Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2020-10-30
Page range: 1–54
Abstract views: 548
PDF downloaded: 9

The Muscidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia, descriptions of two new species, new records and updated list of species

Centre for Environmental Research and Studies, Jazan University, P.O. Box 2095, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Department of Biology, College of Science, King Khalid University, PO Box 9004, Abha-61413, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
National Museum of Wales, Department of Natural Sciences, Entomology Section, Cardiff, CF10 3NP, UK.
Diptera faunistics house flies Muscidae new records new species Saudi Arabia


Despite the economic and medical importance of many species of Muscidae knowledge of species occurring in Saudi Arabia is insufficient. As part of a study on the biodiversity of Diptera of south-western Saudi Arabia a survey of the Diptera fauna of Jazan, Asir and Najran was performed from 2010 to 2015 at 22 sites. Seventy one known taxa of Muscidae were identified and recorded, 29 of which were recorded for the first time from south-western Saudi Arabia and two new species; Atherigona (Acritochaeta) afrotropicalis Deeming sp. nov. and Helina ponti Deeming sp. nov. are here described. Thus, the total number of Muscidae species that has been recorded from Saudi Arabia (including previous records of 31 species) is 102 and two subspecies. A list of all species and subspecies of Muscidae recorded from Saudi Arabia is provided. The species of Muscidae listed are predominantly of Afrotropical distribution as compared to other regions. Images of 78 taxa are presented. In addition to the results of the identifications all available literature about Muscidae of Saudi Arabia is summarized. Biological information (where known) on the species recorded in this study and the Middle East distribution are included. By developing a research collection and a checklist of species of Muscidae we hope to provide the basis for systematic studies and biogeographical and faunistic analyses, and the necessary guidelines for management of these important flies. The need for further field and laboratory work and surveillance surveys is highlighted.



  1. Abu-Thuraya, N.H. (1982) General Survey, Agricultural in Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Agriculture Research Department of Plant Protection, Riyadh, 326 pp.

    Abu-Zoherah, R., Al-Taher, K. & Tilkian, S. (1993) List of Insects Recorded from Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water, National Agriculture and Water Research Centre, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, 394 pp.

    Adams, C.F. (1905) Diptera africana. Kansas University Science Bulletin, 3, 149–208.

    Al-Ahmadi, A.Z. & Salem, M.M. (1999) Entomofauna of Saudi Arabia. Part 1. Checklist of Insects. Academic Publishing & Press, King Saud University, Riyadh, 240 pp.

    Al-Houty, W. (1989) Insect Fauna of Kuwait. Kuwait; Fahad Al-Marzouk, Printing & Publishing Establishment, Kuwait, 189 pp.

    Ahmad, A., Nagaraja, T.G. & Zurek, L. (2007) Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to cattle by house flies. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 80, 74–81.

    Al-Misned, F.A.M. (2003) Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Muscidae) a muscid species new for Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 35 (2), 119–123.

    Anton, E., Niederegger, S. & Beutel, R.G. (2011) Beetles and flies collected on pig carrion in an experimental setting in Thuringia and their forensic implications. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 25, 353–364.

    Arafat, A. (1974) Agriculture Pests of Economic Importance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Vol. II. Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 370 pp.

    Austen, E.E. (1907) A new genus and species of phlebotomic Muscidae from Aden. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7, 19 (113), 445–448.

    Austen, E.E. (1909) New genera and species of blood-sucking Muscidae from the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, in the British Museum (Natural History). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8, 3, 285–299.

    Ba-angood, S.A. & Hubaishan, M.A. (1985) Effect of sowing date and cultivars of sorghum on infestation by Atherigona yorki, Sesamia cretica and Chilo partellus in Yemen. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 104, 61–66.

    Beccari, F. (1971) Contribuo alla conoscenza dell’ Entomofauna dell’ Arabia Saudita. Primo elenco di insetti, acari e nematodi (Part). Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 65, 178–211.

    Becker, T. (1903) Aegyptische Dipteren (Fortsetzung und Schluss). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 2, 67–195.

    Becker, T. (1904) Die palaearktischen Formen der Dipterengattung Lispa Latr. Zeitschrift für Entomologie, Neue Folge, 29, 1–70.

    Becker, T. (1908) Dipteren der Kanarischen Inseln. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 4, 1–180.

