Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2019-09-03
Page range: 206–220
Abstract views: 58
PDF downloaded: 1

Morphology and SSU rDNA sequences of four cyrtophorian ciliates from China, with description of a new species (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea)

Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China Ecology Group, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany
Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Protist Chlamydodon pararoseus sp. n. ciliate Cyrtophoria Dysteria ciliature SSU rRNA gene


Four cyrtophorian ciliates, Chlamydodon pararoseus sp. n., Chlamydodon bourlandi Qu et al., 2018, Dysteria crassipes Claparède & Lachmann, 1859, and Dysteria monostyla (Ehrenberg, 1838) Kahl, 1931, isolated from coastal waters off China, were investigated using morphological and SSU rDNA sequencing techniques. C. pararoseus sp. n. can be recognized by having a kidney-shaped body, a complete cross-striated band, 44–51 somatic kineties, and 11–14 nematodesmal rods. The other three species were re-described based on new populations. Additionally, the SSU rRNA genes of C. pararoseus sp. n. and D. monostyla were sequenced for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences reveal that C. pararoseus sp. n. has a close relationship with C. bourlandi and C. mnemosyne Gong et al., 2005 within the genus Chlamydodon; and D. monostyla and D. crassipes cluster with its congeners, which confirms their generic assignments.



  1. Chen, X., Pan, H.B., Huang, J., Warren, A., Al-Farraj, S.A. & Gao, S. (2016) New considerations on the phylogeny of cyrtophorian ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora): expanded sampling to understand their evolutionary relationships. Zoologica Scripta, 45, 334–348.

    Chen, X.M., Li, L.F., Al-Farraj, S.A., Ma, H.G. & Pan, H.B. (2018) Taxonomic studies on Aegyria apoliva sp. nov. and Trithigmostoma cucullulus (Müller, 1786) Jankowski, 1967 (Ciliophora, Cyrtophoria) with phylogenetic analyses. European Journal of Protistology, 62, 122–134.

    Chen, X.R., Gong, J., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S., Farraj, S.A. & Song, W.B. (2011) New contribution to the morphological taxonomy of three marine cyrtophorid ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China (Ciliophora: Cyrtophorida). Acta Protozoologica, 50, 105–119.

    Chen, X.R., Hu, X., Gong, J., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S., Al-Farraj, S.A. & Song, W.B. (2012) Morphology and infraciliature of two new marine ciliates, Paracyrtophoron tropicum nov. gen., nov. spec. and Aegyria rostellum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida), isolated from tropical waters in southern China. European Journal of Protistology, 48, 63–72.

    Claparède, E. & Lachmann, J. (1859) Études sur les infusoires et les rhizopodes. Mémoires de L’institut national Genevois, 5 (1858), 1–260.

    Deroux, G. (1965) Origine des cinéties antérieures, gauches et buccales dans le genre Dysteria Huxley. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seìances de l’Acadeìmie des Sciences, 260, 6689–6691.

    Deroux, G. (1970) La série “chlamydonellienne” chez les Chlamydodontidae (holotriches, Cyrtophorina Fauré-Fremiet). Protistologica, 6, 155–182.

    Dragesco, J. (1965) Ciliés mésopsammiques d’Afrique Noire. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 6, 357–399.

    Dragesco, J. (1966) Observations sur quelques ciliés libres. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 109, 155–206.

    Dragesco, J. & Dragesco-Kernéis, A. (1986) Ciliés libres de l‘Afrique intertropicale. Introduction à la connaissance et à l‘étude des ciliés. Faune Tropicale, 26, 1–559.

    Fauré-Fremiet, E. (1965) Morphologie des Dysteriidæ (Ciliata Cyrtophorina). Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seìances de l’Acadeìmie des Sciences, 260, 6679–6684.

    Gao, F., Song, W.B. & Katz, L. (2014) Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllophraryngea). Evolution, 68, 2287–2295.

    https:// 10.1111/evo.12430

    Gao, F., Warren, A., Zhang, Q.Q., Gong, J., Miao, M., Sun, P., Xu, D.P., Huang, J., Yi, Z.Z. & Song, W.B. (2016) The all-data-based evolutionary hypothesis of ciliated protists with a revised classification of the phylum Ciliophora (Eukaryota, Alveolata). Scientific Reports, 6, 24874. 10.1038/srep24874

    Gao, S., Huang, J., Li, J.M. & Song, W.B. (2012) Molecular phylogeny of the cyrtophorid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea). PloS ONE, 7, e33198.

