Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2020-05-15
Page range: 521–545
Abstract views: 96
PDF downloaded: 1

Three new Raspailiidae Hentschel, 1923 (Axinellida, Demospongiae) from Peru

Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Biociências, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal – Laboratório de Porifera – LABPOR, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rêgo, 1235, Cidade Universitária, CEP 50670-901, Recife, PE, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Biociências, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal – Laboratório de Porifera – LABPOR, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rêgo, 1235, Cidade Universitária, CEP 50670-901, Recife, PE, Brazil
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Rue Vautier 29, B–1000, Bruxelles, Belgium Université Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B–1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
Museu Nacional, Departamento de Invertebrados, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/n, CEP 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Porifera taxonomy biodiversity Eurypon Plocamione


Currently 26 sponge species are known for the Peruvian coast, but so far no raspailiids had been recorded from this region. Raspailiidae are distributed worldwide and its species are characterized by encrusting, massive, lobate, fan-shaped or branching growth forms, usually with a very hispid surface. In the present study, three new species of Raspailiidae are described from the Peruvian coast. Two new Eurypon spp. were collected at Islas Lobos de Afuera (Lambayeque). Eurypon lacertus sp. nov. is a thinly encrusting orange sponge with choanosomal skeleton composed of large tylostyles and small acanthostyles, and ectosomal skeleton with anisoxeas. Eurypon hookeri sp. nov. is a crustose, ruby red sponge, with choanosomal skeleton composed of large (subtylo)styles and acanthostyles, and ectosomal skeleton pierced by acanthostyles and (subtylo)styles, often surrounded by bouquets of smaller styles. The third new species, Plocamione matarani sp. nov., was collected at Matarani (Arequipa). It is a thinly encrusting orange sponge, the only Plocamione with two categories of choanosomal styles, and a single category of ectosomal styles, acanthostyles and anisoacanthostrongyles. These are the first records of Eurypon and Plocamione for the Peruvian coast, and the entire Southeastern Pacific, in the case of the latter.



  1. Aguilar-Camacho, J.M. & Carballo, J.L. (2013) Raspailiidae (Porifera: Demospongiae: Axinellida) from the Mexican Pacific Ocean with the description of seven new species. Journal of Natural History, 47 (25–28), 1663–1706.

    Aguirre, L.K., Hooker, Y., Willenz, Ph. & Hajdu, E. (2011) A new Clathria (Demospongiae, Microcionidae) from Peru occurring on rocky substrates as well as epibiontic on Eucidaris thouarsii sea urchins. Zootaxa, 3085 (1), 41–54.

    Azevedo, F., Cóndor-Luján, B., Willenz, Ph., Hajdu, E., Hooker, Y. & Klautau, M. (2015) Integrative taxonomy of calcareous sponges (subclass Calcinea) from the Peruvian coast: morphology, molecules, and biogeography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 173 (4), 787–817.

    Bergquist, P.R. (1967) Additions to the sponge fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Micronesica, 3 (2), 159–174.

    Bergquist, P.R. (1970) The marine fauna of New Zealand: Porifera, Demospongiae, Part 2 (Axinellida and Halichondrida). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 51, 9–85.

    Bertolino, M., Cerrano, C., Bavestrello, G., Carella, M., Pansini, M. & Calcinai, B. (2013) Diversity of Porifera in the Mediterranean coralligenous accretions, with description of a new species. ZooKeys, 336, 1–37.

    Boury-Esnault, N. & Lopes, M.T. (1985) Les Démosponges littorales de l’Archipel des Açores. Annales de l’Institut océanographique, 61 (2), 149–225.

    Boury-Esnault, N., Pansini, M. & Uriz, M.J. (1994) Spongiaires bathyaux de la mer d’Alboran et du golfe ibéro-marocain. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 160, 1–174.

    Bowerbank, J.S. (1864) A monograph of the British Spongiadae. Vol. 1. Ray Society, London, XX + 290 pp., pls. I–XXXVII.

    Bowerbank, J.S. (1866) A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. Vol. 2. Ray Society, London, xx + 388 pp.

    Bowerbank, J.S. (1874) A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. Vol. 3. Ray Society, London, xvii + 367 pp., pls. I–XCII.

