Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2021-01-22
Page range: 435–450
Abstract views: 184
PDF downloaded: 10

First report of the poplar leaf miner, Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) from India

Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110012, India
Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR), DRDO C/O 56 APO, India
Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110012, India
Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi-110012, India
Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Research Center «Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS», Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Lepidoptera Novel distributional record leaf-mining micromoth Populus Ladakh DNA-barcoding


Here we report about the discovery of the poplar leaf miner, Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke) in India. The mines of this micromoth were found in noticeable density on the leaves of poplar, Populus sp. (Salicaceae) in the northern mountainous region Ladakh in 2017–2018. We provide short morphological diagnosis, describe bionomics and analyze molecular data of Ph. populifoliella from India comparing sequences with those from other countries in Eurasia where the species is known as native. We also illustrate male and female genitalia, an adult of the moth, the leaf mines and the infestation plot in Ladakh, and discuss the occurrence of the species in the country.



  1. Akulov, E.N., Kirichenko, N.I. & Ponomarenko, M.G. (2018) Contribution to the Microlepidoptera fauna of the South of Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Republic of Khakassia. Entomological Review, 98, 49–75.

    Ahmad, M. & Faisal, M. (2012) Status of insect pests of poplar in India with special reference to Clostera spp. Forestry Bulletin, 12, 105–122.

    Baryshnikova, S.V. (2008) Gracillariidae. In: Sinev, S. Yu. (Ed.), Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Russia. KMK Scientific Press, St.-Petersburg and Moscow, pp. 38–45. [in Russian]

    Baryshnikova, S.V. (2016) Gracillariidae. In: Leley, A.S. (Ed.), Annotated catalogue of the insects of Russian Far East. Vol. II. Lepidoptera. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, pp. 50–59. [in Russian]

    Bakulin, V.T., Banaev, E.V., Vstovskaya, T.N., Kiseleva, T.I., Koropachenskii, I. Yu., Lapteva N.P., Loskutov, R.I., Lyakh, E.N., Potemkin, O.N. & Chindyaeva, L.N. (2008) Woody plants for gardening of Novosibirsk. Academic Publishing House “Geo”, Novosibirsk, 303 pp. [in Russian]

    Belova, N.K. & Vorontsov, A.I. (1987) The poplar moth. Plant protection (Zashchita Rastenii), Moscow, 4, 32–35. [in Russian]

    Bruand d’Uzelle, C.T. (1858) Classification des Tinéides et examen des caractères et de leur importance relative, d’apres la méthode naturelle (suite et fin). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, Séries 3, 6, 601–702.

    Charles, J.G., Nef, L., Allegro, G., Collins, C.M., Delplanque, A., Gimenez, R., Höglund, S., Jiafu, H., Larsson, S., Luo, Y., Parra, P., Singh, A.P., Volney, W.J.A. & Augustin, S. (2014) Insect and other pests of poplars and willows. In: Isebrands, J.G. & Richardson, J. (Eds.), Poplars and Willows: Trees for Society and the Environment. FAO, Rome, pp. 459–526.

    Costantini, A. (1923) [Contribution] in E. Turati. Cinque anni di ricerche nell’Appennino modenese (note di Lepidotterologia). Elenco dei Lepidotteri raccolti e note critiche e descritive con due tavole e con incisioni nel testo. Atti della Società italiana di Scienze naturali e del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Milano, 62, 4–74.

    Davis, D.R. & Deschka, G. (2001) Biology and systematics of the North American Phyllonorycter leafminers on Salicaceae, with a synoptic catalog of the Palearctic species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 614, 1–89.

    De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2020) Global Taxonomic Database of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera). World Wide Web electronic publication. Available from: (accessed 14 July 2020)

    Ellis, W. (2020) Leafminers and plant galls of Europe. Plant parasites of Europe: leafminers, gallers and fungi. Available from: 14 July 2020)

    Ermolaev, I.V., Rubleva, E.A., Rysin, S.L., Kozhenkova A.A. & Ermolaeva, M.V. (2020) Trophic specialization of the poplar leafminer Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke, 1833) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Entomological Review, 100, 287–300.

    Fang, Z., Zhao, S. & Skvortsov, A.K. (1999) Salicaceae. Flora of China, 4, 139–274.

    Florov, D.N. (1948) The poplar moth – a pest of plantings in Irkutsk. Transactions of the Irkutsk State University, Biological Series, 3, 1–20. [in Russian]

    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.

    Gissi, C., Iannelli, F. & Pesole, G. (2008) Evolution of the mitochondrial genome of Metazoa as exemplified by comparison of congeneric species. Heredity, 101, 301–320.

    Gureeva, I.I., Klimov, A.V. & Balashova, A.F. (2016) Lectotypification of the name Populus sibirica G.V. Krylov et G.V. Grig. ex A.K. Skvortsov. Systematic Notes, 114, 8–10. [in Russian]

    Hering, M.E. (1951) Biology of the leafminers. Junk’s, Gravenhage, The Hague, 420 pp.

    Jeanmougin, F., Thompson, J.D., Gouy, M., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1998) Multiple sequence alignment with Clustal X. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 23, 403–405.

