Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2020-06-25
Page range: 1–41
Abstract views: 249
PDF downloaded: 10

Two new species of the whip-spider genus Heterophrynus (Arachnida: Amblypygi) with complementary information of four species

Laboratório de Entomología, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Carrera 7 N°. 40–62, Bogotá.
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo. Rua do Matão, trav. 14, n° 321, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo- SP, CEP: 05508-090.
Laboratório de Entomología, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Carrera 7 N°. 40–62, Bogotá.
Arachnida Biodiversity Heterophryninae Phrynidae South America


The family Phrynidae has been mainly recorded from America, including the Antilles, and Heterophrynus is one of its genera endemic of South America and is mainly associated with Amazonian ecosystems. Currently, the genus has 16 valid species, but many original descriptions are ambiguous or incomplete. The more complete work about this genus only includes seven of the currently valid species, and in some cases, some characters useful for the species identification, were not described. This situation hampers the species recognition and the comparison among species to propose diagnosis accurate. Using characters from the male and female genitalia to improve the diagnosis, we present complementary descriptions for four species of Heterophrynus and describe two new species. We present details of morphologic variation, compare the pedipalp spines among the species, present actualized distributions, and for first time, we present a complete illustration of the male genital of eight species using SEM pictures.



  1. Álvarez, D., Armas, L.F. & Díaz, J. (2015) Una especie nueva de Heterophrynus (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) del nordeste de Colombia. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 27, 45–49.

    Amado, E. & Morales, L. (1986a) Notas sobre los crecimientos alométricos en poblaciones del género Heterophrynus (Arachnida, Amblypygi). Boletín de ciencias del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de La Salle, 2 (1), 23–35.

    Amado, E. & Morales, L. (1986b) Variación morfológica en poblaciones alopáticas de Heterophrynus (Arachnida, Amblypygi, Phrynidae). Revista de la Universidad de La Salle, 6 (13), 31–41.

    Armas, L.F. (2015) Una especie nueva de Heterophrynus Pocock, 1894 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) del Suroeste de Colombia. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 27, 95–98.

    Armas, L.F., Guzmán, A. & Francke, O. (2014) Una espécie nueva de Phrynus (Amblypygi:Phrynidae) de México. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 25, 3–7.

    Armas, L.F., Palomino-Cárdenas, A. & Castillo-Espinoza, M. (2016) Amblipigios de los departamentos Cusco y Madre De Dios, Perú, con la descripción de un nuevo Charinus (Amblypygi: Charinidae, Phrynidae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 28, 45–50.

    Armas, L.F., Torres, R. & Álvarez, D. (2015) Nueva especie de Heterophrynus (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) del Caribe Colombiano. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 26, 69–73.

    Batallón-Estacio, R. & Armas, L.F. (2019) Una especie nueva de Charinus (Amblypygi: Charinidae) del departamento de Huánuco, Perú. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 35, 15–19.

    Butler, A.G. (1873) A monographic revision of the genus Phrynus, with descriptions of four remarkable new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 12, 117–125.

    Butler, A.G. (1879) Respecting a new distinction between the species of the genus Phrynus of authors. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series5, 4, 313–316.

    Caporiacco, L. di (1948) Arachnida of British Guiana collected in 1931 and 1936 Professors Beccari and Romiti. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 118, 607–747.

    Chirivi, D. (2017) A new species of Phrynus Lamarck, 1801 (Arachnida: Amblypygi), from Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela, with a redescription of Phrynus pulchripes (Pocock, 1894). Zootaxa, 4254 (3), 357–374.

    Chirivi, D. & Armas, L.F. (2012) La subfamilia Phryninae (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) en Colombia. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A), 50, 395–402.

    Gervais, P. (1842) Entomologie. L’Institut, Journal Universal des Sciences et des Sociétés Savantes en France et a l’Étranger, 1ère Section, 10, 76.

    Giupponi, A. & Miranda, G. (2016) Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status. PLoS ONE, 11 (2), e0148277.

