Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2019-10-14
Page range: 83–111
Abstract views: 72
PDF downloaded: 3

Two new species of Manahunca, redescription of its type species, current conservation status of the genus and a survey of male glands in Stenostygninae (Opiliones: Laniatores: Biantidae)

División Colecciones Zoológicas y Sistemática, Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática, Carretera Varona No. 11835 e/ Oriente y Lindero, Reparto Parajón, Boyeros, La Habana 19, C.P. 11900, Cuba.
Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 352 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alicante, Carretera de San Vicente, s/n, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain.
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Opiliones Laniatores Samooidea taxonomy West Indies Greater Antilles sexually dimorphic glands male polymorphism


Manahunca bielawskii Šilhavý, 1973, the type species of the genus Manahunca Šilhavý, 1973, is redescribed based on abundant material from the type locality, including new data on its morphological variability and penis morphology. A neotype for M. bielawskii is herein designated due to the unknown whereabouts of the original holotype. Manahunca silhavyi Avram, 1977, is regarded as a new junior subjective synonym of M. bielawskii. In addition, two new species of Manahunca are described, M. turquino Alegre, Gainett & Giribet, n. sp. and M. matazon Alegre, Gainett & Giribet, n. sp. based on additional specimens from eastern Cuba, for which we provide new data on their geographical distribution, intraspecific variability and habitat. A new diagnosis and emended geographic distribution of the known species of Manahunca are provided, with hints on the current conservation status. The sexually dimorphic glandular structures found on the metatarsus III of males are explored for taxonomic significance in ten species of Stenostygninae. The existence of male dimorphism, most evident in the robustness of the chelicerae, is reported for two of the studied Manahunca species.



  1. Acosta, L.E, Pérez-González, A.P. & Tourinho, A.L. (2007) Methods and techniques of study. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (Eds.), Harvestmen: the biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 494–505.

    Alegre Barroso, A. & Armas, L.F. (2012) A new species of Heterolacurbs (Opiliones: Biantidae: Stenostygninae) from Puerto Rico. Journal of Arachnology, 40, 291–295.

    Armas, L.F. de.A., Alegre Barroso, R., Barba Díaz, T.M., Rodríguez-Cabrera, G., Alayón García, A. & González, P. (2017) Arácnidos. In: Mancina, C.A. & Cruz, D. (Eds.), Diversidad biológica de Cuba: métodos de inventario, monitoreo y colecciones biológicas. Editorial AMA, La Habana, pp. 196–223.

    Andersson, M. (1994) Sexual Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 599 pp.

    Avram, S. (1977) Recherches sur les opilionides de Cuba. III. Genres et espèces nouveaux de Caribbiantinae (Biantidae: Gonyleptomorphi). Resultats des Expéditions Biospéologiques. Cubano-Roumaines à Cuba, 2, 123–136.

    Buzatto, B.A. & Machado, G. (2014) Male dimorphism and alternative reproductive tactics in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Behavioural Processes, 109 (Part A), 2–13.

    Cokendolpher, J.C. & Camilo-Rivera, G.R. (1989) Annotated bibliography to the harvestmen of the West Indies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Occasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, 5, 1–20.

    Fernandes, N.S. & Willemart, R.H. (2014) Neotropical harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) use sexually dimorphic glands to spread chemicals in the environment. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 337, 269–275.

    Fernández, R., Sharma, P., Tourinho, A.L. & Giribet, G. (2017) The Opiliones tree of life: shedding light on harvestmen relationships through transcriptomics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284, 20162340.

    Fernández, R., Vélez, S. & Giribet, G. (2014) Linking genetic diversity and morphological disparity: biodiversity assessment of a highly unexplored family of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Neopilionidae) in New Zealand. Invertebrate Systematics, 28, 590–604.

    Gainett, G., Sharma, P.P., Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Giribet, G. & Willemart, R.H. (2014) Walk it off: predictive power of appendicular characters toward inference of higher-level relationships in Laniatores (Arachnida: Opiliones). Cladistics, 30, 120–138.

    Giribet, G. & Sharma, P.P. (2015) Evolutionary biology of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Annual Review of Entomology, 60, 157–175.

    Giribet, G., Sharma, P.P., Benavides, L.R., Boyer, S.L., Clouse, R.M., de Bivort, B.L., Dimitrov, D., Kawauchi, G.Y., Murienne, J. & Schwendinger, P.J. (2012) Evolutionary and biogeographical history of an ancient and global group of arachnids (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) with a new taxonomic arrangement. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 105, 92–130.

    Gnaspini, P. & Rodrigues, G.C.S. (2011) Comparative study of the morphology of the gland opening area among Grassatores harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 49, 273–284.

    Hara, M.R. & Gnaspini, P. (2003) Comparative study of the defensive behavior and morphology of the gland opening area among harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae) under a phylogenetic perspective. Arthropod Structure and Development, 32, 257–275.