    Bowerbank, J.S. (1875) Contributions to a general history of the Spongiadae. Part VII. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1875, 281–296.

    Burton, M. (1930) Additions to the sponge fauna at Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 16 (2), 489–507.

    Burton, M. (1954) Sponges. In: The ‘Rosaura’ Expedition. Part 5. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 2 (6), pp. 215–239, pl. 9.

    Burton, M. & Rao, H.S. (1932) Report on the shallow water marine sponges in the collection of the Indian Museum. Part I. Records of the Indian Museum, 34 (3), 299–356.

    Carter, H.J. (1875) Notes introductory to the study and classification of the Spongida. Part II. Proposed classification of the Spongida. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 16, 126–145.

    Carter, H.J. (1876) Descriptions and figures of deep-sea sponges and their spicules, from the Atlantic Ocean, dredged up on board H.M.S.‘Porcupine’, chiefly in 1869 (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 18 (105–108), 226–240; 307–324; 388–410; 458–479, pls. XII–XVI.

    Carter, H.J. (1880) Report on specimens dredged up from the Gulf of Manaar and presented to the Liverpool Free Museum by Capt.W.H. Cawne Warren. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 5, 6 (31), 35–61, pls. IV–VI + 129–156 + VII–VIII.

    Cavalcanti, T., Santos, G.G. & Pinheiro, U. (2018) Description of three species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 (Raspailiidae: Demospongiae: Porifera) from the Western Atlantic and a name to replace the secondary homonym Eurypon topsenti. Zootaxa, 4388 (1), 89.

    Cóndor-Luján, B., Azevedo, F., Hajdu, E., Hooker, Y., Willenz, Ph. & Klautau, M. (2019) Tropical Eastern Pacific Ampho-riscidae Dendy, 1892 (Porifera: Calcarea: Calcaronea: Leucosolenida) from the Peruvian coast. Marine Biodiversity, 49, 1813–1830.

    Dendy, A. (1905) Report on the sponges collected by professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In: Herdman, W.A. (Ed.), Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar. 3 (Supplement 18). Royal Society, London, pp. 57–246, pls. I–XVI.

    Dendy, A. (1922) Report on the Sigmatotetraxonida collected by H.M.S. ‘Sealark’ in the Indian Ocean. In: Reports of the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905. Vol. 7. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 18 (1), pp. 1–164, pls. 1–18.

    Dendy, A. (1924) Porifera. Part I. Non-Antarctic sponges. Natural History Report. British Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition, 1910 (Zoology), 6 (3), 269–392, pls. I–XV.

    de Laubenfels, M.W. (1936) A discussion of the sponge fauna of the Dry Tortugas in particular and the West Indies in general, with material for a revision of the families and orders of the Porifera. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication, Tortugas, Laboratory Paper 30, 1–225, pls. 1–22.

    de Laubenfels, M.W. (1957) New species and records of Hawaiian sponges . Pacific Science, 11 (2), 236–251.

    de Laubenfels, M.W. (1954) The sponges of the West-Central Pacific. Oregon state monographs. Studies in Zoology, 7 (I–X), 1–306, pls. I–XII.

    Desqueyroux-Faúndez, R. & van Soest, R.W.M. (1996) A review of Iophonidae, Myxillidae and Tedaniidae occurring in the South East Pacific (Porifera: Poecilosclerida). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 103, 3–79.

    Dohrmann, M. & Wörheide, G. (2017) Dating early animal evolution using phylogenomic data. Scientific reports, 7 (1), 3599.

    Ehlers, E. (1870) Die Esper’schen Spongien in der zoologischen Sammlung der K. Universität Erlangen, E.Th. Jacob, Erlangen, 36 pp.

    Erpenbeck, D., Duran, S., Rützler, K., Paul, V., Hooper, J.N.A. & Wörheide, G. (2007a) Towards a DNA taxonomy of Caribbean demosponges: a gene tree reconstructed from partial mitochondrial CO1 gene sequences supports previous rDNA phylogenies and provides a new perspective on the systematics of Demospongiae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87 (6), 1563–1570.

    Erpenbeck, D., Hooper, J.N.A., List-Armitage, S.E., Degnan, B.M., Wörheide, G. & van Soest, R.W. (2007b) Affinities of the family Sollasellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae). II. Molecular evidence. Contributions to Zoology, 76 (2), 95–102.

