Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2017-09-14
Page range: 100–120
Abstract views: 67
PDF downloaded: 2

Synopsis of extinct Bruchomyiinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Burmese, Baltic and Dominican amber, with descriptions of new genera and species

University Kassel, FB 10 Biology, Zoology, Heinrich-Plett-Straße 40, D.34132 Kassel, Germany Parkstraße 65 D-36110 Schlitz, Germany.
Diptera moth fly fossil taxonomy revision new genera new species


Bruchomyiinae from Burmese, Baltic, and Caribbean amber are revised. Five new species from Baltic, one from Caribbean and three from Burmese amber are described. Based on recently discovered specimens, additional details and corrections for previously described species are provided. Six species from Baltic amber were combined in Hoffeinsodes gen. nov. (Hoffeinsodes obtusa sp. nov., H. bifida sp. nov., H. cubicula sp. nov., H. longicauda sp. nov., H. reducta sp. nov. and H. hoffeinsi (Wagner 2006) comb. nov.), based on the fusion of gonocoxites and hypandrium, and a laterally expanded epandrium with posterolateral lobes. Genus Palaeosycorax Meunier, 1905 is re-validated, with Palaeosycorax inexpetatus (Wagner, 2012) comb. nov. included. Caribbean amber species Boreofairchildia dominicana sp. nov. and B. hennigianus (Schlüter, 1978) comb. nov. are congeneric with extant genus Boreofairchildia Wagner & Stuckenberg, 2016. Three new and two described species from Burmese amber are combined in Palaeoglaesum gen. nov. (Palaeoglaesum quadrispiculatum (Stebner et al., 2015) comb. nov., P. velteni (Wagner, 2012) comb. nov., P. muelleri sp. nov., P. bisulcum sp. nov., P. notandum sp. nov.), based on their small size relative to other Bruchomyiinae, and presence of a Y-shaped aedeagal sclerite. Keys to males of species in particular ambers are provided.



  1. Alexander, C.P. (1921) A new subfamily of tanyderid flies (Diptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 13, 402–406, pl. XXXII.

    Azar, D., Nel, A., Solignac, M., Paicheler, J.-C. & Bouchet, F. (1999) New genera and species of Psychodoid flies from the lower Cretaceous Amber of Lebanon. Palaeontology, 42 (6), 1101–1136.

    Azar, D., Perrichot, V., Nérraudeau, D. & Nel, A. (2009) New Psychodids from the Cretaceous Ambers of Lebanon and France, with a discussion of Eophlebotomus connectens Cockerell, 1920 (Diptera, Psychodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96 (2), 117–126.[0117:npftca];2

    Cumming, J.M. & Wood, D.M. (2009) Adult morphology and terminology. In: Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.), Manual of Central American Diptera. Vol. 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, pp. 9–50.

    Curler, G.R. & Jacobson, A.J. (2012) New species of Psychodidae (Diptera) from Australasia, with a checklist of the world species of Bruchomyiinae and Sycoracinae. Zootaxa, 3552, 43–65.

    Edwards, F.W. (1921) A note on the subfamily Bruchomyiinae (Diptera Nematocera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9, 7, 437–439.

    de Leon, J.R. (1950) Tres nuevas especies de Nemopalpus de Guatemala. Publication 150. University of San Carlos, Guatemala City, 27 pp. [pp. 3–29]

    Fairchild, G.B. (1952) Notes on Bruchomyia and Nemopalpus (Diptera, Psychodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 45, 259–280.

    Grimaldi, D.A. (1995) The age of Dominican amber. In: Anderson, K.B. & Crelling, J.C. (Eds.), Amber, Resinite, and Fossil Resins. ACS Symposium Series, 617, pp. 203–217.

    Hennig, W. (1972) Insektenfossilien aus der unteren Kreide IV. Psychodidae (Phlebotominae), mit einer kritischen Übersicht über das phylogenetische System der Familie und die bisher beschriebenen Fossilien (Diptera). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 241, 1–69.

    Hennig, W. (1973) Diptera (Zweiflügler). In: Helmcke, J.G., Starck, D. & Wermuth, H. (Eds) Handbuch der Zoologie. IV. Band: Arthropoda – 2. Hälfte: Insecta, 2 Teil: Spezielles. 31. Walter De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 1–200.

    Ibáñez-Bernal, S., Kvifte, G.M., Curler, G. & Madriz, I. (2014) A glossary of morphological terminology and homologies of psychodid male terminalia (Diptera: Psychodidae). Poster on 8th International Congress on Diptera, Potsdam, 10–15 August 2014, 144.

    Iturralde-Vinent, M.A. (2001) Geology of the Amber-Bearing Deposits of the Greater Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, 37 (3–4), 141–167.

    Macquart, M. (1838) Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Mémoires de la Societe royale des sciences, de l'agriculture et des arts, de Lille, 1 (2), 9–225.

    Meunier, F. (1905) Monographie des Psychodidae de l'Ambre de la Baltique. Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 3, 235–255, tables V, VI.

    Ortiz, I. & Scorza, J.V. (1963) Notas biologicas y taxonomicas sobre algunos Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) de Rancho Grande, Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 3, 341–361.

    Poinar Jr., G.O. (2001) Chapter 3.4.11. Dominican Amber. In: Briggs, D.E.G. & Crowther, P.R. (Eds.), Palaeobiology II. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp. 362–364.

    Saigusa, T. (2006) A new interpretation of the wing venation of the order Diptera and its influence on the theory of the origin of the Diptera (Insecta: Holometabola). Homology of wing venation of Diptera. 6th International Congress of Dipterology, Fukuoka, Japan, 2006, 4–20.

    Schlüter, T. (1978) Die Schmetterlingsmücken-Gattung Nemopalpus (Diptera: Psychodidae) aus dem oligozänen Harz der Dominikanischen Republik. Entomologia Germanica, 4, 242–249.

    Stebner, F., Solórzano-Kraemer, M.M., Ibáñez-Bernal, S. & Wagner, R. (2015) Moth flies and sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Cretaceous Burmese amber. PeerJ, 3, e1254.

    Tonnoir, A.L. (1940) Sur un remarquable organe sexuel secondaire chez certain mâles du genre Nemopalpus Macq. avec description d’une espèce nouvelle et d’une autre peu connue. VI Congreso Internacional Entomologia, Madrid, 1935, 203–213.

    Wagner, R. (1982) Palaearctic moth-flies: a review of the Trichomyiinae (Psychodidae). Systematic Entomology, 7, 357–365.

    Wagner, R. (2006) Amber Bruchomyiinae - descriptions of already known and new species, and the position of the 'subfamily' within Psychodidae (s. l.)(Diptera). Studia dipterologica, 13, 83–95.

    Wagner, R. & Ibáñez-Bernal, S. (2009) Psychodidae (Sand Flies, and Moth Flies or Owl Flies). In: Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.), Manual of Central American Diptera. Vol. I. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp. 319–335.

    Wagner, R. & Stuckenberg, B.R. (2012) New fossil and extant species of Nemopalpus Macquart (Diptera: Psychodidae: Bruchomyiinae). African Invertebrates, 53, 355–367.

    Wagner, R. & Stuckenberg, B.R. (2016) Cladistic analysis of Subfamily Bruchomyiinae (Diptera: Psychodidae). Zootaxa, 4092 (2), 151–174.

    Young, D.G. (1974) Bruchomyiinae in North American with a description of Nemopalpus nearcticus n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae). Florida Entomologist, 57, 109–113.