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Published: 2021-06-22

Resolving phylogenetic and classical nomenclature: A revision of Seraphsidae Jung, 1974 (Gastropoda: Neostromboidae)

College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia.
College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia. Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia.
College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia. Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia.
Gastropoda Diameza Mauryna Miniterebellum Pseudoterebellinae Paraseraphs PhyloCode Pseudoterebellum RegNum Seraphs Seraphsinae Terebellum


This revision demonstrates that an integrated taxonomic approach to classical taxonomic practice can lead to increased internal cladistic resolution within a clade, including the recognition of new taxa at all nomenclatural levels. In particular, this revision has two aims: 1) to complete an α-taxonomic revision of Seraphsidae (Stromboidea); and 2) to resolve the infrafamilial relationships within Seraphsidae using morphological cladistics. An annotated synonymy was generated for each taxon, the precedence of names determined, and revised descriptions formulated. Character sets that reflect the synapomorphies within the major subclades of Seraphsidae were coded and a cladogram generated using maximum likelihood within the tnt program with default settings. Four forms of material and evidence were used in this systematic review: 1) the type material for each taxon; 2) non-type physical material; 3) published images; and 4) literary references for specimen localities without illustration. The current morphologically-based classification of Seraphsidae was found to be sound in terms of current species delimitations. Regardless of this, the use of an integrated taxonomy improved understanding of the internal cladistic relationships within Seraphsidae, which led to higher resolution of the internal cladistic arrangements and taxonomic delimitation. Furthermore, this increased resolution is now reflected in the family nomenclature. Two new subfamilies are proposed, Seraphsinae and Pseudoterebellinae, which are used to distinguish the two clades within Seraphsidae based on form: members of Seraphsinae are involute, while members of Pseudoterebellinae are evolute. Pseudoterebellum is proposed as a new genus to show the discontinuity in the fossil record and highlight the structural differences between it and Terebellum. A new species from Jamaica, Seraphs kaindraperi, is described, being the first record from that location and that geological period and is morphologically distinct from other described taxa. This revision included Mauryna within Seraphsidae on the grounds that it provides a basal link to the Seraphsidae sister taxa Semiterebellum and Terebellopsis, all of which are currently contained within Rostellariidae, and all three clades may in time be brought together under one family. All clades have been constructed to be in compliance with both the ICZN and PhyloCode. It was not possible within the context of this revision to test the results of the α-taxonomic findings against phylogenies generated with molecular data. This was due to the high number of extinct taxa within the Seraphsidae.



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