    Erpenbeck, D., List-Armitage, S., Alvarez, B., Degnan, B.M., Wörheide, G. & Hooper, J.N.A. (2007c) The systematics of Raspailiidae (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida: Microcionina) re-analysed with a ribosomal marker. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87 (6), 1571–1576.

    Ferrer-Hernández, F. (1914) Estudios sobre Espongiarios. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural de Madrid, 14 (9), 451–455.

    Fristedt, K. (1887) Sponges from the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and the Behring Sea. Vega-Expeditionens Vetenskap. Iakttagelser, Nordenskiöld, 4, 401–471, pls 22–31.

    Gazave, E., Carteron, S., Chenuil, A., Richelle-Maurer, E., Boury-Esnault, N. & Borchiellini, C. (2010) Polyphyly of the Genus Axinella and of the Family Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiaep). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 57 (1), 35–47.

    Gazave, E., Lapébie, P., Ereskovsky, A.V., Vacelet, J., Renard, E., Cárdenas, P. & Borchiellini, C. (2012) No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera. In Ancient Animals, New Challenges, 3–10.

    Gray, J.E. (1867) Notes on the arrangement of sponges, with the descriptions of some new genera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1867 (2), 492–558, pls. XXVII–XXVIII.

    Hajdu, E., Hooker, Y. & Willenz, Ph. (2015) New Hamacantha from Peru and resurrection of Zygherpe as subgenus (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Hamacanthidae). Zootaxa, 3926 (1), 87–99.

    Hajdu, E., Peixinho, S. & Fernandez, J. (2011) Esponjas marinhas da Bahia: Guia de campo e laboratório. Série Livros 45. Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 276 pp.

    Hentschel, E. (1911) Tetraxonida. 2. Teil. In: Michaelsen, W. & Hartmeyer, R. (Eds.), Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Ergebnisse der Hamburger südwest-australischen Forschungsreise 1905. 3 (10). Fischer, Jena, pp. 279–393.

    Hentschel, E. (1912) Kiesel- und Hornschwämme der Aru- und Kei-Inseln. Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 34 (3), 293–448, pls. 13–21.

    Hentschel, E. (1923) Erste unterabteilung der metazoa: Parazoa, Porifera-Schwämme. In: Kükenthal, W. & Krumbach, T. (Ed.), Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichteder Stämme des Tierreiches. Vol. 1. Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Mesozoa. Walter de Gruyter und Co, Berlin, pp. 307–418.

    Hooker, Y. (2008) Esponjas marinas, vidas secretas bajo el mar peruano. Viajeros, Conservación y Culturas, 25, 50–56.

    Hooper, J.N.A. (1996) Revision of Microcionidae (Porifera: Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae), with description of Australian species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 40, 1–626. Available from: (accessed 15 February 2019)

    Hooper, J.N.A. (2002) Family Raspailiidae Hentschel, 1923. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.), Systema Porifera. A Guide to the classification of sponges Vol. 1. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 469–510.

    Hoshino, T. (1981) Shallow-water Demosponges of Western Japan, 1. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University (B), 29 (1), 47–205.

    Klautau, M., Azevedo, F., Cóndor-Luján, B., Rapp, H.T., Collins, A. & Russo, C.A.D.M. (2013) A molecular phylogeny for the Order Clathrinida rekindles and refines Haeckel’s taxonomic proposal for calcareous sponges. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 53 (3), 447–461.

    Lendenfeld, R. von (1888) Descriptive Catalogue of the Sponges in the Australian Museum, Sidney. Taylor & Francis, London, XIV + 260 pp., 12 pls.

    Lendenfeld, R. von (1898) Die Clavulina der Adria. Nova acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino Carolinae germanicae naturaecuriosorum, 69, 1–251, pls. I–XII.

    Lévi, C. (1953) Sur une nouvelle classification des Démosponges. Compte rendu hebdomadaire des séances de l’Académie des sciences, Paris, 236 (8), 853–855.

    Lévi, C. (1958) Résultats scientifiques des campagnes de la ‘Calypso’. Campagne 1951–1952 en Mer Rouge (suite). 11. Spongiaires de Mer Rouge recueillis par la ‘Calypso’ (1951–1952). Annales de l’Institut océanographique, 34 (3), 3–46.

