) A reconsideration of the Oxyopes apollo species group with the descriptions of two new species (Araneae: Oxyopidae). Psyche, 76, 426–438.

    Brady, A.R. (1970) The lynx spider genus Hamataliwa in Mexico and Central America (Araneae: Oxyopidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 140, 75–128.

    Brady, A.R. (1975) The lynx spider genus Oxyopes in Mexico and Central America (Araneae: Oxyopidae). Psyche, 82, 189–243.

    Bryant, E.B. (1923) Report on the spiders collected by the Barbados-Antigua Expedition from the University of Iowa in 1918. University of Iowa Studies in Natural History, 10 (3), 10–16.

    Bryant, E.B. (1940) Cuban spiders in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 86, 247–532.

    Bryant, E.B. (1948) The spiders of Hispaniola. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 100, 331–459.

    Chamberlin, R.V. (1916) Results of the Yale Peruvian Expedition of 1911. The Arachnida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 60, 177–299.

    Crews, S.C., Esposito, L.A. & Cala-Riquelme, F. (2015) The Arachnids of Hellshire Hills, Jamaica. Caribbean Naturalist, 28, 1–14.

    Fallingrain Genomics (2006) Global Gazetteer Version 2.1. Online at (accessed on July 2016)

    Hentz, N.M. (1845) Descriptions and figures of the araneides of the United States. Boston Journal of Natural History, 5, 189–202.

    Hijmans, R.J., Guarino, L., Jarvis, A., O’Brien, R., Mathur, P., Bussink, C., Cruz, M., Barrantes, I. & Rojas, E. (2005) DIVA-GIS, version 5.2. Program and documentation available at

    Keyserling, E. (1877) Ueber amerikanische Spinnenarten der Unterordnung Citigradae. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 26, 609–708.

    Keyserling, E. (1891) Die Spinnen Amerikas. Brasilianische Spinnen. Nürnberg 3, 1–278.

    Kurczewski, F.E. (1963) A first Florida record and note on the nesting of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) texense Saussure (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). The Florida Entomologist, 46 (3), 243–245.

    Levi, H.W. (1964) Nineteenth century South American araneology. Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, 16, 9–19

    Levi, H.W. (1965) Techniques for the study of spider genitalia. Psyche, 72, 152–158.

    Levy, G. (1999) The lynx and nursery-web spider families in Israel (Araneae, Oxyopidae and Pisauridae). Zoosystema, 21, 29–64.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F. (1929) Oxyopideos do Brasil. Revista do Museu Paulista, 16, 489–536.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F. (1941) Las arañas de Córdoba, La Rioja, Catamarca, Tucumán, Salta y Jujuy colectadas por los Profesores Birabén. Revista del Museo de La Plata (N.S., Zool.), 2, 99–198.

    Mello-Leitão, C.F. (1943) Aranhas do Chile coligidas pelo Dr. J. C. Carvalho. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 3, 403–409.

    Moenkhaus, W.J. (1898) Contribuiçao para o conhecimento das aranhas de S.-Paulo. Revista do Museu Paulista, 3, 77–112.

    Mouginot, P., Prügel, J., Thom, U., Steinhoff, P.O.M., Kupryjanowicz, J. & Uhl, G. (2015) Securing Paternity by Mutilating Female Genitalia in Spiders. Current Biology, 25 (22), 2980–2984.

    Nakata, K. (2016) Female genital mutilation and monandry in an orb-web spider. Biology letters, 12, 20150912.

    Nyffeler, M., Dean, D.A. & Sterling, W.L. (1992) Diets, feeding specialization, and predatory role of two lynx spiders, Oxyopes salticus and Peucetia viridans (Araneae: Oxyopidae), in a Texas cotton agroecosystem. Environmental Entomology, 21 (6), 1457–1465.

    Petrunkevitch, A. (1911) A synonymic index-catalogue of spiders of North, Central and South America with all adjacent islands, Greenland, Bermuda, West Indies, Terra del Fuego, Galapagos, etc. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 29, 1–791.

    Petrunkevitch, A. (1929) The spiders of Porto Rico. Part one. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 30, 1–158.

    Pickard-Cambridge, F.O. (1902) Arachnida - Araneida and Opiliones. In: Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoology. London 2, 313–424.

    Piza, S. de T. (1938) Duas novas aranhas oxyópidas do Brazil. Boletim Biológico (N.S.), 3 (2), 47–48.

    Quantum GIS Development Team (2012) Quantum GIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. Avaliable from: (Accessed 9 Jan. 2017)

    Roberts, M.J. (1995) Collins Field Guide: Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe. HarperCollins, London, 383 pp.

    Rodrigues, L., Mendonça, M.D. Jr. & Ott, R. (2009) Spider diversity in a rice agroecosystem and adjacent areas in southern Brazil. Revista Colombiana de Entomología, 35, 89–97.

    Roewer, C.F. (1955) Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940, bzw. 1954. Bruxelles 2, 1–1751.

    Santos, A.J. (2007) A revision of the Neotropical nursery-web spider genus Architis (Araneae: Pisauridae). Zootaxa, 1578, 1–40.

    Santos, A.J. & Brescovit, A.D. (2003) A revision of the Neotropical species of the lynx spider genus Peucetia Thorell 1869 (Araneae: Oxyopidae). Insect Systematics & Evolution, 34, 95–116.

    Sierwald, P. (1988) Spiders of Bermuda. Nemouria, Occasional Papers of the Delaware Museum of Natural History, 31, 1–24.

    Simon, E. (1897) On the spiders of the island of St Vincent. III. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1897, 860–890.

    Taczanowski, L. (1874) Les aranéides de la Guyane française. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae, 10, 56–115.

    Townsend, V.R. Jr. & Felgenhauer, B.E. (2001) Phylogenetic significance of the morphology of the cuticular scales of the lynx spiders (Araneae: Oxyopidae). Journal of Zoology, 253, 309–332.

    Tullgren, A. (1905) Araneida from the Swedish expedition through the Gran Chaco and the Cordilleras. Arkiv för Zoologi, 2 (19), 1–81.

    World Spider Catalog (2016) World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at, version 17.5 (accessed 22 July 2016)

    Young, O.P. & Lockley, T.C. (1985) The striped lynx spider, Oxyopes salticus [Araneae: Oxyopidae], in agroecosystems. Entomophaga, 30 (4), 329–346.