    Kirichenko, N., Triberti, P., Ohshima, I., Haran, J., Byun, B-K., Li, H., Augustin, S., Roques, A. & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. (2017) From east to west across the Palearctic: Phylogeography of the invasive lime leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and discovery of a putative new cryptic species in East Asia. PLoS ONE, 12, e0171104.

    Kirichenko, N.I, Skvortsova, M.V., Petko, V.M., Ponomarenko, M.G. & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. (2018) Salicaceae-feeding leaf-mining insects in Siberia: distribution, trophic specialization, and pest status. Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 11, 576–593.

    Kirichenko, N., Triberti, P., Akulov, E., Ponomarenko, M., Gorokhova, S., Sheiko, V. & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. (2019a) Exploring species diversity and host plant associations of leaf-mining micromoths (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in the Russian Far East using DNA barcoding. Zootaxa. 4652, 1–55.

    Kirichenko, N., Augustin, S. & Kenis, M. (2019b) Invasive leafminers on woody plants: a global review of pathways, impact, and management. Journal of Pest Science, 92, 93–106.

    Kirichenko, N.I., Triberti, P., Akulov, E.N., Ponomarenko, M.G. & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. (2019c) Novel data on the taxonomic diversity, distribution and host plants of leafmining moths of the family Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) in Siberia based on the DNA-barcoding. Entomological Review, 90, 769–819.

    Kirichenko, N., Triberti, P. & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. (2019d) New species of leaf-mining Phyllonorycter (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae) from Siberia feeding on Caragana (Fabaceae). Zookeys, 835, 17–41.

    Klots, A.B. (1970) Lepidoptera. In: Tuxen, S.L. (Ed.) Taxonomist’s glossary of genitalia in insects. 2nd Revised and Enlarged Edition. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp. 115–130.

    Koropachinskiy, I. Yu. & Vstovskaya, T.N. (2012) Wood plants of the Asian part of Russia. 2nd Edition. Academic Publishing House “Geo”, Novosibirsk, 707 pp. [in Russian]

    Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.) (2003) Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Vol. 2. Morphology, Physiology, and Development. Handbook of Zoology. Vol. IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 36. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York, xii + 564 pp.

    Kumar, D. & Singh, N.B. (2012) Status of poplar introduction in India. ENVIS Forestry Bulletin, 12, 9–14.

    Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C. & Tamura, K. (2018) MEGA X: Molecular evolutionary genetics Analysis across computing platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35, 1547–1549.

    Kumata, T. (1963) Taxonomic studies on the Lithocolletinae of Japan (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Part I. Insecta Matsumurana, 25, 53–90.

    Kuznetsov, V.I. (1981) Family Gracillariidae (Lithocolletiidae)—leaf blotch miners. In: Medvedev, G.S. (Ed.), A guide to the insects of the European part of the USSR—Lepidoptera. Vol. 4. Lepidoptera. Part 2. Nauka, Leningrad, pp. 149–311. [in Russian]

    Kuznetsov, V.I. (1999) The family Gracillariidae (Lithocolletidae). In: Kuznetsov, V.I. (Ed.), Insects and mites—the pests of agricultural plants. III (2). Lepidoptera. Nauka, St. Petersburg, pp. 9–46. [in Russian]

    Margam, V.M., Coates, B.S., Ba, M.N., Sun, W., Binso-Dabire, C.L., Baoua, I., Ishiyaku, M.F., Shukle, J.T., Hellmich, R.L., Covas, F.G. & Ramasamy, S. (2011) Geographic distribution of phylogenetically-distinct legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae). Molecular Biology Reports, 38, 893–903.

    Mushtaq, T., Banyal, R., Mushtaq, T. & Mujtaba, A.M. (2018) Understanding poplars: Silviculture, distribution and pest management. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 5, 100–104.

    Mutanen, M., Kivelä, S.M., Vos, R.A., Doorenweerd, C., Ratnasingham, S., Hausmann, A., Huemer, P., Dincă, V., van Nieukerken, E.J., Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Vila, R., Aarvik, L., Decaëns, T., Efetov, K.A., Hebert, P.D., Johnsen, A., Karsholt, O., Pentinsaari, M., Rougerie, R., Segerer, A., Tarmann, G., Zahiri, R. & Godfray, H.C. (2016) Species-level para- and polyphyly in DNA barcode gene trees: strong operational bias in European Lepidoptera. Systematic Biology, 65, 1024–1040.

    Naithani, H.B. & Nautiyal, S. (2012) Indian poplars with special reference to indigenous species. ENVIS Forestry Bulletin, 12, 1–8.

    National Poplar Commission (2015) India Country Report on Poplars and Willows. Period 2012–2015. Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, 40 pp.

    Nel, J. & Varenne, T. (2014) Atlas des Lépidoptères—Gracillaridae—Lithocolletinae de France. Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie, Supplement au Tome XXIII, 1–144.