    Lévi, C. (1969) Spongiaires du Vema Seamount (Atlantique Sud). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 41 (4), 952–973.

    Lévi, C. (1993) Porifera Demospongiae: Spongiaires bathyaux de Nouvelle-Calédonie, récoltés par le ‘Jean Charcot’ Campagne BIOCAL, 1985. In: Crosnier, A. (Ed.), Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM. Vol. 11. Mémoires du Muséum national de l’Histoire naturelle, (A), 158, pp. 9–87.

    Lévi, C. & Lévi, P. (1983) Démosponges bathyales récoltées par le N/O‘Vauban’ au sud de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 4 (A), 5 (4), 931–997.

    Little, F.J. Jr. (1963) The sponge fauna of the St. George’s Sound, Apalache Bay, and Panama City Regions of the Florida Gulf Coast. Tulane Studies in Zoology, 11 (2), 31–71.

    Morrow, C.C. & Cárdenas, P. (2015) Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology, 12 (1), 7.

    Morrow, C.C., Picton, B.E., Erpenbeck, D., Boury-Esnault, N., Maggs, C.A. & Allcock, A.L. (2012) Congruence between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in Demospongiae: a new hypothesis for relationships within the G4 clade (Porifera: Demospongiae). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 62 (1), 174–190.

    Morrow, C.C., Redmond, N.E., Picton, B.E., Thacker, R.W., Collins, A.G., Maggs, C. A., Sigwart, J.D. & Allcock, A.L. (2013) Molecular phylogenies support homoplasy of multiple morphological characters used in the taxonomy of Heteroscleromorpha (Porifera: Demospongiae). Integrative and Comparative Biology, 53 (3), 428–446.

    Nardo, G.D. (1833) Auszug aus einem neuen System der Spongiarien, wornach bereits die Aufstellung in der Universitäts-Sammlung zu Padua gemacht ist. In: Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung Coll. Oken, Jena, pp. 519–523.

    Nichols, S.A. (2005) An evaluation of support for order-level monophyly and interrelationships within the class Demospongiae using partial data from the large subunit rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 34 (1), 81–96.

    Norman, A.M. (1878) On the Genus Haliphysema, with descriptions of several forms apparently allied to it. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 5, 1 (4), 265–284, pl. XVI.

    Redmond, N.E., Morrow, C.C., Thacker, R.W., Diaz, M.C., Boury-Esnault, N., Cárdenas, P., Hajdu, E., Lôbo-Hajdu, G., Picton, B.E., Pomponi, A., Kayal, E. & Collins, A.G. (2013). Phylogeny and systematics of Demospongiae in light of new small-subunit ribosomal DNA (18S) sequences. Integrative and comparative biology, 53 (3), 388–415.

    Ridley, S.O. (1885) Monaxonida, in Tizard, T.H., H.N. Moseley, J.Y. Buchanan & J. Murray. 1885. Narrative of the cruise of H.M.S. Challenger, with a general account of the scientific results of the Expedition. Reports of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the Challenger, 1 (1–2), 569–573.

    Ridley, S.O. & Duncan, P.M. (1881) On the Genus Plocamia, Schmidt, and on some other sponges of the Order Echinonemata. With descriptions of two additional new species of Dirrhopalum. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology, 15 (88), 476–497, pls. 28–29.

    Santos, G.G., França, F. & Pinheiro, U. (2014) Three new species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 from Northeastern Brazil (Poecilosclerida; Demospongiae; Porifera). Zootaxa, 3895 (2), 273–284.

    Sarà, M. (1960) Poriferi del litorale dell’isola d’lschia e loro ripartizione per ambienti. Pubblicazioni della Stazione zoologica di Napoli, 31 (3), 421–472, pls. XII–XIII.

    Sarà, M. & Siribelli, L. (1960) La fauna di Poriferi delle ‘secche’ del Golfo di Napoli. 1. La ‘secca’ della Gaiola. Annuario dell’Istituto e Museo de Zoologia dell’Università di Napoli, 12 (3), 1–93.

