Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2021-04-21

A new species and comparative morphology of Philippine sea biscuits (Echinoidea: Clypeaster)

California Academy of Sciences, Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, California 94118, US.
Schaapherder 16, 3834CK Leusden, the Netherlands
Echinoidea Clypeasteroida Clypeasteridae Clypeaster sea biscuits new species Philippine fauna comparative morphology identification Echinodermata

Abstract

A new species of clypeasterid sea biscuit, Clypeaster brigitteae n. sp., is described from material collected in the Philippines at depths between 100 and 200 m. The new taxon increases the number of Clypeaster species recorded from the Philippines to nine, representing nearly a quarter of the world’s diversity of the genus. Other Philippine species include: C. annandalei Koehler, 1922; C. fervens Koehler, 1922; C. humilis (Leske, 1778); C. japonicus Döderlein, 1885; C. latissimus (Lamarck, 1816); C. pateriformis Mortensen, 1948; C. reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758); and C. virescens Döderlein, 1885. Using type material where available, each of these species is compared and contrasted with C. brigitteae n. sp. in tables consisting of new data derived from general test shape and size, petal structure, food grooves, plate architecture, internal structure, and morphology of spines, pedicellariae, and tube feet.

References

  1. Agassiz, A. (1863) List of the echinoderms sent to different institutions in exchange for other specimens, with annotations. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College, 1, 17–28.

    Agassiz, A. (1869) Preliminary report on the Echini and star-fishes dredged in deep water between Cuba and the Florida Reef, by L. F. de Pourtalès, Assist. U.S. Coast Survey. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College, 1, 253–308.

    Agassiz, A. (1872–1874). Revision of the Echini. Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College, Parts 1–4, 1–378 (1872), 379–628 (1873) & 629–762 (1874).

    Agassiz, L. (1835) Prodrome d’une monographie des Radiaires ou Échinodermes. Memoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de Neuchâtel, 1, 168–199.

    Arachchige, G.M., Jayakody, S., Mooi, R. & Kroh, A. (2019) Taxonomy and distribution of irregular echinoids (Echinoidea: Irregularia) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 4541 (1), 1–100.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4541.1.1

    Brito, I.M. (1959) Sôbre uma nova Clypeaster do Brasil (Echinoidea Clypeasteroidea). Avulsos Centro Estudos Zoológicos Faculdade de Filosofia Universidade do Brasil, 1, 1–8.

    Clark, H.L. (1914) Hawaiian and other Pacific Echini. The Clypeasteridae, Arachnoididae, Laganidae, Fibulariidae, and Scutellidae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 46, 1–80.

    Clark, H.L. (1941) Reports on the scientific results of the Atlantis expeditions to the West Indies, under the joint auspices of the University of Havana and Harvard University. The Echinoderms (other than holothurians). Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural, 15, 1–154.

    David, B., Mooi, R. & Telford, M. (1996) The ontogenetic basis of Lovén’s Rule clarifies homologies of the echinoid peristome. In: Emson, R., Smith, A.B. & Campbell, A. (Eds.), Echinoderm Research 1995. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 155–164.

    Döderlein, L. (1885) Seeigel von Japan un den Liu-Kiu-Inselin. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 51, 73–112.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.1569

    Duncan, P.M. (1889) A revision of the genera and great groups of the Echinoidea. Journal of the Linnaean Society, London, Zoology, 23, 1–311.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1889.tb01431.x

    Durham, J.W. (1955) Classification of clypeasteroid echinoids. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 31, 73–198.

    Gray, J.E. (1825) An attempt to divide the Echinida, or sea eggs, into natural families. Annals of Philosophy, New Series, 10, 423–431.

    Kier, P.M. (1970) Lantern support structures in the clypeasteroid echinoids. Journal of Paleontology, 44, 98–109.

    Koehler, R. (1922) Échinides du Musée Indien à Calcutta, II. Clypeastridés et Cassidulidés. Echinoderma of the Indian Museum, 9, 5–161.

    Kroh, A. (2005) Catalogus Fossilium Austriae. Ein systematisches Verzeichnis aller auf österreichischem Gebiet festgestellten Fossilien. Band 2, Echinoidea neogenica. Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 210 pp.

    Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2020) World Echinoidea Database. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/echinoidea (accessed 15 May 2020)

    https://doi.org/10.14284/355

    Lamarck, J.B. (1801) Système des animaux sans vertèbres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d’apres la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation, et suivant l’arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, parmi leurs dépouilles conservées; Précédé du discours d’ouverture du Cours de Zoologie, donné dans le Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle l’an 8 de la République. J. B. Lamarck and Deterville, Paris, 432 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.116650

    Lamarck, J.-B. (1816) Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres, présentant les caractères géneraux et particuliers de ces animaux, leur distribution, leur classes, leurs familles, leurs generes, et le citation des principales espèces qui s’y rapportent; précédée d’une Introduction offrant la Détermination des caractères essentielles de l’animal, sa distinction du végétal et des autres corps naturels, enfin, l’Exposition des Principes fondamentaux de la Zoologie. Tome Troisième.Verdière, Paris, 586 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.40014

    Latreille, P.A. (1825) Familles naturelles du règne animal. Baillière, Paris, 570 pp.

