Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2018-11-08
Page range: 301–331
Abstract views: 70
PDF downloaded: 4

Description of Paracymbiomma gen. nov., a new genus of prodidomid spiders from the Neotropical region (Araneae: Prodidomidae) including a new troglobite species

Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan. Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, CEP 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan. Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, CEP 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan. Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, CEP 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Araneae Brazil taxonomy subterranean species


Paracymbiomma gen. nov. is proposed to include six new species from Brazil: P. angelim sp. nov. (♂ ♀) from São Paulo, P. carajas sp. nov. (♂ ♀), P. bocaina sp. nov. (♂ ♀) and P. caecus sp. nov. (♂ ♀) from Pará, P. doisirmaos sp. nov. (♂) from Pernambuco and P. pauferrense sp. nov. (♂) from Paraíba. The genus is included in Theuminae by having the sternum with posterior region without rebordered margins, strongly protruding between coxae IV and with numerous long and erect setae, and by the vulva with highly convoluted ducts. It can be distinguished from the other members of the subfamily by the male palp with paracymbium, single RTA, bulb with sclerotized conductor and partly sclerotized median apophysis, and by the female epigyne with posteromedian atrium and sclerotized margin, and vulva with copulatory ducts long, strongly convoluted laterally with proximal part (closest to copulatory openings) translucent. Paracymbiomma carajas sp. nov., P. bocaina sp. nov. and P. caecus sp. nov. occur exclusively in ferruginous caves. We provide a discussion on specializations and adaptations of Paracymbiomma gen. nov. and other species of Prodidomidae to the subterranean environment.



  1. Arnedo, M.A., Oromí, P., Múrria, C., Macías-Hernández, N. & Ribera, C. (2008) The dark side of an island radiation: systematics and evolution of troglobitic spiders of the genus Dysdera Latreille (Araneae: Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands. Invertebrate Systematics, 21 (6), 623–660.

    Atzingen, N. & Crescencio, G. (1999) Estudos Espeleológicos na Serra das Andorinhas, São Geraldo do Araguaia-Pa. In: Boletim Informativo da Fundação Casa da Cultura de Marabá. Líder, Marabá, pp. 42–62.

    Azevedo, G.H.F, Griswold, C.E. & Santos, A.J. (2018) Systematics and evolution of ground spiders revisited (Araneae, Dionycha, Gnaphosidae). Cladistics. [early view]

    Barr Junior, T.C. & Holsinger, J.R. (1985) Speciation in cave faunas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16 (1), 313–337.

    Bayer, S. & Jaeger, P. (2009) Heteropoda species from limestone caves in Laos (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae). Zootaxa, 2143, 1–23.

    Bertani, R., Bichuette, M.E. & Pedroso, D.R. (2013) Tmesiphantes hypogeus sp. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae), the first troglobitic tarantula from Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 85 (1), 107–115.

    Brescovit, A.D. & Lopardo, L. (2008) The first record on the spider genus Trogloneta Simon in the southern hemisphere (Araneae, Mysmenidae), with descriptions of three new species from Brazil and remarks on the morphology. Acta Zoologica, 89 (2), 93–106.

    Brescovit, A.D., Ferreira, R.L., Souza-Silva, M. & Rheims, C.A. (2012) Brasilomma gen. nov., a new prodidomid genus from Brazil (Araneae, Prodidomidae). Zootaxa, 3572, 23–32.

    Brescovit, A.D., Magalhaes, I.L.F. & Cizauskas, I. (2016) Three new species of Misionella from northern Brazil (Araneae, Haplogynae, Filistatidae). ZooKeys, 589, 71–96.

    Buchmann, F.S., Frank, H.T., Sandim Ferreira, V.M. & Cruz, E.A. (2016) Evidence of gregarious behaviour in paleoburrows of mylondontidae (giant sloths). Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 19 (2), 259–270.

    Christiansen, K. (2012) Morphological adaptations. In: White, W.B. & Culver, D.C. (Eds.), Encyclo-pedia of Caves. Academic Press, Waltham, pp. 517–528.

    Culver, D.C., Kane, T.C. & Fong, D.W. (1995) Adaptation and Natural Selection in Caves. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 223 pp.