    Harvey, M.S. (2002) Short-range endemism among the Australian fauna: some examples from non-marine environments. Invertebrate Systematics, 16, 555–570.

    ICZN (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, 306 pp.

    Kury, A.B. (1989) Notes on Mitobatinae III: A remarkable new Brazilian species of Mitobates Sundevall, 1833 (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Boletim do Museu Nacional, New Series Zoologia, 328, 1–12.

    IUCN (2012) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 3.1, second edition. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, iv + 32 pp.

    Kury, A.B. (2003) Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, Volumen Especial 1, 1–337.

    Kury, A.B. & Pérez-González, A. (2007) Biantidae Thorell, 1889. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (Eds.), Harvestmen: the biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 176–179.

    Kury, A.B. & Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A. (2011) Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa, 3034 (1), 47–68.

    Murayama, G.P. & Willemart, R.H. (2015) Mode of use of sexually dimorphic glands in a Neotropical harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) with paternal care. Journal of Natural History, 49 (31–32), 1937–1947.

    Núñez-Jiménez, A. (1967) Clasificación genética de las cuevas de Cuba. Ed. Provicional, La Habana, 229 pp.

    Orghidan, T.N., Negrea, S. & Bayés, N.V. (1977) Deuxième expedition biospéologique cubanoroumaine à Cuba (1973). Présentation sommaire des stations terrestres et aquatiques prospectées. In: Résultats des expeditions biospéologiques cubano-roumaines à Cuba, vol. 2, 15–40.

    Painting, C.J., Probert, A.F., Townsend, D.J. & Holwell, G.I. (2015) Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen. Scientific Reports, 5, 16368.

    Pérez-González, A. (2000) Dos casos de sinonimia en Opiliones Laniatores (Arachnida). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 1, 51–52.

    Pérez-González, A., Sharma, P.P. & Proud, D.N. (2016) Morphological tricks and blessed genitalia: rectifying the family placement of Fijicolana tuberculata (Opiliones: Laniatores: Zalmoxidae). Zootaxa, 4061 (3), 253–260.

    Proud, D.N. & Felgenhauer, B.E. (2011) Ultrastructure of the sexually dimorphic basitarsal glands of leg I in manaosbiid harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores). Journal of Morphology, 272 (7), 872–882.

    Proud, D.N. & Felgenhauer, B.E. (2013) Ultrastructure of the sexually dimorphic tarsal glands and tegumental glands in gonyleptoid harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores). Journal of Morphology, 274 (11), 1203–1215.

    Richards, A.G. & Richards, P.A. (1979) The cuticular protuberances of insects. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 8, 143–157.

    Roewer, C.F. (1913) Die Familie der Gonyleptiden der Opiliones-Laniatores. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 79A, 1–256.

    Sharma, P.P. & Giribet, G. (2011) The evolutionary and biogeographic history of the armoured harvestmen—Laniatores phylogeny based on ten molecular markers, with the description of two new families of Opiliones (Arachnida). Invertebrate Systematics, 25, 106–142.

    Sharma, P.P., Buenavente, P.A.C., Clouse, R.M., Diesmos, A.C. & Giribet, G. (2012) Forgotten gods: Zalmoxidae of the Philippines and Borneo. Zootaxa, 55, 29–55.

    Šilhavý, V. (1969) The genus Kimula Goodnight & Goodnight from Cuba (Arachnoidea, Opilionidea). Československá Společnost Entomologická, 66 (6), 399–409.

    Šilhavý, V. (1973) Two new systematic groups of gonyleptomorphid phalangids from the Antillean-Caribbean Region. Agoristenidae fam. n. and Caribbiantinae subfam. n. Vestník Ceskoslovenské Spolecnosti Zoologické, 37 (2), 110–143.

    Snodgrass, R.E. (1993) Principles of Insect Morphology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 768 pp.

    Thorell, T, (1889) Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regione vicine XXI. Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani. Annali do Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 27 (3), 521–729.

    Willemart, R.H., Farine, J.P., Peretti, A.V & Gnaspini, P. (2006) Behavioral roles of the sexually dimorphic structures in the male harvestman, Phalangium opilio (Opiliones, Phalangiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84, 1763–1774.

    Willemart, R.H., Osses, F., Chelini, M.C., Macías-Ordóñez, R. & Machado, G. (2009) Sexually dimorphic legs in a neotropical [sic.] harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones): ornament or weapon? Behavioural Processes, 80, 51–59.

    Willemart, R.H., Peìrez-Gonzaìlez, A., Farine, J.-P. & Gnaspini, P. (2010) Sexually dimorphic tegumental gland openings in Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones), with new data on 23 species. Journal of Morphology, 271, 641–653.