Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2021-03-09

Rediscovery of Cerroneuroterus apenninus (Trotter, 1923) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) a valid species from Italy with description and neotype designation 

Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences (SAAF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Bd. 5A, 90128 Palermo, Italy.
Museo Civico di Lentate Sul Seveso, Via D. Aureggi 25, 20823 Lentate Sul Seveso, Italy.
Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences (SAAF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Bd. 5A, 90128 Palermo, Italy.
Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences (SAAF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Bd. 5A, 90128 Palermo, Italy.
Hymenoptera oak gallwasp asexual generation taxonomy morphology distribution biology Quercus


Neuroterus apenninus Trotter, 1923 associated with a Cerris section oak, Quercus cerris L., was rediscovered in Italy in 2017. Alessandro Trotter (1903) described a leaf gall collected on Q. cerris from the Italian Apennines; he did not obtain the gall inductor and ascribed the galls to the genus Neuroterus, based on morphological similarity with other Neuroterus galls. We have found the same gall and obtained the gall inducer. Detailed study of morphological characters of adults revealed that the species belongs to the genus Cerroneuroterus Melika & Pujade-Villar, 2010. The asexual generation of Cerroneuroterus apenninus comb. n. is described for the first time, a neotype is designated, and a diagnosis, host associations and biological notes are given; an identification key to the Western Palaearctic Cerroneuroterus species is provided.



  1. Azmaz, M. & Katýlmýþ, Y. (2017) Cynipidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) fauna of Istanbul. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 12 (1), 1 51–167.

    Cerasa, G. & Lo Verde, G. (2020) Updated checklist of Sicilian Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) forming leaf-galls on Quercus spp. and illustrated key of their galls. In: La Mantia, T., Badalamenti, E., Carapezza, A., Lo Cascio, P. & Troia, A. (Eds.), Life on islands - Biodiversity in Sicily and surrounding islands. Studies dedicated to Bruno Massa. Edizioni Danaus, Palermo, pp. 127–152.

    Cerasa, G., Lo Verde, G., Caleca, V. & Massa, B. (2016) New records of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) from Italy. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 51 (5–6), 477–486.

    Cerasa, G., Lo Verde, G., Caleca, V., Massa, B., Nicholls, J.A. & Melika, G. (2018) Description of Dryocosmus destefanii new species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) from Quercus suber L. in Italy. Zootaxa, 4370 (5), 535–548.

    Cerasa, G., Lo Verde, G., Caleca, V., Massa, B., Nicholls, J.A. & Melika, G. (2020) Description of the sexual generation of Dryocosmus destefanii (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) and disclosure of its life cycle. Zootaxa, 4742 (2), 359–374.

    Csóka, G., Stone, G.N. & Melika, G. (2005) Biology, ecology and evolution of gall-inducing Cynipidae. In: Raman, A., Schaefer, C.W. & Withers, T.M. (Eds.), Biology, ecology and evolution of gall-inducing arthropods. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, pp. 569–636

    Dalla Torre, K.W. & Kieffer, J.J. (1910) Cynipidae. Das Tierreich. Vol. 24. Berlin, Friedlander & Sohn, 891 pp.

    Eady, R.D. (1968) Some illustrations of microsculpture in the Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 43, 66–72.

    Fergusson, N.D.M. (1995) The cynipoid families. In: Hanson, P.E. & Gauld, I.D. (Eds.), The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York and Tokyo, pp. 247–265.

    Haddar, L., Doumandji, S. & Pujade-Villar, J. (2016) Cynipini and Synergini from Akfadou and Beni-Ghobri mountains (Algeria): presence of some species on unusual hosts (Hym., Cynipidae). Boletín de la Asociación española de Entomología, 40 (3–4), 479–493.

    Hadley, A. (2011) Combine ZP. Available from: (accessed 12 February 2015)

    Harris, R. (1979) A glossary of surface sculpturing. State of California, Department of Food and Agriculture, Occasional Papers in Entomology, 28, 1–31.