    Becker, T. (1910) Dipteren aus Südarabien und von der Insel Sokotra. Denkschrift der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 71, 131–160.

    Becker, T. (1922) Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der mit Unterstützung der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien aus der Erbschaft Treitl von F. Werner unternommenen zoologischen Expedition nach dem Anglo-ägyptischen Sudan (Kordofan) 1914. V1. Diptera. Denkschrift der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 98 (1923), 57–82.

    Bernhardt, V., Fremdt, H., Huibregts, H., Verhoff, M.A. & Amendt, J. (2016) Muscina prolapsa (Harris, 1780) so far an understanding tool in forensic Entomology. Rechtsmedizin, 26 (2), 97–102.

    Bradbury, R.S., Breen, K.v., Bonura, E.M., Hoyt, J.W. & Bishop, H.S. (2018) case report: conjunctival infestation with Thelaziz gulosa: A novel agent of human Thelaziasis in the United States. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 98 (4), 1171–1174.

    Bulgarella, M., Quiroga, M.A., Brito vera, G.A., Dregni, J.S., Cunninghame, F., Muñoz, D.A.M., Monje, L.D., Causton, C.E. & Heimpel, G.E. (2015) Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), an Avian Nest Parasite Invasive to the Galápagos Islands, in Mainland Ecuador. Annals of Entomological Society of America, 108 (3), 242–250.

    Büttiker, W. (1979) Insects of medical importance in Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the Saudi Biological Society, 3, 239–250.

    Büttiker, W., Attiah, M.D. & Pont, A.C. (1979) Insects of Saudi Arabia. Diptera: Synanthropic flies. Fauna of Saudi Arabia, 1, 352–367.

    Carvalho, C.J.B, Couri, M.S., Pont, A.C., Pamplona, D. & Lopes, S.M. (2005) A catalogue of the Muscidae (Diptera) of the Neotropical Region. Zootaxa, 860 (1), 1–282.

    Chandler, P.(1998) Checklists of Insects of the British Isles. New Series. Part 1. Diptera. Vol. 12. Royal Entomological Society, 234 pp.

    O’Connor, J.A., Sulloway, F.J., Robertson, J. & Kleindorfer, S. (2010) Philornis downsi parasitism is the primary cause of nestling mortality in the critically endangered Darwin’s medium tree finch (Camarhynchus pauper). Biodiversity Conservation, 19, 853–866.

    Crosskey, R.W. (Ed.) (1980) Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. British Museum (Natural History), London, 1437 pp.

    Couri, M.S., Cunha, A.M., De Souza, S.M.F.M. & Laeta, M. (2009) Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Muscidae) found inside the oesophagous of a mummy in Lisbon. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 49 (6), 87–91.

    Crosskey, R.W. (1993) Stable-flies and horn-flies (bloodsucking Muscidae). In: Lane, R.P. & Crosskey, R.W. (Eds.), Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 389–402.

    Curran, C.H. (1935) African Muscidae. American Museum Novitates,766, 1–27.

    Czerny, L. (1931) Encarsiocera pennipes, eine neue Gattung und Art der Psiliden aus Arabien. Konowia, 10, 27–28.

    Dabbour, A.I. (1979a) Short note on dipterous flies in western and central regions of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Agriculture Research, Riyadh University, 4, 81–83.

    Dabbour, A.I. (1979b) Note on dipterous flies in western and central regions of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Faculty of Science, Riyadh University, 10, 117–119.

    Dabbour, A.I., Mostafa, A.S.S. & Gadallah, A.I. (1980) Composition of fly species in different habitats in Saudi Arabia. Journal of College of Agriculture, Riyadh University, 2, 75–78.

    Dabbour, A.I. & El-Dawy, M. (1981) Morphological and classification studies of some dipterous flies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Agriculture Research Center Bulletin, Riyadh University, 10, 1–92. [in Arabic]

    Dawah, H.A. & Abdullah, (2006) The Ephydridae (Diptera: Brachycera: Muscomorpha) of south-western Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Arabia, 21, 383–394.

    Dawah, H.A. & Abdullah, M.A. (2009) The Muscidae (Diptera: Brachycera: Muscomorpha) of south-western Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Arabia, 24, 373–396.

    Dawah, H.A., Abdullah, M.A. & Ahmad, S.K. (2019a). An overview of the Calliphoridae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia with new records and updated list of species. Journal of Entomological Research Society, 21 (1), 65–93.