    Schmidt, O. (1870) Grundzüge einer Spongien-Fauna des atlantischen Gebietes. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 88 pp.

    Schuster, A., Erpenbeck, D., Pisera, A., Hooper, J.N.A., Bryce, M., Fromont, J. & Wörheide, G. (2015) Deceptive desmas: molecular phylogenetics suggests a new classification and uncovers convergent evolution of lithistid demosponges. PloS one, 10 (1), e116038.

    Sollas, W.J. (1885) A Classification of the sponges. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 5, 16 (95), 395.

    Stephens, J. (1921 [1920]) Sponges of the Coasts of Ireland. II. The Tetraxonida (concluded). Scientific Investigations of the Fisheries Branch, Department of Agriculture for Ireland, 1920 (2), 1–75, pls. I–VI.

    Strand, E. (1928) Miscellaniea nomen-clatorica zoologica et palaeontologica. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 92 (8), 30–75.

    Thiele, J. (1905) Die Kiesel- und Hornschwämme der Sammlung Plate. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Supplement 6 (Fauna Chilensis III), 407–496, pls. 27–33.

    Thomas, P.A. (1981) A second collection of marine Demospongiae from Mahe Island in the Seychelles Bank (Indian Ocean). Annales du Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale. Serie in 8-Sciences Zoologiques, Belgium, 233, 1–63.

    Thomas, P.A. (1985) Demospongiae of the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay. In: James, P.S.B.R. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Marine Biology. Today Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, pp. 205–365.

    Topsent, E. (1889) Quelques spongiaires du Banc de Campêche et de la Pointe-à-Pître. Mémoires de la Société zoologique de France, 2, 30–52.

    Topsent, E. (1891) Essai sur la faune des spongiaires de Roscoff. Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale, Series 2, 9 (4), 523–554, pl. XXII.

    Topsent, E. (1894) Application de la taxonomie actuelle à une collection de spongiaires du Banc de Campêche et de la Guadeloupe décrite précédemment. Mémoires de la Société zoologique de France, 7, 27–36.

    Topsent, E. (1904) Spongiaires des Açores. Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies par le Prince Albert I, Monaco, 25, 1–280, pls. 1–18.

    Topsent, E. (1920) Spongiaires du Musée Zoologique de Strasbourg. Monaxonides. Bulletin de l’Institut océanographique, Monaco, 381, 1–36.

    Topsent, E. (1927) Diagnoses d’Éponges nouvelles recueillies par le Prince Albert ler de Monaco. Bulletin de l’Institut océanographique, Monaco, 502, 1–19.

    Topsent, E. (1928) Spongiaires de l’Atlantique et de la Méditerranée provenant des croisières du Prince Albert ler de Monaco. Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies par le Prince Albert I, Monaco, 74, 1–376, pls. I–XI.

    Topsent, E. (1931 [1930]) Éponges de Lamarck conservées au Muséum de Paris. Archives du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, Series 6, 5, 1–56, pls. I–IV.

    Topsent, E. (1936) Éponges observées dans les parages de Monaco. Deuxième partie. Bulletin de l’Institut océanographique, Monaco, 686, 1–7.

    Uriz, M.J. (1988) Deep-water sponges from the continental shelf and slope off Namibia (Southwest Africa): Classses Hexactinellida and Demospongia. Monografías de Zoología Marina, 3, 9–157.

    Vacelet, J. (1969) Éponges de la Roche du Large et de l’étage bathyal de Méditerranée (Récoltes de la soucoupe plongeante Cousteau et dragages). Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, A (Zoologie), 59 (2), 145–219, pls. I–IV.

    van Soest, R.W.M, Boury-Esnault, N., Hooper, J.N.A., Rützler, K., de Voogd, N.J., Alvarez de Glasby, B., Hajdu, E., Pisera, A.B., Manconi, R., Schoenberg, C., Klautau, M., Picton, B., Kelly, M., Vacelet, J., Dohrmann, M., Díaz, M.C., Cárdenas, P. & Carballo, J.L. (2019) World Porifera database. Available from: (accessed 10 March 2019)

    van Soest, R.W.M., Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C. (2000) Sponges of the North East Atlantic. In: World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM Series, Windows/Mac version 1.0. ETI, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam). Available from: (accessed 24 March 2020)