    Giupponi, A. (2002) duas novas sinonímias no gênero Heterophrynus Pocock, 1894 (Amblypygi, Phrynidae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 6, 173–175.

    Giupponi, A. & Kury, A. (2013) Two new species of Heterophrynus Pocock, 1894 from Colombia with distribution notes and a new synonymy (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Phrynidae). Zootaxa, 3647 (2), 329–342.

    Hammen, L. van der (1986) Comparative studies in Chelicerata IV. Apatellata, Arachnida, Scorpionida, Xiphosura. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 226, 1–52.

    Hammen, L. van der (1989) An introduction to comparative arachnology. SPB Academic

    Publishing, The Hague, 576 pp.

    Harvey, M.S. (2003) Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, 385 pp.

    Harvey, M.S. & West, P. (1998) New species of Charon (Amblypygi, Charontidae) from Northern Australia and Christmas Island. The Journal of Arachnology, 26, 273–284.

    Igelmund, P. (1987) Morphology, sense organs, and regeneration of the forelegs (whips) of the whip spider Heterophrynus elaphus (Arachnida, Amblypygi). Journal of Morphology, 193, 75–89.

    Igelmund, P. & Wendler, G. (1985) Periphere Rieseninterneurone in den Tastbeinen von Geisselspinnen (Amblypygi, Arachnida). Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 78, 287.

    Igelmund, P. & Wendler, G. (1991a) The giant fibre system in the forelegs (whips) of the whip spider Heterophrynus elaphus Pocock (Arachnida: Amblypygi). Journal of Comparative Physiology, A, 168, 63–73.

    Igelmund, P. & Wendler, G. (1991b) Morphology and physiology of peripheral giant interneurons in the forelegs (whips) of the whip spider Heterophrynus elaphus Pocock (Arachnida: Amblypygi). Journal of Comparative Physiology, A, 168, 75–83.

    Kraepelin, K. (1895) Revision der Tarantuliden Fabr. Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, 13 (3), 3–53.

    Kraepelin, K. (1899) Scorpiones und Pedipalpi. Tierreich, 8, i–xviii + 1–265.

    Lehmann, T. & Friedrich, S. (2018) DNA barcoding the smaller arachnid orders from ACP Panguana, Amazonian Peru (Amblypygi, Phrynidae and Schizomida, Hubbardiidae). Spixiana, 41 (2), 169–172.

    Mello-Leitão, C. (1931) Pedipalpos do Brasil e algumas notas sobre a ordem. Archivos do Museu Nacional, 33, 7–72.

    Mello-Leitão, C. (1940) Algunos Aracnidos de Sudamerica. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 43, 169–176.

    Mello-Leitão, C. & Feio, J. de A. (1949) Notas sôbre pequena colecção de arachnídios do Perú. Boletim do Museu Goeldi de Historia Naturel e Ethnographia, 10, 313–324.

    Miranda, G., Giupponi, A. & Kury, A. (2018) Review of Trichodamon Mello-Leitão 1935 and phylogenetic placement of the genus in Phrynichidae (Arachnida, Amblypygi). Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology, 273, 33–55.

    Pinto-da-Rocha, R. (1997) Systematic review of the Neotropical family Stygnidae (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptoidea). Arquivos de Zoologia, Museu da Universidade de São Paulo, 33 (4), 163–342.

    Pocock, R.I. (1894a) Contributions to our knowledge of the arthropod fauna of the West Indies. III. Supplement on the Pedipalpi of the West Indies. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology, 24, 527–542.

    Pocock, R.I. (1894b) Notes on the Pedipalpi of the family Tarantulidae contained in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6, 14, 273–298.

    Pocock, R.I. (1902) Arachnida: Scorpiones, Pedipalpi & Solifugae. In: Godman, F.D. & Salvin, O. (Eds.), Biologia Centrali-Americana. Vol. 3. Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 1–71.

    Pocock, R.I. (1903) Descriptions of four new Arachnida of the orders Pedipalpi, Solifugae, and Araneae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7, 11, 220–226.