    Dawah, H.A., Ahmad, S.K., Abdullah, M.A. & Zatwarnicki, T. (2019b). An overview of the Ephydridae of Saudi Arabia. Zootaxa, 4711 (3), 401–445.

    Dawah, H.A., Abdullah, M.A. & Deeming, J.C. (2020). An overview of the Chloropidae of Saudi Arabia. Zootaxa, 4791 (1), 1–71.

    Deeming, J.C. (1971) Some species of Atherigona Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae) from Northern Nigeria, with special reference to those injurious to cereal crops. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 61, 133–190.

    Deeming, J.C. (1979) New and little known species of Atherigona Rondani (Dipt., Muscidae) from Nigeria and Cameroun. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 114, 31–52.

    Deeming, J.C. (1995) Diptera (true flies) from the Kenfig National Nature Reserve, Glamorgan. National Museum of Wales, Entomology Series No. 4, 1–113.

    Deeming, J.C. (2000) Muscidae: Atherigonini (Diptera: Muscoidea). Cimbebasia Memoir, 9, 283–287.

    Deeming, J.C. (2008) Order Diptera, family Muscidae. In: van Harten, A. (Ed.), Arthropod Fauna of the United Arab Emirates. Vol. 1. Dar Al-Ummah Printing, Publishing, Distribution & Advertising, Abu Dhabi, pp. 714–723.

    Deeming, J.C. (2019) Biology, ecology, distribution and taxonomy of immature stages of Atherigona (s.s.) hyalinipennis van Emden (Diptera: Muscidae), a pest of the cereal crop tef (Eragrostis tef) and the fodder crop Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 155, 107–112.

    De Geer, C. (1776) Mémoires pour server a l’ histoire des insects. Vol. 6. L.L. Grefing, Stockholm, viii + 523 pp.

    Desquesnes, M., Onju, S., Chalermwong, P., Jittapalapong, S. & Masmeatathip, R. (2018) A review and illustrated description of Musca crassirostris, one of the most neglected haematophagous livestock flies. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 33 (1), 16–30.

    Dike, M.C. (1990) Two new species of Atherigona from Nigeria with a key for identification of Afrotropical species of the subgenus Acritochaeta (Diptera: Muscidae). Systematic Entomology, 15, 297–303.

    El-Hawagry, M.S., Khalil, M.W., Sharaf, M.R., Fadl, H.H. & Aldawood, A.S. (2013) A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha province, Saudi Arabia, with description of two new species. Zookeys, 274, 1–88.

    El-Hawagry, M.S., Abdel-Dayem, M.S., Elgharbawy, A.A. & Al Dhafer, H.M. (2016) A preliminary account of the fly fauna in Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve, Saudi Arabia, with new records and biogeographical remarks (Diptera, Insecta). Zookeys, 636, 107–139.

    El-Hawagry, M.S., Abdel-Dayem, M.S., El-Sonbati & Al Dhafer, H.M. (2017) A preliminary account of the fly fauna in Gard Raydah Nature Reserve, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with new records and biogeographical remarks (Diptera: Insecta). Journal of Natural History, 51 (25–26), 1499–1530.

    El-Hawagry, M.S., Abdel-Dayem, M.S. & Al Dhafer, H.M. (2018) A contribution to the knowledge of fly fauna in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: new country records and an account of flies identified from Rawdhats, Riyadh Region, with biogeographical remarks (Insecta: Diptera). Journal of Natural History, 52 (21–22), 1377–1393.

    Fallén, C.F. (1817) Beskrifning Öfver de i Sverige funna fluge arter, som kunna foras till slägtet Musca. Forsta afdelningen. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 3 (1816), 226–254.

    Fallén, C.F. (1825) Monographia Muscidum Sueciae [concl.]. Part ix & ultima. Berling, Lundae (Lund), pp. 81–94.

    Ferrar, P. (1987) A guide to the breeding habits and immature stages of Diptera Cyclorrhapha (Part I). Entomonograph 8, E.J. Brill, Scandinavian press, Leiden, Copenhagen, 478 pp.

    Frey, R. (1917) Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Dipteren-Fauna Ceylons. Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens Förhandlingar, 59 (A20), 1–36.

