Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2021-08-06
Page range: 430-440
Abstract views: 384
PDF downloaded: 19

A new species of Dixella, the first Mexican record of Dixella shannoni, and a summary of dixid records from Mexico (Diptera: Dixidae)

Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE), Francisco P. Miranda #177, Unidad Lomas de Plateros, DT. Álvaro Obregón, 01480, Ciudad de México, México.
Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Antigua Carretera a Coatepec No. 351, El Haya, Xalapa, 91073, Veracruz, México.
Diptera Aquatic flies meniscus midge Neotropical region taxonomy distribution


We describe a new species of the genus Dixella Dyar & Shannon of Mexico. Specimens were collected in Lagunas de Santo Domingo, Municipality of Huatusco, Veracruz, a small vegetation-lined lake within an increasingly relictual mountain cloud forest. This species is most closely related to Dixella cumbrica Peters & Cook, 1966, based upon the shape of the apical lobe of the gonocoxite and flattened gonostylus. Also, we include the first record of Dixella shannoni (Lane, 1942), in Mexico, based upon specimens collected in Santiago Yaveo, Oaxaca. Additionally, we present a list of all localities in which dixids have been collected in Mexico.



  1. Borkent, A. (2009) Chapter 24. Dixidae (meniscus midges). In: Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.), Manual of Central American Diptera. Vol. 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, pp. 359‒360.
    Belkin, J.N., Heinemann, S.J. & Page, W.A. (1970) The Culicidae of Jamaica (Mosquito studies. XXI). Contributions American Entomological Institute, 6, 1–458.
    Carmona-Jiménez, J. & Caro-Borrero, A. (2017) The last peri-urban rivers of the Mexico Basin: establishment of potential reference conditions through the evaluation of ecological quality and biological indicators. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 88, 425–436.
    Chaverri, L.G. & Borkent, A. (2007) The Meniscus midges of Costa Rica. Zootaxa, 1575 (1), 1–34.
    Cumming, J.M. & Wood, D.M. (2009) Chapter 2. Adult morphology and terminology. In: Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M., Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.), Manual of Central American Diptera. Vol. 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, pp. 9–50.
    Dinger, E.C., Cohen, A.E., Hendrickson, D.A. & Marks, J.C. (2005) Aquatic invertebrates of Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico: natives and exotics. The Southwestern Naturalist, 50 (2), 237–281.[0237:AIOCCC]2.0.CO;2
    Dyar, H.G. & Shannon, R.C. (1924) Some new species of American Dixa Meigen (Diptera,Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 12, 193‒201.
    Edwards, F.W. (1930) Bibionidae, Scatopsidae, Cecidomyiidae, Culicidae, Thaumaleidae (Orphnephilidae), Anisopodidae (Rhyphidae). Dipt. Patagonia S. Chile, 2, 77‒119.
    Greenwalt, D.E. & Moulton, J.K. (2016) The first fossil New World Dixidae with a critical discussion of generic definitions. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.3.55A, 1‒32.
    Heinemann, S.J. & Belkin, J.N. (1977) Collection records of the project “Mosquitoes of Middle America”. 9. Mexico (MEX, MF, MT, MX). Mosquito Systematics, 9 (4), 483–534.
    Lane, J. (1942) Dixinae e Chaoborinae. Révisão das espécies neotropicas (Diptera, Culicidae). Revista de Entomología, 13, 81–148, pls. 1–4.
    Lane, J. (1953) Neotropical Culicidae. Vol. I. Dixinae, Chaoborinae and Culicinae, tribes, Anophelini, Toxorhynchitini and Culicini (genus Culex only). University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 548 pp.
    Marshall, H.G. & Burchardt, L. (2005) Neuston: Its definition with a historical review regarding its concept and community structure. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 164, 429–448.
    Meigen, J.W. (1818) Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Vol. 1. s.n., Aachen.xxxvi + 333 pp., pls. 1–11.
    Moulton, J.K. (2016) The Dixa inextricata Dyar & Shannon (Diptera: Dixidae) species group, with two new cryptic species from the eastern Nearctic Region. Zootaxa, 4121 (4), 458–472.
    Moulton, J.K. (2017) The true identity of Dixa modesta Johannsen (Diptera: Dixidae) resolved: synonymy of Dixa similis Johannsen, designation of the Dixa ubiquita species group, and description of three new eastern Nearctic species. Zootaxa, 4216 (3), 247–260.
    Moulton, J.K. (2018) Rediscovery of Dixa repanda Peters and description of its putative sister species, Dixa falcata sp. Nov., from the south-central United States (Diptera: Dixidae). Zooaxa, 4459 (1) 171–178.
    Nowell, W.R. (1951) The dipterous family Dixidae in Western North America (Insecta: Diptera). Microentomology, 16, 187–270.
    Pape, T., Blagoderov, V. & Mostovski, M.B. (2011) Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. Zootaxa, 3148 (1), 222–229.
    Peters, T.M. (1980) A new species of Dixella (Diptera: Dixidae) from Honduras, Central America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 82, 681–684.
    Peters, T.M. (1981) A new Nearctic Dixa (Diptera: Dixidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 83, 516–519.
    Peters, T.M. (1987) A new Nearctic species of Dixa (Diptera: Dixidae) from Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 89, 137–140.
    Peters, T.M. & Barbosa, P. (1970) A new Nearctic species of Dixinae (Culicidae: Diptera). Entomological News, 81, 11–17.
    Peters, T.M. & Cook, E.F. (1966) The Nearctic Dixidae (Diptera). Miscellaneous publications of the Entomological Society of America, 5, 231–278.
    Schiner, I.R. (1868) Diptera. In: Wullerstorf-Urbair, B. von (in charge), Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte Novara. Zoology. 2 (1). B. K. Gerold’s Sohn, Wien, pp. i–vi + 1–388, 4 pls.
    Ševčík, J. & Blagoderov, V. (2017) Chapter 28. Dixidae. In: Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. & Sinclair, B.J. (Eds.), Manual of Afrotropical Diptera. Vol. 2. Suricata 5. SANBI, Pretoria, pp. 659–663.
    Stone, A. (1966) Family Dixidae. In: Papavero, N. (Ed.), A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United States. Departamento de Zoologia da Secretaria da Agricultura do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, pp. 1–4.
    Taber, S.W. (2010) A new species of Dixella Dyar & Shannon meniscus midge (Diptera: Dixidae). Southwestern Entomologist, 35, 295–307.
    Wagner, R. (1997) Family Dixidae. In: Papp, L. & Darvas, B, (Eds.), Contributions to a manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance). Vol. 2. Nematocera and Lower Brachycera. Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 299–303.
    Wagner, R., Barták, M., Borkent, A., Courtney, G.W., Goddeeris, B., Haenni, J.-P., Knutson, L., Pont, A., Rotheray, G.E., Rozkošný, R., Sinclair, B., Woodley, N., Zatwarnicki, T. & Zwick, P. (2008) Global diversity of dipteran families (Insecta Diptera) in freshwater (excluding Simulidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Tipulidae and Tabanidae). Hydrobiologia, 595, 489–519.
    Wood, D.M. & Borkent, A. (1989) Phylogeny and classification of the Nematocera. In: McAlpine, J.F. (Ed.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 3. Monograph No. 32. Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, pp. 1333–1370.