    Gong, J. & Song, W.B. (2003) Morphology and infraciliature of two marine benthic ciliates, Dysteria procera Kahl, 1931 and Dysteria magna nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida), from China. European Journal of Protistology, 39, 301–310.

    Gong, J. & Song, W.B. (2004) Description of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Dysteria derouxi nov. spec., with an updated key to 12 well-investigated Dysteria species (Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida). European Journal of Protistology, 40, 13–19.

    Gong, J. & Song, W.B. (2006a) Description of a new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Brooklynella sinensis n. sp. from China Sea with a new definition of the genus Brooklynella (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida). Zootaxa, 1113 (1), 41–49.

    Gong, J. & Song, W.B. (2006b) Redescriptions of three cyrtophorid ciliates from marine biofilm, with establishment of a new genus, Wilbertella nov. gen. (Ciliophora: Cyrtophorida: Lynchellidae). Acta Protozoologica, 45, 153–165.

    Gong, J., Song, W.B. & Warren, A. (2002) Redescriptions of two marine cyrtophorid ciliates, Dysteria cristata (Gourret and Roeser, 1888) Kahl, 1931 and Dysteria monostyla (Ehrenberg, 1838) Kahl, 1931 (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida), from China. European Journal of Protistology, 38, 213–222.

    Gong, J., Song, W.B. & Warren, A. (2005) Updating the ciliate genus Chlamydodon Ehrenberg, 1835, with redescriptions of three species (Ciliophora: Cyrtophorida). Acta Protozoologica, 44, 19–32.

    Gong, J., Song, W.B., Warren, A., Lin, X.F. & Roberts, D.M. (2007) Microscopical observations on four marine Dysteria species (Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida). European Journal of Protistology, 43, 147–161.

    Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41, 95–98.

    Hu, X.Z. & Suzuki, T. (2005) Light microscopical observations on two marine dysteriid ciliates from Japan, including a description of Dysteria yagiui nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida). European Journal of Protistology, 41, 29–36.

    Hu, X.Z., Lin, X.F. & Song, W.B. (2019) Ciliate atlas: species found in the South China Sea. Science Press, Beijing, 936 pp.

    Jiang, Y.H., Zhang, T.T., Vallesi, A., Yang, X.Y. & Gao, F. (2018) Time-course analysis of nuclear events during conjugation in the marine ciliate Euplotes vannus and comparison with other ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Cell Cycle, 18, 288–298.

    Kahl, A. (1931) Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria) 2. Holotricha außer den im 1. Teil behandelten Prostomata. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 21, 181–398.

    Kurth, T. & Bardele, C.F. (2001) Fine structure of the cyrtophorid ciliate Chlamydodon mnemosyne Ehrenberg, 1837. Acta Protozoologica, 40, 33–48.

    Liu, W.W., Jiang, J.M., Xu, Y., Pan, X.M., Qu, Z.S., Luo, X.T., El-Serehy, H.A., Warren, A., Ma, H.G. & Pan, H.B. (2017) Diversity of free-living marine ciliates (Alveolata, Ciliophora): Faunal studies in coastal waters of China during the years 2011–2016. European Journal of Protistology, 61, 424–438.

    Lynn, D. (2008) The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. 3rd Edition. Springer, New York, 605 pp.

    Medlin, L., Elwood, H.J., Stickel, S. & Sogin, M.L. (1988) The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene, 71, 491–499.

    Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. Paper presented at the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans, Louisiana, 8 pp.

    Nylander, J. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala. [program]

    Ozaki, Y. & Yagiu, R. (1941) Studies on the marine ciliates of Japan, mainly from the Setonaikai (the inland sea of Japan). Journal of Science of the Hirosima University, 8, 165–184.

    Pan, H.B., Hu, X.Z., Gong, J., Lin, X.F., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S., Al-Farraj, S.A. & Warren, A. (2011) Morphological redescriptions of four marine ciliates (Ciliophora: Cyrtophorida: Dysteriidae) from Qingdao, China. European Journal of Protistology, 47, 197–207.

    Pan, H.B., Jiang, J.M., Fan, X.P., Al-Farraj, S.A. & Gao, S. (2017) Phylogeny and taxonomy of five poorly known species of cyrtophorian ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Phyllopharyngea) from China Seas. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 180, 475–492.