    Giangaspero, A., Traversa, D. & Otranto, D. (2004) Ecology of Thelazia spp. in cattle and their vectors in Italy. Parasitologia, 46 (1–2), 257–259.

    Gilarriortua, M. (2015) First record of Musca autumnalis De Geer, 1776 (Dipera: Muscidae) species involved in a myiasis case in the Basque country cattle (Iberian Peninsula). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 55, 312–316.

    Greenberg, B. (1971) Flies and Disease. Vol. I. Ecology, classification and biotic associations. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 856 pp.

    Greenberg, B. (1973) Flies and Disease. Vol. II. Ecology, classification and biotic associations. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 447 pp.

    Gregor, F., Rozkošný, R., Barták, M. & Vaňhara, J. (2002) The Muscidae (Diptera) of Central Europe. Folia Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium, Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis, Biologia, 107, 1–280.

    Grzywacz, A., Pape, T., Hudson, W.G. & Gomez, S. (2013) Morphology and immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera:Muscidae) with notes on the recent invasion of North America. Journal of Natural History, 47 (15–16), 1055–1067.

    Grzywacz, A., Khoobdel, M. & Akbarzadeh, K. (2014) First Palaearctic Record of the Bird Parasite Passeromyia heterochaeta (Diptera: Muscidae) from the Iranian Persian Gulf Islands. Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, 8 (2), 224–227.

    Harris, M. (1780) An exposition of English insects, with curious observations and remarks, wherein each insect is particularly described; its parts and properties considered; the different sexes distinguished, and the natural history faithfully related. The whole illustrated with copper plates, drawn, engraved, and coloured, by the author. Decad 5. Privately published, London, pp. 139–166, pls. 41–50.

    Harten, A. van & Wagener, B. (1994) Terrestrial arthropods of the Republic of Yemen. A check-list. Yemeni-German Plant Protection, Sana’a, ii + 147 pp.

    Haseyama, K.L.F. & de Carvalho, C.J.B. (2012) Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Neotropical genus Charadrella Wulp (Diptera, Muscidae). Invertebrate Systematics, 26, 399–416.

    Hennig, W. (1963) Zwei neue paläarktische Arten aus der Familie Muscidae (Diptera). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde,101, 1–3.

    Hennig, W. (1955–1964) 63b Muscidae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.), Die Fliegen der paläarktischen Region. Schweizerbart’sche, Stuttgart, pp. 1–1110.

    Hewitt, C.G. (1914) The housefly (Musca domestica L.). A study of its structure, development, bionomics and economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 382 pp.

    Hill, D.S. (1983) Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and their Control. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 746 pp.

    Hodkinson, I.D. (2005) Terrestrial insects along elevation gradients: species and community responses to altitude. Biological Reviews Cambridge Phylosophical Society, 80, 489–513.

    Hough, G. de N. (1898) The Muscidae collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in Somaliland. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1898, 165–187.

    Hulley, P.E. (1979) Relationships of the Musca domestica subspecies calleva and curviforceps (Diptera: Muscidae) in Rhodesia. Systematic Entomology, 4, 223–237.

    Hulley, P.E. (1986) Factors affecting numbers of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) and some other flies breeding in poultry manure. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 49, 19–27.

    Iqbal, I., Malik, M.F., Sarwar, M.K., Azam, I., Iram, N. & Rashda, A. (2014) Role of housefly (Musca domestica, Diptera; Muscidae) as a disease vector; a review. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2 (2), 159–163.

    Kettle, D.S. (1992) Medical and Veterinary Entomology. C.A.B. International, Wallingford, 658 pp.

    Jaennicke, F. (1867) Neue exotische Dipteren. Abhandlungen des Siebenburgischen Museum-Vereins, 6, 311–407.

    Krafsur, E.S. & Moon, R.D. (1997) Bionomics of the face fly, Musca autumnalis. Annual Review of Entomology, 42, 503–523.

    Kühne, S. (1998) Open rearing of generalist predators: a strategy for improvement of biological pest control in greenhouses. Phytoparasitica, 26, 277–281.

    Kühne, S. (2000) Räuberische Fliegen der Gattung Coenosia Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Muscidae) und die Möglichkeit ihres Einsatzes bei der biologischen Schädlingsbekämpfung. Studia Dipterologia, Supplement 9, 1–78.

    Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum caracteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th Edition. Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae (Stockholm), 824 pp.

    Loew, H. (1847) Ein Paar neue Fliegen zum neuen Jahr. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, Stettin, 8, 23–32.

    Loew, H. (1852) (Hr. Peters legte Diagnosen und Abbildungen der von ihm in Mossambique neu entdeckten Dipteren vor, welche von Hrn. Professor Loew bearbeitet worden sind.). Berichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1852, 658–661.

    Loew, H. (1856) Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Dipteren. Vierter Beitrag Programm Koniglichen Realschule zu Meseritz, 1856, 1–57.

    Macquart, J. (1835) Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Diptères. Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 703 or 710 pp, pls. 13–24.

    Macquart, J. (1843) Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus (2) (3). Mémoires de la Société (Royale) des Sciences, de I’ Agriculture et des Arts á Lille, 1842, 162–460.

    Malloch, J.R. (1923) Exotic Muscaridae (Diptera). X. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9, 12, 177–194

    Mani, M.S. (1968) Ecology and biogeography of high altitude insects. Series Entomologica. 4. Springer, Dordrecht, 530 pp.

    Mani, M.S. & Giddings, L.E. (1980) Ecology of Highlands. Monographiae Biologicae, 40, Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, Boston and London, 249 pp.

    Martinez, M. & Cocquempot, C. (2000) La mouche Coenosia attenuata nouvel auxiliaire prometteur en culture protégée. PHM Review Horticulture, 414, 50–52.

    Marshall, S.A. (2012) Flies. The Natural History & Diversity of Diptera. Firefly Books Ltd, Ontario, 616 pp.

    Marshall, S.A. & Pont, A.C. (2013) The kleptoparasitic habits of Musca albina Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae). African Invertebrates, 54 (2), 427–430.

    Martin, H.E. (1972) Report to the Government of Saudi Arabia on Research in Plant Protection. Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N., Rome, V + 38 pp.

    Meigen, J.W. (1826) Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zwei-flügeligen Insekten. 5. Schultz, Hamm, 412 pp.

    Mellor, P.S. (1978) Biting flies attacking cattle in the Dhofar province of the Sultanate of Oman. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 10, 167–169.

    Moon, R.D. (2009) Muscid flies (Muscidae). In: Mullen, G.R. & Durden, L.A. (Eds.), Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 275–295.

    Moradil, S., Pont, A., Tavassolil, M. & Naem, S. (2013) New records of Muscidae (Diptera) in the west of Iran. Zoology in the Middle East, 59 (4), 360–362.

    Mou, G.S. (1992) Lispini. In: Fan, Z.D. (Ed.), Key to the common flies of China. 2nd Edition. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 367–379. [in Chinese with English summary]

    Muller, B.S. (2015) lllustrated key and systematics of male South Africa Atherigona s.str. (Diptera: Muscidae). African Invertebrates, 56 (3), 845–918.

    Muller, B.S. & Mostovski, M.B. (2018) A key to males of Atherigona s. str. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Mali, with new records and a new species for the country. Zootaxa, 4425 (2), 342–356.

    Nigus, C. & Damte, T. (2018) Identification of tef shoot fly species from major tef (Eragrostis tef [Zucc] Trotter growing areas of [sic] Ethiopian. African Journal of Insects, 5 (3), 181–184.

    Oosterbroek, P. (2006) The European Families of the Diptera. KNNV Publishing, Utrecht, 205 pp.

    Paterson, H.E. (1956) East-African Muscidae (Diptera). (Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zoologischen Ostafrika-Expedition 1951/1952, Gruppe Lindner, Stuttgart, Nr. 20.). Beiträge zur Entomologie, 6, 154–179.

    Patitucci, L., Dufek, M.I. & Mulieri, P.R. (1916) First reports of the invasive pest Bermudagrass Stem Maggot Atherigona reversura Villeneuve, 1936 (Diptera: Muscidae) in South America. Check List, 12 (4), Article 1928, 1–5.

    Patton, W.S. (1920) Note on the occurrence of Passeromyia heterochaeta Villeneuve in India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 8, 17.

    Patton, W.S. & Cragg, F.W. (1912) The life history of Philaematomyia insignis Austen. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 5, 515–520.