    Quintero, D. (1981) The amblypygid genus Phrynus in the Americas (Amblypygi, Phrynidae). Journal of Arachnology, 9, 117–166.

    Quintero, D. (1986) Revision de la clasificación de Amblypygidos pulvinados: creación de subordenes, una nueva familia y un nuevo género con tres nuevas especies (Arachnida: Amblypygi). In: Eberhard, W.G, Lubin, Y.D. & Robinson, B.C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Arachnology, Panama 1983. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 203–212.

    Réveillion, F., Olivier, P. & Höfer, H. (2014) First record of Heterophrynus elaphus (Pocock, 1903) (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) for Bolivia. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, 25, 102.

    Roewer, C.F. (1952) Neotropische Arachnida Arthrogastra, zumeist aus Peru. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 33, 37–58.

    Roewer, C.F. (1956) Arachnida Arthrogastra aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 37, 429–445.

    Roewer, C.F. (1957) Arachnida Arthrogastra aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 38, 67–94.

    Salgado-Roa, F., Pardo-Diaz, C., Lasso, E., Arias, C., Nisaka, V. & Salazar, C. (2018) Gene flow and Andean uplift shape the diversification of Gasteracantha cancriformis (Araneae: Araneidae) in Northern South America. Ecology and Evolution, 8, 7131–7142.

    Selden, P.A., Shear, W.A. & Bonamo, P.M. (1991) A spider and other arachnids from the Devonian of New York, and reinterpretations of Devonian Araneae. Palaeontology, 34, 241–281.

    Shultz, J.W. (1999) Muscular anatomy of a whipspider, Phrynus longipes (Pocock) (Arachnida: Amblypygi), and its evolutionary significance. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 126, 81–116.

    Vásquez, S., Chirivi, D., Garcia, A., Matilla-Meluk, H. & Torres, J. (2019) Variación morfológica en Heterophrynus boterorum (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Phrynidae). Biota Colombiana, 20 (2), 32–45.

    Víquez, C., Chirivi, D, Moreno-González, J. & Christensen, J. (2014) Heterophrynus armiger Pocock, 1902 (Amblypygi: Phrynidae): First record from Colombia, with notes on its historic distribution records and natural history. Check List, 10 (2), 457–460.

    Werner, F. (1935) Klasse: Arachnoidea, Spinnentiere. Pedipalpen. In: Bronn, H.G. (Ed.), Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Vol. 5 (IV) (8) (3). Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, pp. 317–490.

    Weygoldt, P. (1972) Geisselskorpione und Geisselspinnen (Uropygi und Amblypygi). Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo, 15, 95–107.

    Weygoldt, P. (1974) Vergleichende Untersuchungen au zwei Heterophrynus (Admetus)-Arten, H. longicornis Butler und H. batesii (Arachnida, Amblypygi, Tarantulidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 192, 175–191.

    Weygoldt, P. (1977) Coexistence of two species of whip spiders (genus Heterophrynus) in the Neotropical rain forest (Arachnida, Amblypygi). Oecologia, 27, 363–370.

    Weygoldt, P. (1994) Amblypygi. In: Juberthie, C. & Decu, V. (Eds.), Encyclopaedia biospeologica. Vol. 1. Société de Biospéologie, Moulis and Bucarest, pp. 241–247.

    Weygoldt, P. (1996) Evolutionary morphology of whip spiders: towards a phylogenetic system (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Amblypygi). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolution Research, 34, 185–202.

    Weygoldt, P. (2000) Whip Spiders (Chelicerata: Amblypygi): Their biology, morphology and systematics. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 163 pp.

    Weygoldt, P. (2002) Amblypygi. In: Adis, J. (Ed.), Amazonian Arachnida and Myriapoda. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Moscow, pp. 293–302.

    Wood, H.C. (1869) On the Phalangia and Pedipalpi collected by Professor Orton in western South America, with the description of new African species, accompanied with a plate. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 13, 435–442.