    Pan, H.B., Li, L., Al-Rasheid, K.A. & Song, W.B. (2013a) Morphological and molecular description of three new species of the cyrtophorid genus Chlamydodon (Ciliophora, Cyrtophoria). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 60, 2–12.

    Pan, X.M, Bourland, W.A. & Song, W.B. (2013b) Protargol synthesis: an in-house protocol. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 60, 609–614.

    Park, M.-H. & Min, G.-S. (2014) A new marine cyrtophorid ciliate, Dysteria nabia nov. spec. (Ciliophora: Phyllopharyngea: Cyrtophorida: Dysteriidae), from South Korea. Acta Protozoologica, 53, 257–268.

    Petz, W., Song, W.B. & Wilbert, N. (1995) Taxonomy and ecology of the ciliate fauna (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in the endopagial and pelagial of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Stapfia, 40, 1–223.

    Posada, D. & Crandall, K. A. (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics, 14, 817–818.

    Qu, Z.S., Li, L.F., Lin, X.F., Stoeck, T., Pan, H.B., Al-Rasheid, K.A. & Song, W.B. (2018a) Diversity of the cyrtophorid genus Chlamydodon (Protista, Ciliophora): its systematics and geographic distribution, with taxonomic descriptions of three species. Systematics and Biodiversity, 16, 497–511.

    Qu, Z.S., Ma, H.G., Al-Farraj, S.A., Lin, X.F. & Hu, X.Z. (2017) Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Aegyria foissneri sp. n. and Lynchella minuta sp. n. (Ciliophora, Cyrtophoria) from brackish waters of southern China. European Journal of Protistology, 57, 50–60.

    Qu, Z.S., Pan, H.B., Lin, X.F., Li, L.F., Aleidan, A.M.A., Al-Farraj, S.A., Stoeck, T. & Hu, X.Z. (2018b) A contribution to the morphology and phylogeny of Chlamydodon, with three new species from China (Ciliophora, Cyrtophoria). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 65, 236–249.

    Qu, Z.S., Wang, C.D., Gao, F., Li, J.Q., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S. & Hu, X.Z. (2015) Taxonomic studies on seven species of Dysteria (Ciliophora, Cyrtophoria), including a description of Dysteria paraprocera sp. n. European Journal of Protistology, 51, 241–258.

    Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., Van Der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology, 61, 539–542.

    Sela, I., Ashkenazy, H., Katoh, K. & Pupko, T. (2015) GUIDANCE2: accurate detection of unreliable alignment regions accounting for the uncertainty of multiple parameters. Nucleic Acids Research, 43, W7–W14.

    Song, W.B. & Packroff, G. (1997) Taxonomische Untersuchungen an marinen Ciliaten aus China mit Beschreibungen von zwei neuen Arten, Strombidium globosaneum nov. spec. und S. platum nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Archiv für Protistenkunde, 147, 331–360.

    Song, W.B., Warren, A. & Hu, X.Z. (2009) Free-living ciliates in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, China. Science Press, Beijing, 49–92 pp.

    Song, W.B. & Wilbert, N. (2002) Faunistic studies on marine ciliates from the Antarctic benthic area, including descriptions of one epizoic form, 6 new species and, 2 new genera (Protozoa: Ciliophora). Acta Protozoologica, 41, 23–62.

    Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics, 30, 1312–1313.

    Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731–2739.

    Wang, P., Wang, Y.R., Wang, C.D., Zhang, T.T., Al-Farraj, S.A. & Gao, F. (2017) Further consideration on the phylogeny of ciliated protists: analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear data with focus on the extremely confused class Phyllopharyngea (Protista, Ciliophora). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 112, 96–106.

    Wang, Y.R., Wang, C.D., Jiang, Y.H., Katz, L.A., Gao, F. & Yan, Y. (2019) Further analyses of variation of ribosome DNA copy number and polymorphism in ciliates provide insights relevant to studies of both molecular ecology and phylogeny. Science China Life Sciences, 62, 203–214.

    Wicklow, B.J. (1997) Signal-induced defensive phenotypic changes in ciliate protists: morphological and ecological implications for predator and prey. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 44, 176–188.

    Wilbert, N. (1975) Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. Mikrokosmos, 64, 171–179.

    Zhang, T.T., Wang, C.D., Katz, L.A. & Gao, F. (2018) A paradox: rapid evolution rates of germline-limited sequences are associated with conserved patterns of rearrangements in cryptic species of Chilodonella uncinata (Protist, Ciliophora). Science China Life Sciences, 61, 1071–1078.