    Pohl, D., Kühne, S., Karaca, I. & Moll, E. (2012) Review of Coenosia attenuata Stein and its first record as a predator of important greenhouse pests in Turkey. Phytoparasitica, 40, 63–68.

    Pont, A.C. (1973a) Muscidae (house-flies, stable-flies, etc.). In: Smith, K.G.V. (Ed.), Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance. British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 251–269.

    Pont, A.C. (1973b) A review of the Oriental species of Atherigona Rondani (Diptera, Muscidae) of economic importance. In: Jotwani, M.G. & Young, R.W. (Eds.), Control of Sorghum Shoot Fly. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, pp.27–102.

    Pont, A.C. (1980) 85 Family Muscidae. In: Crosskey, R.W. (Ed.), Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 721–761.

    Pont, A.C. (1986) Families Fannidae, Muscidae. In: Sóos, A. & Papp. L. (Eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera, Scathophagidae-Hypodermatidae.Vol. 11. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 57–215.

    Pont, A.C. (1991) A review of the Fanniidae and Muscidae (Diptera) of the Arabian Peninsula. Fauna of Saudi Arabia, 12, 312–265.

    Pont, A.C. & Magpayo, F.R. (1995) Muscid shoot-flies of the Philippine Islands (Diptera: Muscidae, genus Atherigona Rondani). Bulletin of Entomological Research, Supplement Series, Supplement No. 3, 1–123.

    Pont, A.C., Werner, D. & Kachvoryan, E.A. (2005) A preliminary list of the Fannidae and Muscidae (Diptera) of Armenia. Zoology in the Middle East, 36 (1), 73–86.

    Prijs, H. J. (2002) Muscidae. In: Beuk, P.L. (Ed.), Check list of the Diptera of the Netherlands. KNNV Uitgeverij, Utrecht, pp. 324–333.

    Rader, R., Bartomeus, I., Garibaldi, L.A., Garratt, M.P.D., Howlett, B.G., Winfree, R., Cunningham, S.A., Mayfield, M.M., Arthurk, A.D., Andersson, G.K.S., Bommarco, R., Brittain, C., Carvalheirom L.G., Chacoff, N.P., Entling, M.H., Foully, B.,. Freitas, B.M., Gemmill-Herren, B., Ghazoul, J., Griffin, S.R., Gross, C.L., Herbertsson, L., Herzog, F., Hipólito, J., Jaggar, S., Jauker, F., Klein, A., Kleijna, D., Krishnan, S., Lemost, C.Q., Lindström, S.A.M., Mandelik, Y., Monteiro, V.M., Nelson, W., Nilsson, L., Pattemore, D.E., Pereira, N.D.O., Pisanty, G., Pottse, S.G., Reemer, M., Rundlöf, M., Sheffield, C.S., Scheper, J., Schüepp, C., Smith, H.G., Stanley, D.A. & Stout, J.C., Szentgyörgyi, H., Tak, H., Vergara, C.H., Viana, B.F. & Woyciechowski, M. (2016) Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination. PNAS, 113 (1), 146–151.

    Ramachandra Rao, Y. (1924) The genitalia of certain Anthomyiad flies (Atherigona spp.). Report of the Proceedings of the 5th entomological Meeting at Pusa, 1923, 330–335.

    Robineau-Desvoidy, J.B. (1830) Essai sur les Myodaires. Mémoires Présentés par divers Savants a l’ Académie Royale des Sciences de l’ Institut de France, 2, 1–813.

    Rondani, C. (1866) Anthomyinae italicae collectae distinctae et in ordinem dispositae. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civile di Storia Naturale, Milano, 9, 68–217.

    Rondani, C. (1871) Diptera Italica non vel minus cognita descripta aut annotata. Fasc. 1V. Addena Anthomyinis Prodr. Vol. V1. Bullettino della Societa Entomologica italiana, 2 (6), 317–338. [1870]

    Rondani, C. (1873) Muscaria exotica Musei Civici Januensis observata et distincta a Prof. Camillo Rondani. Fragmentum 1. Species aliquae in Abyssinia (Regione Bogos) lectae a Doct. O. Beccari et March. O. Antinori anno 1870–1871. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria, Genova, 4, 282–300.

    Sasaki, T., Kobayashi, M. & Agui, N. (2000) Epidemiological potential of excretion and regurgitation by Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in the dissemination of Escherichia coli O157: H7 to food. Journal of Medical Entomology, 37, 945–949.

