Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2019-07-31
Page range: 494–510
Abstract views: 66
PDF downloaded: 4

New insights to the taxonomy of Rhagodes eylandti (Walter, 1889): A remarkable sexually dimorphic species (Solifugae: Rhagodidae)

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran Research Department of Zoological Innovations (RDZI), Institute of Applied Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran Research Department of Zoological Innovations (RDZI), Institute of Applied Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Solifugae Afghanistan camel spider intraspecific variation Iran new synonymies Rhagodes sexual dimorphism taxonomy Turkmenistan

Abstract

The taxonomy of the widespread camel spider, Rhagodes eylandti (Walter, 1889), is herein updated and revised by proposing three nominal taxa as its junior synonyms. These are based on data from males of two taxa, Rhagodes melanopygus nigricans Birula, 1905 and R. plumbescens (Walter, 1889), and a female of R. melanochaetus Heymons, 1902. Consequently, both sexes of R. eylandti are re-described and the validity of their morphological diagnostic characters is evaluated. Detailed morphological and morphometrical characters, as well as data on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variations, are provided. The illustrations of type material are given for the first time. Moreover, a distribution map and ecological notes are presented.

 

References

  1. Bird, T.L., Wharton, R.A. & Prendini, L. (2015) Cheliceral morphology in Solifugae (Arachnida): primary homology, terminology and character survey. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 394, 1–355.

    https://doi.org/10.1206/916.1

    Birula, A. (1890) Materialien zur Fauna der Solpugen Rußlands. Travaux de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de St. Pétersbourg, 21, 53–83. [in Russian]

    Birula, A. (1905) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Solifugen-Fauna Persiens. Bulletin de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St-Pétersbourg, Series 5, 22, 247–286.

    Birula, A.A. (1938) Arachnides, Ordo Solifuga. In: Fauna SSSR. 1(3). L’Académie des Sciences de l’URSS, Moscow, Leningrad, pp. i–vii. [in Russian]

    Botero-Trujillo, R. (2014) Redescription of the sun-spider Mummucina titschacki Roewer, 1934 (Solifugae, Mummuciidae) with notes on the taxonomy of the genus. Zootaxa, 3884 (4), 319–332.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3884.4.2

    Botero-Trujillo, R., Ott, R. & Carvalho, L.S. (2017) Systematic revision and phylogeny of the South American sun-spider genus Gaucha Mello-Leitão (Solifugae: Mummuciidae), with description of four new species and two new generic synonymies. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 75 (1), 3–44.

    Brookhart, J.O. & Cushing, P.E. (2004) The systematics of the Eremobates scaber species-group (Solifugae, Eremobatidae). Journal of Arachnology, 32, 284–312.

    https://doi.org/10.1636/H03-12

    Brookhart, J.O. & Muma, M.H. (1981) The pallipes species-group of Eremobates Banks (Solpugida: Arachnida) in the United States. Florida Entomologist, 64, 283–308.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/3494582

    Brookhart, j.o. & Muma, M.H. (1987) Arenotherus, a new genus of Eremobatidae (Solpugida) in the United States. Printed for the authors by Cherry Creek High School Print Shop, Englewood, Colorado. Available from: http://www.solifugae.info/ (accessed 20 February 2018)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. (1977) Adaptational biology of Solifugae (Solpugida). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 4 (2), 61–67.

    Cushing, P.E. & Brookhart, J.O. (2016) Nine new species of the Eremobates scaber species group of the North American camel spider genus Eremobates (Solifugae, Eremobatidae). Zootaxa, 4178 (4), 503–520.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4178.4.3

    Cushing, P.E., Channiago, F. & Brookhart, J.O. (2018) Revision of the camel spider genus Eremocosta Roewer and a description of the female Eremocosta gigas Roewer (Arachnida, Solifugae). Zootaxa, 4402 (3), 443–466.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4402.3.2

    Grimm, O.A. (1876) Kaspiiskoe more i ego fauna. Trudy Aralo-Kaspiiskoi Ekspeditsii, 2, 7–168.

    Gromov, A.V. (1998) Solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae) of Turkmenistan. Arthropoda Selecta, 7, 179–188.