    Houard, C. (1908) Les Zoocecidies des Plantes d’Europe et du Bassin de la Mediterranee. Description des Galles; Illustration; Bibliographie detaillee; Repartition geographique; Index bibliographique. Vol. 1. Librairie Scientifique A. Hermann & fils Edit., Paris, 570 pp.

    Katýlmýþ, Y. & Kýyak, S. (2011) Oak Gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) Fauna of Inner-Western Anatolian. Munis Entomology & Zoology, 6 (2), 735–757.

    Kinsey, A.C. (1923) The gall wasp genus Neuroterus (Hymenoptera). Indiana University Studies, 58, 1–150.

    Kwast, E. (2012) A contribution to the fauna of Cynipidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) of Croatia with a description of an asexual female of Andricus korlevici (Kieffer, 1902) nov. Comb. Natura Croatica, 21, 223–245.

    Liljeblad, J. & Ronquist, F. (1998) A phylogenetic analysis of higher-level gall wasp relationships (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Systematic Entomology, 23, 229–252.

    Liljeblad, J., Ronquist, F., Nieves-Aldrey, J.L, Fontal-Cazalla, F., Ros-Farre, P., Gaitros, D. & Pujade-Villar, J. (2008) A fully web-illustrated morphological phyloge­netic study of relationships among oak gall wasps and their closest relatives (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Zoo­taxa, 1796 (1), 1–73.

    Melika, G. (2006a) A new species of Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 from Syria (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 67, 199–206.

    Melika, G. (2006b) Gall Wasps of Ukraine. Cynipidae. Vestnik zoologii, Supplement 21 (1–2), 1–300, 301–644.

    Melika, G., Csóka, G. & Pujade-Villar, J. (2000) Check-list of oak gall wasps of Hungary, with some taxonomic notes (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipinae, Cynipini). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 92, 265–296.

    Melika, G., Pujade-Villar, J., Abe, Y., Tang, C.T., Nicholls, J.A., Wachi, N., Ide, T., Yang, M.M., Pénzes, Z., Csóka, G. & Stone, G.N. (2010) Palaearctic oak gallwasps galling oaks (Quercus) in the section Cerris: re-appraisal of generic limits, with descriptions of new genera and species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa, 2470 (1), 1–79.

    Méhes, G.Y. (1943) Über die eichengallen und wespen aus der Umgebung Balaton-Sees.). Annales historico-naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 36, 185–198.

    Pagliano, G. (1995) Hymenoptera Cynipoidea. In: Minelli, A., Ruffo, S. & La Posta, S. (Eds.), Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana. Vol. 96. Calderini, Bologna, pp. 1–7.

    Polidori, C. & Nieves-Aldrey, J.L. (2014) Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillae equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). PloS ONE, 9 (7), e101843.

    Pujade-Villar, J., Kovalev, O. & Liljeblad, J. (2004) Status of Pseudoneuroterus Kinsey, 1923 and remarks on closely related genera (Hymenoptera, Cynipdiae). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie, Nouvelle Série, 20, 353–360.

    Pujade-Villar, J. & Ben Jamâa, M.L. (2011) First record of Neuroterus minutulus galls on Quercus suber and first record from Tunisia (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). Nouvelle Révue d’Entomologie, 26, 327–332.

    Pujade-Villar, J., Mata-Casanova, N., Benjamâa, M.L., Grami, M., Ouakid, M., Adjami, Y., Ghanem, R., Bouhraoua, R., Boukreris, F., Benia, F., Messaoudene, M. & Haddar, L. (2012) Les cynipidés gallicoles des chênes d’Afrique du Nord: espèces curieuses et espèces potentiellement dangereuses (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Integrated Protection in Oak Forests IOBC/wprs Bulletin, 76, 225–232.

