Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2019-12-09
Page range: 255–274
Abstract views: 74
PDF downloaded: 6

Revalidation and resurrection of Panaspis massaiensis (Angel, 1924) and the description of a new species of Panaspis Cope (Squamata: Scincidae) from south-eastern Kenya

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650223 Kunming, China Sino-African Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, 650223, China Kunming College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650204 Kunming, China National Museums of Kenya, Department of Zoology, Herpetology section, 40658-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
Port Elizabeth Museum (Bayworld), P.O. Box 13147, Humewood 6013, South Africa School of Natural Resource Management, George Campus, Nelson Mandela University, George 6530, South Africa
National Museums of Kenya, Department of Zoology, Herpetology section, 40658-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650223 Kunming, China
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650223 Kunming, China Sino-African Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, 650223, China
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650223 Kunming, China Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON M5S 2C6, Canada
National Museums of Kenya, Department of Zoology, Herpetology section, 40658-00100 Nairobi, Kenya
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650223 Kunming, China Sino-African Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, 650223, China
Reptilia Tsavo Afroablepharus cryptic species biodiversity hotspot morphology East Africa

Abstract

Historically Panaspis wahlbergi (Smith, 1849) has been the only assignable species present in Kenya. Recent studies have shown that it comprises multiple cryptic species and the nominal species is now restricted to southern Africa. Newly collected mitochondrial data (16S rRNA) helped to resolve the status of the Kenyan populations, which revealed the presence of two distant related species. Pairwise distances show average 5.87% differences between the two Kenyan species, and 3.58–5.27% and 8.62–9.15% to nominal P. wahlbergi and P. maculicollis Jacobsen & Broadley, 2000 respectively. Ablepharus massaiensis Angel, 1924 was described from the Maasai plains near Nairobi, but has long been considered a junior synonym of P. wahlbergi. We herein resurrect Panaspis massaiensis comb. nov. as a valid species and describe a new species, Panaspis tsavoensis sp. nov. from the Tsavo Conservation Area in south-eastern Kenya. Morphological examinations of specimens reveal minor differences from each other as well as nominal forms of P. wahlbergi and P. maculicollis. Panaspis massaiensis comb. nov. shares with the P. wahlbergi group a white ventrolateral stripe but can be distinguished by the presence of 26 midbody scale rows versus 24. Panaspis tsavoensis sp. nov. on the other hand, lacks the white ventrolateral stripe, most similar to the P. maculicollis group but differs in that P. maculicollis breeding males have a black patch on the neck with diagonal rows of white spots. Panaspis massaiensis comb. nov. is widespread in the Kenyan and northern Tanzanian highlands, isolated dryland montane forests and rocky hills, while P. tsavoensis sp. nov. occur in the expansive arid lowlands of Tsavo Conservation Area and should be present in similar arid lowlands in northern Kenya as well as in adjacent Tanzania.

 

References

  1. Angel, M.F. (1924) Description D’un Lezard nouveau d’Afrique Orientale, Appartement Au Genre Ablepharus (Mission Alluaud, 1903–1904). Bulletin du Museum national d’histoire naturelle, 30, 52–53.

    Barbour, T. & Loveridge, A. (1928) A comparative study of the herpetological faunae of the Uluguru and Usambara Mountains, Tanganyika Territory. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, L, 85–265.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.49344

    Branch, B. (2005) A photographic guide to snakes, other reptiles and amphibians of East Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 144 pp.

    Broadley, D.G. & Howell, K.M. (1991) A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus, 1, 1–70.

    Broadley, D.G. (2000) A review of the genus Mabuya in southeastern Africa (Sauria: Scincidae). African Journal of Herpetology, 49, 87–110.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/21564574.2000.9635437

    Burgess, N., Hales, J.A., Underwood, E., Dinerstein, E., Olson, D., Itoua, I., Schipper, J., Ricketts, T. & Newman, K. (2004) Terrestrial ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: a conservation assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C., 544 pp.

    Cerίaco, L.M.P., Branch, W.R. & Bauer, A.M. (2018) A new species of African snake-eyed skink (Scincidae: Panaspis) from central and northern Namibia. Zootaxa, 4527 (1), 140–150.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.1.12

    Cope, E.D. (1868) Observations on reptiles of the Old World, II. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 20, 316–323.

    Duff-MacKay, A. & Schiøtz, A. (1971) A new species of Hyperolius from Kenya. Journal of the East African Natural History, 29, 1–3.

    Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: Multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32 (5), 1792–1797.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkh340

    Fuhn, I.E. (1970) Contribution á la systématique des lygosomines africains (Reptilia, Scincidae). I. Les espéces attribuées au genre Ablepharus. Romanian Journal of Biology, 15, 379–393.

    Greer, A.E. (1974) The generic relationships of the scincid lizard genus Leiolopisma and its relatives. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series, 22 (31), 1–67.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/AJZS031

    Jacobsen, N.H.G. (1989) A herpetological survey of the Transvaal. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Natal, Durban, pp. 387–399.

    Jacobsen, N.H.G. & Broadley, D.G. (2000) New species of Panaspis Cope (Reptilia: Scincidae) from southern Africa. African Journal of Herpetology, 49, 61–71.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/21564574.2000.9650017

    Jesus, J., Harris, J.M. & Brehm, A. (2007) Relationships of Afroablepharus Greer, 1974 skinks from the Gulf of Guinea islands based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA: patterns of colonization and comments on taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 45, 904–914.

    https://doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.08.011

    Kocher, T.D., Thomas, W.K., Meyer, A., Edwards, S.V., Paabo, S., Villablanca, X. & Wilson, A.C. (1989) Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 86, 6196–6200.