    Savage, J. & Vockeroth, J.R. (2009) Muscidae (House Flies, Stable Flies). In: Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.), Manual of Central American Diptera. Vol. 2. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp. 1281–1295.

    Schiner, I.R. (1868) Diptera. In: Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbait, Zoologischer Theil 2. 1 (B). Kaiserlich-K, Wien, VI + 388 pp.

    Scopoli, J.A. (1763) Entomologia carniolica exhibens insecta carnioliae indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates, Methodo Linnaeana. Trattner, Vindobonae (Vienna), [30] + 420 pp.

    Séguy, E. (1923) Diptères Anthomyides. Faune de France, 6, 1–393.

    Shalaby, F. (1961) A preliminary survey of the insect fauna of Saudi Arabia. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d’ Egypte, 45, 211–228.

    Siepel, H., Bink, F.A., Broekhuizen, S., Stumpel, A.H.P. & van Wingerden, W.K.R.E. (1993) De internationalebetekenis van Nederland voor de fauna. 1. De terrestrische fauna. IBN-DLO Rapport 012. IBN-DLO, Wageningen, 234 pp.

    Silverly, R.E. & Schoof, H.F. (1955) Utilization of various production media by Muscoid flies in metropolitan area 111. fly production in relation to city block environment. Annals of the Society of America, 48 (5), 325–329.

    Skidmore, P. (1985) The Biology of the Muscidae of the World. Series Entomologica 29. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 550 pp.

    Speiser, P. (1924) Eine Übersicht über die Dipterenfauna Deutsch-Ostafrikas.. In: Beiträge aus der Tierkunde. Herrn Geh. Regierungsrat Prof. Dr. med. et phil. M. Braun aus Anlass seines goldenen medizinischen Doktor—Jubiläums als Festgabe dargebracht von Schulern und Freunden. Gräfe & Unzer, Konigsberg (Kaliningrad), pp. 90–156.

    Snyder, F.M. (1940). A review of the genus Myospila Rondani with descriptions of new species (Diptera: Muscidae). American Museum Novites, 1087, 1–10.

    Snyder, F.M. (1951). Some old and new species of Muscinae from the Ethiopian region (Diptera: Muscidae). American Museum Novites, 1533, 1–42.

    Stein, P. (1900) Anthomyiden aus Neu-Guinea, gesammelt von Herrn L. Biró. Természetrajzi Füzetek, 23, 129–159.

    Stein, P. (1906) Die afrikanischen Anthomyiden des Königl. Zoologischen Museums zu Berlin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, 51, 33–80.

    Stein, P. (1910) The Percy Sladen Trust expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr J. Stanley Gardiner. Vol. 3. No. 1X. Diptera, Anthomyidae, mit den Gattungen Rhinia und Idiella. Transaction of The Linnaean Society of London, Zoology, Series 2, 14, 149–163.

    Stein, P. (1909) Neue javanische Anthomyiden. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 52, 205–271.

    Stein, P. (1913) Neue afrikanische Anthomyiden. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 11, 457–583.

    Stein, P. (1914) Anthomyidae. In: Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique orientale (1911–1912). Résultats Scientifiques. (Dipt.) 4. A. Schultz, Paris, pp. 100–143.

    Stein, P. (1915) H. Sauter’s Formosa-Ausbeute. Anthomyidae (Dipt.). Supplementa Entomologica, 4, 13–56.

    Stein, P. (1918) Zur weitern Kenntnis aussereuropaeischer Anthomyiden. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 16, 147–244.

    Steyskal, G.C. (1966) A new species of Atherigona Rondani causing damage to wheat plants in West Pakistan (Diptera: Muscidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 68, 53–56.

    Strobl, G. (1893) Beiträge zur Dipterenfauna des österreichischen Littorale. XV. Muscidae. B. Acalypterae. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung, 12, 121–136.

    Suh, S.J. & Kwon, Y.J. (2016) First finding of a quarantine pest, Atherigona (Acritochaeta) orientalis Schiner (Diptera: Muscidae), in Korea. Entomological Research, 46 (3), 185–189.