    Noreika, R. (1997) Gracillariidae. In: Ler, P.A. (Ed.), Key to the insects of Russian Far East. Vol. 1. Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Dal’nauka, Vladivostok, pp. 373–429. [in Russian]

    Pandey, A.K., Namgyal, D., Mir, M.S. & Ahmed, S.B. (2007) Major insect pest associated with forest plantations in cold arid region, Ladakh of Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Entomological Research, 31, 155–162.

    Rishi, N.D. (1979) Insects pests of poplars in Kashmir valley. Proceedings of the symposium on silviculture, management and utilization of poplars, Srinagar, 1979, 123–125.

    Robinson, G.S. (1976) The preparation of slides of Lepidoptera genitalia with special reference to the Microlepidoptera. Entomologist’s Gazette, 27, 127–132.

    Sadeghi, S., Lotfalizadeh, H., Iranipour, S. & Alipanah, H. (2020) Populus leaf-miner Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke) (Lep.: Gracillariidae) parasitoids diversity in Shahindezh. Conference paper: 2nd National Conference on Biodiversity and Its Effect on Agriculture and Environment, 2020, 967–972.

    Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4, 406–425.

    Selikhovkin, A.V., Egorov, A.A., Sitnikova, D.D. & Mamaev, N.A. (2020a) Occurrence of leaf miners Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke) and Ph. pastorella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) on different species of poplars. Entomological Review (Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie), 99, 1–9. [in Russian]

    Selikhovkin, A.V., Drenkhan, R., Mandelshtam, M.Y. & Musolin, D.L. (2020b) Invasions of insect pests and fungal pathogens of woody plants into the northwestern part of European Russia. Saint Petersburg State University Bulletin. Earth Sciences, 65, 263–283. [in Russian]

    Shashank, P.R., Chakravarthy, A.K., Raju, B.R. & Bhanu, K.R.M. (2014) DNA barcoding reveals the occurrence of cryptic species in host-associated population of Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 49, 283–295.

    Shashank, P.R., Ojha, R., Venkatesan, T., Jalali, S.K. & Bhanu, K.R.M. (2015) Molecular characterization of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I and their phylogenetic relationship. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 52, 51–55.

    Shashank, P.R., Twinkle, S., Chandrashekar, K., Meshram, N.M., Suroshe, S.S. & Bajracharya, A.S.R. (2018) Genetic homogeneity in South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta: a new invasive pest to oriental region. 3 Biotech, 8, 350, 1–7.

    Singh, P. & S. Singh. (1987). Pest and diseases of poplars. FR1 Publication, Dehradun, 74 pp.

    Skvortsov, A.K. (2007) About Siberian balsamic poplar. Bulletin of the Main Botanical Garden, 193, 41–45. [in Russian]

    Sweeney, J.D., Hughes, C., Zhang, H., Hillier, K., Morrison, A. & Johns, R. (2020) Impact of the invasive beech leaf-mining weevil, Orchestes fagi, on American beech in Nova Scotia, Canada. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 3 (46), 1–11.

    Tamura, K. (1992) Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions when there are strong transition-transversion and G+ C-content biases. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 9, 678–687.

    Tarasova, O.V., Kovalev, A.V., Sukhovolsky, V.G. & Khlebopros, R.G. (2004) Phylophagous insects of green plantations of the cities: species compositions and population dynamics. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 180 pp. [in Russian]

    Tóth, V. & Lakatos, F. (2018) Phylogeographic pattern of the plane leaf miner, Phyllonorycter platani (Staudinger, 1870) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Europe. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18, 135.

    Treitschke, F. (1833) Die Schmetterlinge von Europa. Band 9(2).. Ernst Fleischer, Leipzig, 294 pp.

    Triberti, P. (1979) Note su Gracillariidae della collezione A. Fiori (Lepidoptera). Atti della Società italiana di Scienze naturali e del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Milano, 120, 269–272.

    Valade, R., Kenis, M., Hernandez-Lopez, A., Augustin, S., Mena, N., Magnoux, E., Rougerie, R., Lakatos, F., Roques, A. & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. (2009) Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Molecular Ecology, 18, 3458–3470.

    van Nieukerken, E.J., Doorenweerd, C., Hoare, R.J. & Davis, D.R. (2016) Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea). ZooKeys, 628, 65–246.

    Yanovskii, V.M. (2003) The key to poplar pests in Southern Siberia based on their damage. Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk, 49 pp. [in Russian]

    Yefremova, Z.A., Mishchenko, A.V., Egorenkova, E.N., Strakhova, I.S. & Lengesova, N.A. (2011) Eulophidae (Hymenoptera) Parasitoids of Phyllonorycter apparella and Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), pests of Populus tremula and Populus nigra in Ul’yanovsk Province, Russia. Entomological Review, 91 (6), 743–749.

    Zargaran, M.R., Lotfalizadeh, H., Safaralizadeh, M.H. & Bakhshali-Saatloo, G.V. (2010) First report of Populus leaf-miner hymenopterous parasitoids from Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 77, 47–48.

    Žikić, V., Lotfalizadeh, H., Sadeghi, S., Petrović, A., Janković, M. & Tomanović, Ž. (2014) New record and new associations of two leaf miner parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Iran. Archives of Biological Sciences, 66, 1591–1594.