Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2017-09-20

Resolving the confused identity of Frankliniella panamensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

Plant Health and Environment Laboratory, Ministry for Primary Industries, PO Box 2095, Auckland, New Zealand.
Plant Health and Environment Laboratory, Ministry for Primary Industries, PO Box 2095, Auckland, New Zealand.
Yokohama Plant Protection Station, Kanagawa, Japan.
Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia.
USDA-APHIS, Miami Plant Inspection Station, Florida, USA.
Thysanoptera hind coxal microtrichia CO1 gene quarantine interceptions


Morphological and molecular characters are provided for distinguishing two similar species of Frankliniella that are commonly found by quarantine authorities in international shipments of horticultural produce, particularly from Colombia where panamensis and occidentalis co-exist in greenhouses.



  1. Altschul, S.F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E.W. & Lipman, D.J. (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biology, 215, 403-410.

    de Borbón, C.M., Gracia, O. & de Santis L. (1999) Survey of Thysanoptera occurring on vegetable crops as potential Tospovirus vectors in Mendoza, Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 58 (3-4), 59–66.

    Brunner, P.C., Fleming, C. & Frey, J.E. (2002) A molecular identification key for economically important thrips species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) using direct sequencing and a PCR-RFLP-based approach. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 4, 127–136.

    Buckman, R.S., Mound, L.A., Whiting, M.F, (2013) Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology, 38, 123–133.

    Cavalleri, A. & Mound, L.A. (2012) Toward the identification of Frankliniella species in Brazil (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Zootaxa, 3270, 1–30.

    Crespi, B.J., Carmean, D., Vawter, L. & Von Dohlen, C. (1996) Molecular phylogenetics of Thysanoptera. Systematic Entomology, 21, 79–87.

    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.

    Glover, R.H., Collins, D.W., Walsh, K., & Boonham, N. (2010) Assessment of loci for DNA barcoding in the genus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Molecular Ecology Resources, 10, 51–59. [xPMID: 21564990] 2009. 02723

    Hood, J.D. (1925) New species of Frankliniella (Thysanoptera). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, 20, 71–83.

    Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Ronquist, F. (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics, 17, 754–755.

    Kadirve, L.P., Srinivasan, R., Hsu, Y.C., Su, F.C. & DeLaPena, R. (2013) Application of cytochrome oxidase I sequences for phylogenetic analysis and identification of thrips species occurring on vegetable crops. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106, 408–418. [PMID:23448058]

    Kearse, M., Moir, R., Wilson, A., Stones-Havas, S., Cheung, M., Sturrock, S., Buxton, S., Cooper, A., Markowitz, S. & Duran, C. (2012) Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics, 28, 1647–1649.

    Kirk, W.D.J. & Terry, I. (2003) The spread of Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 5, 301–310.

    Li, D., Fan, Q.H., Waite, D.W., Gunawardana, D., George, S. & Kumarasinghe, L. (2015) Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). PLoS One, 10, e0131887.

    Moulton, D. (1948) The genus Frankliniella Karny, with keys for the determination of species (Thysanoptera). Revista de Entomologia, 19, 55–114.

    Mound, L.A. & Marullo, R. (1996) The Thrips of Central and South America: An Introduction. Memoirs on Entomology, International, 6, 1–488.

    Mound, L.A, Nakahara, S. & Tsuda, D.M. (2016) Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual. ZooKeys, 549, 71–126.

    Nakahara, S. & Monteiro, R.C. (1999) Frankliniella zucchini (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new species and vector of tospovirus in Brazil. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 101 (2), 290–294.

    Rambaut, A. & Drummond, A.J. (2007) Tracer v1. 4: MCMC trace analyses tool. Available from: (accessed 10 May 2017)

    Ratnasingham, S. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2007) BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data System. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 355–364.

    Rugman-Jones, P.F., Hoddle, M.S. & Stouthamer, R. (2010) Nuclear-Mitochondrial Barcoding Exposes the Global Pest Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as Two Sympatric Cryptic Species in its native California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103, 877–886.

    ThripsWiki (2017) ThripsWiki—providing information on the World's thrips. Available from: (accessed 25 July 2017)