    Cunha Junior, W.R., Atzingen, N.V. & Crescencio, G. (2007) Estudos espelológicos na serra dos Carajás, município de Parauapebas-PA. In Anais do XXIX Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia, Ouro Preto, 1, 97–103.

    Desutter-Grandcolas, L. (1997) Are troglobitic taxa troglobiomorphic? A test using phylogenetic inference. International Journal of Speleology, 26, 1–19.

    Gallão, J.E. & Bichuette, M.E. (2018) Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment. ZooKeys, 746, 1–23.

    Griswold, C.E., Coddington, J.A., Hormiga, G. & Scharff, N. (1998) Phylogeny of the orb-web building spiders (Araneae, Orbiculariae: Deinopoidea, Araneoidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 123, 1–99.

    Hammer, O., Harper, D.A.T., Ryan, P.D. (2001) PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis, ver. 3.20. Available from: (accessed 1 August 2018)

    Holsinger, J.R. (1988) Troglobites: the evolution of cave-dwelling organisms. American Scientist, 76, 146–153.

    Huber, B.A. (2000) New World pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae): a revision at generic level. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 254, 1–347.;2

    Jaffé, R., Prous, X., Zampaulo, R., Giannini., T.C., Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L., Maurity, C., Oliveira, G., Brandi, I.V. & Siqueira, J.O. (2016) Reconciling Mining with the Conservation of Cave Biodiversity: A Quantitative Baseline to Help Establish Conservation Priorities. PLoS ONE, 11 (12), e0168348.

    Jaffé, R., Prous, X., Callux, A., Gastauer, M., Nicacio, G., Zampaulo, R., Souza-Filho, P.W.M., Oliveira, G., Brandi, I.V. & Siqueira, J.O. (2018) Conserving relics from ancient underground worlds: assessing the influence of cave and landscape features on obligate iron cave dwellers from the Eastern Amazon. PeerJ, 6, e4531.

    Jager, P. (2005) New large-sized cave-dwelling Heteropoda species from Asia, with notes on their relationships (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 112 (1), 87–114.

    Kury, A.B. & Pérez-González, A. (2008) The first cave-dwelling Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940 (Opiliones Gonyleptidae Tricommatinae), described from a Brazilian cave. Tropical Zoology, 21 (2), 259–267.

    Lehtinen, P.T. (1967) Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families, with notes on the evolution of the suborder Araneomorpha. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 4, 199–468.

    Levi, H.W. (1961) Evolutionary trends in the development of palpal sclerites in the spider family Theridiidae. Journal of Morphology, 108 (1), 1–9.

    Lin, Y. & Li, S. (2016) Mysmenidae, a spider family newly recorded from Tibet (Arachnida, Araneae). ZooKeys, 549, 51.

    Lopardo, L. & Hormiga, G. (2008) Phylogenetic placement of the Tasmanian spider Acrobleps hygrophilus (Araneae, Anapidae) with comments on the evolution of the capture web in Araneoidea. Cladistics, 24 (1), 1–33.

    Machado, E.O, Ferreira, R.L. & Brescovit, A.D. (2011) A new troglomor-phic Metagonia Simon 1893 (Araneae, Pholcidae) from Bra-zil. Zootaxa, 3135, 59–62.

    Maurity, C.W. & Kotschoubey, B. (1995) Evolução recente da cobertura de alteração no Platô N1-Serra dos Carajás-PA. Degradação, pseudocarstificação, espeleotemas. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. Série Ciências da Terra, 7, 331–362.

    Miller, J.A. (2005) Cave adaptation in the spider genus Anthrobia (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Erigoninae). Zoologica Scripta, 34, 565–592.

    Miranda, G.D., Giupponi, A.D.L. & Wizen, G. (2016) Two new species of whip spider (Amblypygi): an epigean and a cave dwelling Charinus Simon, 1892 from Belize. Zootaxa, 4098 (3), 545–559.

    Peck, S.B. & Shear, W.A. (1987) A new blind cavernicolous Lygromma (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) from the Galápagos Islands. The Canadian Entomologist, 119 (2), 105–108.

    Pedroso, D.R. & Baptista, R.L.C. (2014) A new troglomorphic species of Harmonicon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Dipluridae) from Pará, Brazil, with notes on the genus. ZooKeys, 389, 77.

    Petrunkevitch, A. (1925) Arachnida from Panama. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, New Haven, 27, 51–248.

