Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2019-08-14
Page range: 591–595
Abstract views: 235
PDF downloaded: 116

First record of the invasive land flatworm Bipalium adventitium (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) in Canada

Institut Systématique Évolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 51, 75005 Paris, France
Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale (IRBV), Centre sur la Biodiversité, 4101 rue Sherbrooke Est, H1X2B2 Montréal, Québec, Canada
Service de Systématique Moléculaire, UMS 2700, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 26, 75005 Paris, France
College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
Platyhelminthes Geoplanidae


Specimens of Bipalium adventitium (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) were found in Montréal, Québec, Canada. The specimens showed the typical colour pattern of the species and barcoding (Cytochrome Oxidase I) demonstrated near-identity with a sequence of the same species from the USA. This is the first record of the species in Canada.



  1. Álvarez-Presas, M., Baguñà, J. & Riutort, M. (2008) Molecular phylogeny of land and freshwater planarians (Tricladida, Platyhelminthes): from freshwater to land and back. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 555–568.

    Breugelmans, K., Quintana Cardona, J., Artois, T., Jordaens, K. & Backeljau, T. (2012) First report of the exotic blue land planarian, Caenoplana coerulea (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae), on Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Zookeys, 199, 91–105.

    Chaisiri, K., Dusitsittipon, S., Panitvong, N., Ketboonlue, T., Nuamtanong, S., Thaenkham, U., Morand, S. & Dekumyoy, P. (2018) Distribution of the newly invasive New Guinea flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes: Geoplanidae) in Thailand and its potential role as a paratenic host carrying Angiostrongylus malaysiensis larvae. Journal of Helminthology, 1–9. [online]

    Ducey, P.K., Messere, M., Lapoint, K. & Noce, S. (1999) Lumbricid prey and potential herpetofaunal predators of the invading terrestrial flatworm Bipalium adventitium (Turbellaria: Tricladida: Terricola). American Midland Naturalist, 141, 305–314.[0305:LPAPHP]2.0.CO;2

    Ducey, P.K. & Noce, S. (1998) Successful invasion of New York State by the terrestrial flatworm, Bipalium adventitium. Northeastern Naturalist, 5, 199–206.

    Ducey, P.K., West, L.-J., Shaw, G. & De Lisle, J. (2005) Reproductive ecology and evolution in the invasive terrestrial planarian Bipalium adventitium across North America. Pedobiologia, 49, 367–377.

    Fiore, C., Tull, J.L., Zehner, S. & Ducey, P.K. (2004) Tracking and predation on earthworms by the invasive terrestrial planarian Bipalium adventitium (Tricladida, Platyhelminthes). Behavioural Processes, 67, 327–334.

    Gastineau, R., Justine, J.-L., Lemieux, C., Turmel, M. & Witkowski, A. (2019) Complete mitogenome of the giant invasive hammerhead flatworm Bipalium kewense. Mitochondrial DNA, Part B, 4, 1343–1344.

    Heimpel, G.E., Frelich, L.E., Landis, D.A., Hopper, K.R., Hoelmer, K.A., Sezen, Z., Asplen, M.K. & Wu, K. (2010) European buckthorn and Asian soybean aphid as components of an extensive invasional meltdown in North America. Biological Invasions, 12, 2913–2931.

    Hyman, L.H. (1943) Endemic and exotic land planarians in the United States: with a discussion of necessary changes of names in the Rhynchodemidae. American Museum Novitates, 1–21.

    Justine, J.-L., Lemarcis, T., Gerlach, J. & Winsor, L. (2018a) First report of the land planarian Endeavouria septemlineata (Hyman, 1939) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola, Geoplanidae) in French Polynesia. Zootaxa, 4450, 297–300.

    Justine, J.-L., Winsor, L., Barrière, P., Fanai, C., Gey, D., Han, A.W.K., Quay-Velazquez, G. L.a., Lee, B.P.Y-H., Lefevre, J.-M., Meyer, J.-Y., Philippart, D., Robinson, D.G., Thevenot, J. & Tsatsia, F. (2015) The invasive land planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae): records from six new localities, including the first in the USA. PeerJ, 3, e1037.

    Justine, J.-L., Winsor, L., Gey, D., Gros, P. & Thévenot, J. (2014) The invasive New Guinea flatworm Platydemus manokwari in France, the first record for Europe: time for action is now. PeerJ, 2, e297.

    Justine, J.-L., Winsor, L., Gey, D., Gros, P. & Thévenot, J. (2018b) Giant worms chez moi! Hammerhead flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae, Bipalium spp., Diversibipalium spp.) in metropolitan France and overseas French territories. PeerJ, 6, e4672.

    Kawakatsu, M., Ogren, R.E., Froehlich, E.M. & Sasaki, G.-Y. (2002) Additions and corrections of the previous land planarian indices of the world (Turbellaria, Seriata, Tricladida, Terricola). Bulletin of the Fuji Women’s College (Series 2), 40, 157–177.

    Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura, K. (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33, 1870–1874.

    Mazza, G., Menchetti, M., Sluys, R., Solà, E., Riutort, M., Tricarico, E., Justine, J.-L., Cavigioli, L. & Mori, E. (2016) First report of the land planarian Diversibipalium multilineatum (Makino & Shirasawa, 1983) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola) in Europe. Zootaxa, 4067 (5), 577–580.

    Moon, D.-H., Lee, Y.A. & Huh, M.K. (2011) Identification and phylogenetic relationship at Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene among Korean terrestrial planarian taxa. Journal of Life Science, 21, 939–946.

    Morffe, J., García, N., Adams, B.J. & Hasegawa, K. (2016) First record of the land planarian Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 (Tricladida: Geoplanidae: Bipaliinae) from Cuba. BioInvasions Records, 5, 127–132.

    Stokes, A.N., Ducey, P.K., Neuman-Lee, L., Hanifin, C.T., French, S.S., Pfrender, M.E., Brodie, E. D., III & Brodie Jr, E.D. (2014) Confirmation and distribution of Tetrodotoxin for the first time in terrestrial invertebrates: Two terrestrial flatworm species (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense). PLoS ONE, 9, e100718.

    Winsor, L. (1983) A revision of the Cosmopolitan land planarian Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 (Turbellaria: Tricladida: Terricola). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 79, 61–100.

    Zaborski, E.R. (2002) Observations on feeding behavior by the terrestrial flatworm Bipalium adventitium (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Terricola) from Illinois. American Midland Naturalist, 148, 401–408.[0401:OOFBBT]2.0.CO;2