    Pujade-Villar, J., Wang, Y., Guo, R., Sala-Nishikawa A., Cuesta-Porta, V., Arnedo, M.A. & Melika, G. (2020) A new species of Cerroneuroterus Melika & Pujade-Villar from the Eastern Palaearctic (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini). Zootaxa, 4869 (4), 515–528.

    Ronquist, F., Nieves-Aldrey, J.-L., Buffington, M.L., Liu, Z., Liljeblad, J. & Nylander, J.A.A. (2015) Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens. PLoS ONE, 10, e0123301.

    Ronquist, F. & Nordlander, G. (1989) Skeletal morphology of an archaic cynipoid, Ibalia rufipes (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 33, 1–60.

    Sadeqi, E., Askari, H., Yarmand, H., Assareh, M. H., Melika, G., Stone, G. & Mehrabi, A. (2009) An Investigation on Oak Gall-Inducing Wasps and Their Associated Natural Enemies in Iran. Reseach Institute of Forest and Rangeland, Tehran, 342 pp.

    Seltmann, K.C., Yoder, M.J., Mikó, I., Forshage, M., Bertone, M.A., Agosti, D., Austin, A.D., Balhoff, J.P., Borowiec, M.L., Brady, S.G., Broad, G.R., Brothers, D.J., Burks, R.A., Buffington, M.L., Campbel, H.M., Dew, K.J., Ernst, A.F., Fernández-Triana, J.L., Gates, M.W., Gibson, G.A.P., Jennings, J.T., Johnson, N.F., Karlsson, D., Kawada, R., Krogmann, L., Kula, R.R., Mullins, P.L., Ohl, M., Rasmussen, C., Ronquist, F., Schulmeister, S., Sharkey, M.J., Talamas, E., Tucker, E., Vilhelmsen, L., Ward, P.S., Wharton, R.A. & Deans A.R. (2012) A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 27, 67–88.

    Sharchar, E., Melika, G., Inbar, M. & Dorchin, N. (2018) The oak gall wasps of Israel (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) - diversity, distribution and life history. Zootaxa, 4521 (4), 451–498.

    Stone, G.N., Schönrogge, K., Atkinson, R.J., Bellido, D. & Pujade-Villar, J. (2002) The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Annual Review of Entomology, 47, 633–668.

    Stone, G.N., Hernández-López, A., Nicholls, J.A., Di Pierro, E., Pujade-Villar, J., Melika, G. & Cook, J.M. (2009) Extreme host plant conservatism during at least 20 million years of host plant pursuit by oak gallwasps. Evolution, 63 (4), 854–869.

    Tang, C.-T., Melika, G., Nicholls, J.A., Yang, M. M. & Stone, G.N. (2011) A new genus of oak gallwasps, Cycloneuroterus Melika & Tang, with the description of five new species from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa, 3008 (1), 33–62.

    Trotter, A. (1903) Nuovi Zoocecidii della Flora italiana. Marcellia. Rivista internazionale di Cecidologia, 2 (1), 7–20

    Trotter, A. (1923) Miscellanee Cecidologiche VII. Le galle di Neuroterus apenninus Tr. ed il commensale Sapholytus Haimi Mayr., Marcellia. Rivista internazionale di Cecidologia, 20, 97–103.

    Wachtl, F. (1880) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Gallen erzeugenden Insecten Europas. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 30, 531–546.

    Yoder, M.J., Mikó, I., Seltmann, K.C., Bertone, M.A. & Deans, A.R. (2010) A gross anatomy ontology for Hymenoptera. PLoS ONE, 5 (12), e15991.

How to Cite

CERASA, G., SOTTILE, S., MASSA, B., & VERDE, G. L. (2021). Rediscovery of <em>Cerroneuroterus</em> <em>apenninus</em> (Trotter, 1923) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) a valid species from Italy with description and neotype designation . Zootaxa, 4941(3), 399–414.