    Piló, L.B. & Auler, A. (2009) Geoespeleologia das cavernas em rochas ferríferas da região de Carajás, PA. In Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia, 30, 181–186.

    Pinheiro, R.V.L., Maurity, C.W., Henriques, A.L., Silveira, L.T., Moreira, J.R.A., Lopes, P.R.C., Silveira, O.T., Paiva, R.S., Lins, A.L.F.A., Veríssimo, C.U.V., Pinheiro, S.H.S. & Henriques, R.V.L. (1985) Considerações Preliminares sobre a Espeleologia da Serra dos Carajás (PA). Grupo Espeleológico ParaenseGEP, Relatório inédito, 38.

    Pinheiro, R.V.L. & Maurity, C.W. (1988) As cavernas em rochas intempéricas da Serra dos Carajás Brasil. Congresso Espeleológico América Latina/Caribe, 1. Anais. Belo Horizonte, SBE, 179–186.

    Platnick, N.I. (1994) A revision of the spider genus Caponina (Araneae, Caponiidae). American Museum Novitates, 3100, 1–15.

    Platnick, N.I. & Shadab, M.U. (1976) A revision of the spider genera Lygromma and Neozimiris (Araneae, Gnaphosidae). American Museum Novitates, 2598, 1–23.

    Platnick, N.I. & Shadab, M.U. (1979) A review of the spider genera Anapisona and Pseudanapis (Araneae, Anapidae). American Museum of Natural History, 2672, 1–20.

    Platnick, N.I. & Baehr, B. (2006) A revision of the Australasian ground spiders of the family Prodidomidae (Araneae: Gnaphosoidea). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 298, 1–287.[1:AROTAG]2.0.CO;2

    Prous, X., Vasconcellos, M. & Bezerra, T. (2011) Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia de cavernas em litologias ferríferas de Carajás, PA. Anais do XXXI Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia, Ponta Grossa, 1, 515–520.

    Ramírez, M.J. (1995) A phylogenetic analysis of the subfamilies of Anyphaenidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Insect Systematics & Evolution, 26 (4), 361–384.

    Ramírez, M.J. (2003) The spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Araneae, Anyphaenidae): a phylogenetic revision at the generic level. Bulletin of the American Museum of natural History, 277, 1–262.;2

    Ramirez, M.J. (2014) The Morphology and Phylogeny of Dionychan Spiders (Araneae; Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 390, 1–374.

    Resende, L.P.A. & Bichuette, M.E. (2016) Sharing the space: coexistence among terrestrial predators in Neotropical caves. Journal of Natural History, 50 (33–34), 2107–2128.

    Rheims, C.A. & Brescovit, A.D. (2004) A new cave spider of the genus Lygromma Simon (Araneae, Prodidomidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Revista ibérica de aracnología, 9, 325.

    Ruzicka, V., Smilauer, P. & Mlejnek, R. (2013) Colonization of subterranean habitats by spiders in Central Europe. International Journal of Speleology, 42 (2), 133–140.

    Santos, A.J., Ferreira, R.L. & Buzatto, B.A. (2013) Two new cave-dwelling species of the short-tailed whipscorpion genus Rowlandius (Arachnida: Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Northeastern Brazil, with comments on male dimorphism. Plos One, 8 (5), e63616.

    Silva, M.S., Martins, R.P. & Ferreira, R.L. (2011) Cave lithology determining the structure of the invertebrate communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20 (8), 1713–1729.

    Trajano, E. & Bichuette, M.E. (2010) Diversity of Brazilian subterranean invertebrates, with a list of troglomorphic taxa. Subterranean Biology, 7, 1–16.

    Trajano, E. & Carvalho, M.R. (2017) Towards a biologically meaningful classification of subterranean organisms: a critical analysis of the Schiner-Racovitza system from a historical perspective, difficulties of its application and implications for conservation. Subterranean Biology, 22, 1–26.

    World Spider Catalog (2015) World Spider Catalog. Version 19. Natural History Museum, Bern. Available from: http:// (accessed 1 April 2018)

    Zacharda, M. (1979) The evaluation of the morphological characters in Rhagidiidae. In: Rodriguez J.G. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Acarology. Vol. I. Academic Press, New York, pp. 509–514.