    Harvey, M.S. (2002) The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller Arachnid orders? Journal of Arachnology, 30, 357–372.

    https://doi.org/10.1636/0161-8202(2002)030[0357:TNCWDW]2.0.CO;2

    Harvey, M.S. (2003) Catalogue of the Smaller Arachnid Orders of the World: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, 385 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643090071

    Heymons, R. (1902) Biologische Beobachtungen an asiatischen Solifugen, nebst Beiträgen zur Systematik derselben. Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschafen zu Berlin, 1901, 1–65.

    Hijmans, R.J., Guarino, L. & Mathur, P. (2012) DIVA-GIS. Version. 7.5. A geographic information system for the analysis of species distribution data. Available from: http://www.diva-gis.org (accessed 18 June 2019)

    Khazanehdari, M., Mirshamsi, O. & Aliabadian, M. (2016) Contribution to the solpugid (Arachnida: Solifugae) fauna of Iran. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 40 (4), 608–614.

    https://doi.org/10.3906/zoo-1507-34

    Kraepelin, K. (1901) Palpigradi und Solifugae. Tierreich, 12, 1–159.

    Lawrence, R.F. (1956) Solifugae (Chelicerata) from Afghanistan. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Danske Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjøbenhavn, 118, 115–140.

    Maddahi, H., Kami, H.G., Aliabadian, M. & Mirshamsi, O. (2015) Redescription of the solifug Rhagodes eylandti (Walter, 1889) (Arachnida: Solifugae) with notes on its morphological variation and geographic distribution. Zoology in the Middle East, 61, 278–284.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2015.1058450

    Maddahi, H., Khazanehdari, M., Aliabadian, M., Kami, H.G. Mirshamsi, A., Mirshamsi, O. (2017) Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae) from Iran. Mitochondrial DNA, Part A, 28 (6), 909–919.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/24701394.2016.1209194

    Muma, M.H. (1951) The arachnid order Solpugida in the United States. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 97, 35–141.

    Pocock, R.I. (1897) On the genera and species of tropical African Arachnida of the order Solifugae, with notes upon the taxonomy and habits of the group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6, 20 (117), 249–272.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939708680624

    Prendini L. (2011) Order Solifugae Sundevall, 1833. In: Zhang, Z.Q. (Ed.), Animal Biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classifcation and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3148 (1), 118–118.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3148.1.19

    Punzo, F. (1998) The Biology of Camel Spiders (Arachnida, Solifugae). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts, 301 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5727-2

    Roewer, C.F. (1932) Solifuga, Palpigrada. In: Bronn, H.G. (Ed.), Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. V Band. Arthropoda. IV Abteilung: Arachnoidea. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, pp. 1–160

    Roewer, C.F. (1934) Solifuga, Palpigrada. In: Bronn, H.G. (Ed.), Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. V Band. Arthropoda. IV Abteilung: Arachnoidea und kleinere ihnen nahegestellte Gruppen. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig, pp. 481–723

    Roewer, C.F. (1941) Solifugen 1934–1940. Veröffentlichungen des Deutschen Kolonial Übersee-Museums, Bremen, 3, 97–192.

    Roewer, C.F. (1960) Solifugen und Opilioniden, Araneae Orthognathae, Haplogynae und Entelegynae (contribution a l’etude de la faune d’Afghanistan 23). Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps- och Vitterhetssamhälles Handlingar, 6B, 8 (7), 1–57.

    Turk, F.A. (1960) On some sundry species of solifugids in the collection of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 135, 105–124.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1960.tb05834.x

    Van der Meijden, A., Langer, F., Boistel, R., Vagovic, P. & Heethoff, M. (2012) Functional morphology and bite performance of raptorial chelicerae of camel spiders (Solifugae). Journal of experimental biology, 215 (Pt 19), 3411–3418.

    https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.072926

    Walter, A. (1889) Transkaspische Galeodiden. Zoologische Jahrbe `ucher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere, 4, 1094–1109.

    Zilch, A. (1946) Katalog der Solifugen (Arach.) des Senckenberg Museums. Senckenbergiana, 27 (4/6), 119 –154.