    Leske, N.G. (1778) Jacobi Theodori Klein naturalis dispositio echinodermatum…, edita et descriptionibus novisque inventis et synonomis auctorem aucta. Addimenta ad I. T. Klein naturalem dispositionem Echinodermatum. G. E. Beer, Leipzig, xxii + 278 pp.

    Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Vol. 1. Editio Decima, reformata [10th Revised Edition]. Laurentius Salvius, Holmiae, 824 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542

    Lovén, S. (1874) Études sur les échinoïdées. Kongelige Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 11, 1–91.

    Mihaljević, M., Jerjen, I. & Smith, A.B. (2011) The test architecture of Clypeaster (Echinoidea, Clypeasteroida) and its phylogenetic significance. Zootaxa, 2983 (1), 21–38.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2983.1.2

    Mongiardino Koch, N., Coppard, S.E., Lessios, H.A., Briggs, D.E.G., Mooi, R. & Rouse, G.W. (2018) A phylogenomic resolution of the sea urchin tree of life. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18, 189.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1300-4

    Mooi, R. (1986) Non-respiratory podia of clypeasteroids (Echinodermata, Echinoides): II. Diversity. Zoomorphology, 106, 75–90.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00312110

    Mooi, R. (1989) Living and fossil genera of the Clypeasteroida (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): An illustrated key and annotated checklist. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 488, 1–51.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.488

    Mooi, R. (1990) Paedomorphosis, Aristotle’s lantern, and the origin of the sand dollars (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida). Paleobiology, 16, 25–48.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0094837300009714

    Mooi, R. & Munguia, A. (2014) Sea urchins of the Philippines. In: Williams, G.C. & Gosliner, T.M. (Eds.), The Coral Triangle: The 2011 Hearst Philippine Biodiversity Expedition. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, pp. 213–235.

    Mortensen, T. (1948a) Contributions to the biology of the Philippine Archipelago and adjacent regions. Report on the Echinoidea collected by the United States Fisheries Steamer “Albatross” during the Philippine Expedition, 1907–1910. Part 3: The Echinoneidae, Echinolampidae, Clypeastridae, Arachnoididae, Laganidae, Fibulariidae, Urechinidae, Echinocorythidae, Palaeostomatidae, Micrasteridae, Palaeopneustidae, Hemiasteridae, and Spatangidae. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum Bulletin, 100, 93–140.

    Mortensen, T. (1948b) A Monograph of the Echinoidea. IV, 2. Clypeastroida. Clypeastridæ, Arachnoididæ, Fibulariidæ, Laganidæ and Scutellidæ. C.A. Reitzel, Copenhagen, 471 pp.

    Pawson, D.L. & Phelan, T.F. (1979) Clypeaster kieri, a new species of clypeasteroid (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) from off Bombay, India. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 92, 796–800.

    Schultz, H. (2005) Sea Urchins. A Guide to Worldwide Shallow Water Species. Heinke & Peter Schultz, Hemdingen, 484 pp.

    Schultz, H. (2009) s.n. In: Sea Urchins II. Worldwide Irregular Deep Water Species. Heinke & Peter Schultz, Hemdingen, pp. 501–849.

    Seilacher, A. (1979) Constructional morphology of sand dollars. Paleobiology, 5, 191–221.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0094837300006527

    Serafy, D.K. (1970) Biological Results of the University of Miami Deep-sea Expeditions. A new species of Clypeaster from the Gulf and Caribbean and a key to the species in the tropical northwestern Atlantic (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 20, 662–677.

    Serafy, D.K. (1971) A new species of Clypeaster (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) from San Felix Island, with a key to the recent species of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science, 25, 165–170.

    Shigei, M. (1982) A new species of the fibulariid sea-urchin, Fibularia japonica, from Japanese waters. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 27, 11–16.

    https://doi.org/10.5134/176047

    Telford, M., Mooi, R. & Harold, A.S. (1987) Feeding activities of two species of Clypeaster (Echinoides, Clypeasteroida): Further evidence of clypeasteroid resource partitioning. Biological Bulletin, 172, 324–336.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1541712

    Tenison-Woods, J.E. (1878) The Echini of Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 2, 145–176.

    van Noordenburg, H. (2008) Sea Urchins of the Philippines. Part I. The Irregulars. Artificial Harmonics, Utrecht, 153 pp.

    von Zittel, K.A. (1879) Echinodermata. In: Handbuch der Paläontologie: Palaozoologie. Vol. 1. Pt. 1. R. Oldenbourg, München & Leipzig, pp. 308–560.