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Type: Article
Published: 2020-04-01
Page range: 77–97
Abstract views: 105
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Revision of Pazala Moore, 1888: The Graphium (Pazala) alebion and G. (P.) tamerlanus Groups, with Notes on Taxonomic and Distribution Confusions (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

School of Agriculture, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, China
86/2 Moo 5, Tambon Nong Kwai, Hang Dong, Chiang Mai, Thailand
CNRS, Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (Université de Montpellier | CNRS | IRD | EPHE), Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 Montpellier, France
College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China
Department of Life Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 116, Taiwan, China.
School of Agriculture, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, China
Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of Higher Education in Yunnan Province, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China
Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Transboundary Eco-security, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, China Institute of International Rivers and Eco-security, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650500, China
Lepidoptera male genitalia female genitalia geographic range morphological confusion divergence time


Three Graphium species belonging to two species groups of the subgenus Pazala, the alebion and tamerlanus groups, were examined in molecular and morphological studies, and their female genitalia are reported for the first time. Their relationship with other species groups within the subgenus is assessed and their divergence times are estimated. We find that G. (P.) alebion is the first lineage to diverge within Pazala in the early Miocene (20 Ma) and that G. (P.) tamerlanus and G. (P.) parus are sister species and diverged from each other in the late Miocene (7 Ma). A revision of the four recognised taxa belonging to three species is presented, and historical misidentification of these taxa and their geographic ranges are explained.



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