    Sychevskava, V.I. (1956) Flies of medical importance in Kara-Kalpakia. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 35, 347–358. [in Russian]

    Thomson, C.G. (1869) Diptera. Species novas descripsit C.G. Thomson. In: Kongliga svenska fregatten Eugenies resa omkring jorden under befall af C.A. Virgin åren 18511853. 2 (Zoologi) (section), 1, Insecta. Almqvist & Wiksells, Uppsala, pp. 443–614.

    Thomson, R.C.M. (1947) Notes on the breeding habits and early stages of some muscids associated with cattle in Assam. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London, Ser. A, 22, 89–100.

    van Emden, F.I. (1940) s.n. In: Muscidae: B, Coenosiinae. Ruwenzori Expedition 1934–1935. Vol. II (4). British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 91–255.

    van Emden, F.I. (1943) Keys to the Muscidae of the Ethiopian Region: Phaonia-group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 11, 10 (62), 73–101.

    van Emden, F.I. (1948) Diptera: Muscidae. In: Expedition to South-West Arabia 19371938. Vol. I. British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 161–175.

    van Emden, F.I. (1951) s.n. In: Muscidae: C. Scatophaginae, Anthomyiinae, Lispinae, Fanniinae and Phaoniinae. Ruwenzori Expedition 1934–1935. Vol. II (6). British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 325–710.

    van Emden, F.I. (1959) Journey to high Simien (Northern Ethiopia), 1952–1953: Diptera, Calyptrata. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 44, 186–195.

    van Emden, F.I. (1965) The Fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Diptera, 7, Muscidae. Part 1. Government of India, Delhi, xiv + 647 pp., 156 figs, 2 pl.

    Villeneuve, J. (1915) Diptères nouveaux d’Afrique. Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 1915, 225–227.

    Villeneuve, J. (1936) 52. Dipteren. 16. Muscidae. In: Schwedisch-chinesische wissenschaftliche Expedition nach den nordwestlichen Provinzen Chinas, unter Leitung von Dr. Sven Hedin und Prof. Sü Ping-chang. Insekten gesammelt vom schwedischen Art der Expedition Dr. David Hummerl 1927–1930. Arkiv för Zoologi, Stockholm, 27A (34), pp. 1–13.

    Vikhrev, N.E. (2012a) Four new species of Lispe Latreille, 1796 (Diptera: Muscidae) with taxonomic notes on related species. Russian Entomological Journal, 21 (4), 423–433.

    Vikhrev, N.E. (2012b) Revision of the Lispe longicollis-group (Diptera: Muscidae). Zookeys, 235, 23–39.

    Vikhrev, N.E. (2014) Taxonomic notes on Lispe (Diptera: Muscidae). Parts, 1-9. Amurian Zoological Journal, VI (2), 147–170.

    Vikhrev, N.E. (2016) Taxonomic notes on Lispe (Diptera: Muscidae). Parts, 13. Amurian Zoological Journal, VIII (3), 171–185.

    Walker, F. (1849) List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British Museum (part), Part 2–Part 4. British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 231–484, pp. 485–687 & pp. 688–1172.

    Walker, F. (1859) Catalogue of the dipterous insects collected at Makessar in Celebes, by Mr. A.R. Wallace, with descriptions of new species [part]. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 4 (1860), 90–144.

    Wiedemann, C.R.W. (1818) Neue Insecten vom Vorgebirge der guten Hoffnung. Zoologisches Magazin, Kiel, 1 (2), 40–48.

    Wiedemann, C.R.W. (1824) Munus rectoris in Academia Christiana Albertina aditurus Analecta entomologica ex Museo Regio Havniensi maxime congresta profert iconibusque illustrat. eregio typoguapheo scholarum, Kiliae, 60 pp.

    Wiedemann, C.R.W. (1830) Aüssereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten (concl.). Vol. 2. in der Schulzischen Buchhandlung, Hamm, xii + 684 pp.

    Zielke, E. (1971) Revision der Muscinae der äthiopischen Region. Series entomologica 7, Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 1–199.

    Zimin, L.S. (1951) Family Muscidae (Tribes Muscini, Stomoxydini). Fauna S.S.S.R. Insecta-Diptera, 18, 45–286. [in Russian]

    Zumpt, F. (1965) Myiasis in man and animals in the Old World. Butterworths, London, 276 pp.

    Zumpt, F. (1973) The Stomoxyine Biting Flies of the World. Fischer, Stuttgart, 175 pp.