    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.86.16.6196

    Loader, S.P., Measey, G.J., De Sá, R.O. & Malonza, P.K. (2005) A new brevicipitid species (Brevicipitidae: Callulina) from the fragmented forests of the Taita Hills, Kenya. Zootaxa, 2123 (1), 55–68.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2123.1.3

    Loveridge, A. (1920) Notes on East African lizards collected 1915–1919, with description of a new genus and species of skink and new subspecies of gecko. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1920, 131–167.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1920.tb07639.x

    Loveridge, A. (1923) Notes on East African lizards collected 1920-1923 with the description of two new races of Agama lionotus Blgr. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1923, 935–969.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1923.tb02215.x

    Loveridge, A. (1929) East Africa reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 151, 1–135.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.03629236.151.1

    Loveridge, A. (1933) Reports of the scientific results of an expedition to the southern highlands of Tanganyika Territory VII. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 74, 195–416.

    Loveridge, A. (1936) African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zoological Series, Field Museum of Natural History, 22 (1), 1–122.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.3069

    Loveridge, A. (1957) Check list of the reptiles and amphibians of east Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanganyika, Zanzibar). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 117 (2), 153–362.

    Malonza, P.K., Lötters, S. & Measey, G.J. (2010) The montane forest associated amphibian species of the Taita Hills, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History, 99 (1), 47–63.

    https://doi.org/10.2982/028.099.0103

    Malonza, P.K., Bauer, A.M., Granthon, C., Williams, D.A. & Wojnowski, D. (2019) A new species of gecko of the genus Lygodactylus (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from southeastern Kenya. Zootaxa, 4609 (2), 308–320.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4609.2.6

    Medina, M.F., Bauer, A.M., Branch, W.R., Schmitz, A., Conradie, W., Nagy, Z.T., Hibbitts, T.J., Ernst, R., Portik, D.M., Nielsen, S.V., Colston, T.J., Kusamba, C., Behangana, M., Rödel, M.O. & Greenbaum, E. (2016) Molecular phylogeny of Panaspis and Afroablepharus skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) in the savannas of sub-Saharan Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 100, 409–423.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.026

    Müller, H., Measey, G.J., Loader, S.P. & Malonza, P.K. (2005) A new species of Boulengerula Tornier (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) from an isolated mountain block of the Taita Hills, Kenya. Zootaxa, 1004 (1), 37–50.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1004.1.4

    Nieden, F. (1913) Neues Verzeichnis der Kriechtiere (ausser den Schlangen) von Deutsch-Ostafrika, I. Teil: Reptilia. Mitteilung aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 7 (1), 51–100.

    Peters, W.C.H. (1844) Über einige neue Fische und Amphibien aus Angola und Mozambique., Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Konigl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1844, 32–37.

    Peters, W.C.H. (1878) Über die von Hrn. J. M. Hildebrandt während seiner letzten ostafrikanischen Reise gesammelten Säugethiere und Amphibien. Monatsberichte der königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1878, 194–209.

    Posada, D. (2008) JModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25, 1253–1256.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msn083

    Rambaut, A. (2012) Figtree. Version 1.4.2. Available from: http://www.tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree (accessed 20 January 2018)

    Razzetti, E. & Msuya, C.A. (2002) Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Arusha National Park (Tanzania). Istituto. Oikos—TANAPA, Varese, 84 pp.

    Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology, 61 (3), 539–542.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys029

    Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics, 19, 1572–1574.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180

    Sambrook, J. & Russell, D.W. (2001) Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual. 3rd edition. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 841 pp.

    Schmitz, A., Ineich, I. & Chirio, L. (2005) Molecular review of the genus Panaspis sensu lato (Reptilia: Scincidae) in Cameroon, with special reference–the status of the proposed subgenera. Zootaxa, 863 (1), 1–28.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.863.1.1

    Smith, A. (1849) Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa; Consisting Chiefly of Figures and Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected during an Expedition into the Interior of South Africa, in the Years 1834, 1835, and 1836. Reptilia, Smith, Elder & Co, London, 248 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.120460

    Soares, L.B., Ceríaco, L.M.P., Marques, M.P., Bastos-Silveira, C., Scheinberg, L.A., Harris, D.J., Brehm, A. & Jesus, J. (2018) Review of the leaf-litter skinks (Scincidae: Panaspis) from the Gulf of Guinea oceanic islands, with the description of a new species. African Journal of Herpetology, 67 (2), 132–159.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/21564574.2017.1413015

    Sloan, S., Jenkins, C.N., Joppa, L.N., Gaveau, D.L.A. & Laurance, W.F. (2014) Remaining natural vegetation in the global biodiversity hotspots. Biological Conservation, 177, 12–24.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.05.027

    Spawls, S. & Rotich, D. (1997) An annotated checklist of the lizards of Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History, 86, 61–83.

    https://doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(1997)86[61:AACOTL]2.0.CO;2

    Spawls, S., Howell, K., Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. (2002) A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, London, 543 pp.

    Spawls, S., Howell, K., Hinkel, H. & Menegon, M. (2018) Field guide to East African reptiles. 2nd Edition. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, London, 624 pp.

    Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA 6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 2725–2729.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197

    Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1994) ClustalW: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 4673–4680.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/22.22.4673

    Uetz, P., Freed, P. & Hošek, J. (2019) The Reptile Database. Available from: http://www.reptile-database.org (accessed 16 June 2019)

    Wiegmann, A.F.A. (1834) Dr. F.J.F. Meyen, Beiträge zur Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academia Caesarea Leopoldino- Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum, 17, 185–268.