Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2021-08-20
Page range: 537-554
Abstract views: 600
PDF downloaded: 204

Taxonomic problems with Gynaikothrips and related genera (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae): the ficorum/uzeli complex and taxa endemic to Australia

Australian National Insect Collection CSIRO, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601
c/o Queensland Primary Industries Insect Collection (QDPC), Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland, Ecosciences Precinct, GPO Box 267, Brisbane, Qld, 4001.
Thysanoptera Ficus galls generic relationships new genera new species new synonyms


Ten species from Australia in or related to the genus Gynaikothrips are discussed. Variation among specimens of the pest species on Ficus trees, the ficorum/uzeli complex, is examined with the conclusion that recognition of these two species remains questionable. Two species related to this complex are newly recorded from Australia, insulsus Priesner and luzonensis Priesner, and edentatus Priesner is placed as a syn.n. of ficorum. Two new Gynaikothrips are described, jasmini sp.n. and platypodae sp.n., and additamentus Karny is transferred from Gynaikothrips to Eilapinothrips gen.n. A new species of Agynaikothrips is described as the third known member of this genus, lorieni sp.n., and Liothrips umbratus Hood comb.rev. is returned to this original genus from Gynaikothrips. Two species described in Gynaikothrips from the Philippines, capitulatus Reyes and pedanus Reyes, are transferred to the genus Teuchothrips. The monobasic genus, Aiganothrips Bhatti, is considered a syn.n. of Gynaikothrips, and the monobasic genus, Jennythrips Bhatti, is considered a syn.n. of Liothrips.



  1. ABRS (2021) Australian Biological Resources Study. Available from: (accessed 2 August 2021)
    Ananthakrishnan, T.N. & Sen, S. (1980) Taxonomy of Indian Thysanoptera. Zoological Survey of India (Handbook Series), 1, 1–234.
    Bagnall, R.S. (1929) On some new genera and species of Australian Thysanoptera (Tubulifera) with special reference to gall-species. Marcellia, 25 (1928), 184–204.
    Bhatti, J.S. (1991) Surface patterns of wings in the Order Tubulifera (Insecta). New structural features and a new simple technique for microscopic surface scanning of the transparent wing membrane. Zoology (Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology), 3, 1–95.
    Bhatti, J.S. (1993) List of world genera of the Order Tubulifera (Insecta). Zoology (Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology), 3 (3), 241–271.
    Crespi, B.J., Morris, D.C. & Mound, L.A. (2004) Evolution of ecological and behavioural diversity: Australian Acacia thrips as model organisms. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra and Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, 328 pp.
    Dang, L-H., Mound, L.A. & Qiao, G-X. (2014) Conspectus of the Phlaeothripinae genera from China and Southeast Asia (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Zootaxa, 3807 (1), 1–82.
    Held, D.W., Boyd, D., Lockley, T. & Edward, G.B. (2005) Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) in the southeastern United States: distribution and review of biology. Florida Entomologist, 88 (4), 538–540.
    Hood, J.D. (1918) New genera and species of Australian Thysanoptera. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 6, 121–150.
    Karny, H. (1913) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Gallen von Java. 5. Über die javanischen Thysanopteren-cecidien und deren Bewohner. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, 10, 1–126.
    Karny, H. (1924) Results of Dr. E. Mjöberg’s Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910–1913. 38. Thysanoptera. Arkiv för Zoologi, 17A (2), 1–56.
    Karny, H. (1928) Beitrage zur Malayischen Thysanopterenfauna. X Ein neuer javanische Gynaikothrips. Treubia, 10, 33–44.
    Marchal, P. (1908) Sur une nouvelle espece de Thrips nuisible aux Ficus on Algerie. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique Paris, 1908, 251–253.
    Mound, L.A. (1994) Thrips and gall induction: a search for patterns. In: Williams, M.A.J. (Ed.), Plant Galls: Organisms, Interactions, Populations. Systematics Association Special Vol. 49. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 131–149
    Mound, L.A. (2004) Australian long-tailed gall thrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae, Leeuweniini), with comments on related Old World taxa. Australian Journal of Entomology, 43, 36–45.
    Mound, L.A. (2008) Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa, 1714 (1), 41–60.
    Mound, L.A. & Houston, K.J. (1987) An annotated check-list of Thysanoptera from Australia. Occasional Papers on Systematic Entomology, 4, 128.
    Mound, L.A. & Kranz, B. (1997) Thysanoptera and Plant Galls: Towards a Research Programme. In: Raman, A. (Ed.), Ecology and Evolution of Plant-feeding Insects in Natural and Man-made Environments. National Institute of Ecology, New Delhi and Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 11–24.
    Mound, L.A. & Tree, D.J. (2021) Structural variation among species of Leeuwenia (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae) with three new species from Australia. Zootaxa, 4903 (3), 439–447.
    Mound, L.A., Wang, C.-L. & Okajima, S. (1996) Observations in Taiwan on the identity of the Cuban laurel thrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Journal of the New York entomological Society, 103, 185–190.
    Okajima, S. (2006) The Suborder Tubulifera (Thysanoptera). The Insects of Japan, 2, 1–720. The Entomological Society of Japan, Touka Shobo Co. Ltd., Fukuoka.
    Priesner, H. (1929) Indomalayische Thysanopteren I. Treubia, 10, 447–462.
    Priesner, H. (1939) Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Gynaikothrips Zimm. (Thysanoptera). Mitteilungen der Münchner entomologisches Gesellschaft, 29, 475–487.
    Priesner, H. (1968) On the genera allied to Liothrips of the Oriental fauna II (Insecta-Thysanoptera). Treubia, 27, 175–285.
    Reyes, C.P. (1994) Thysanoptera (Hexapoda) of the Philippine Islands. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 42, 107–507.
    Reyes, C.P. (1996) Three new species of Gynaikothrips Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Tubulifera) from the Philippines. Aguinaldo College Journal, 1, 109–123.
    Rivnay, E. (1947) Biology of Gynaikothrips ficorum Marsh. in Palestine (Thysanoptera). Bulletin de la Sociét Royale Entomologique d’Égypte, 31, 129–140.
    Shyam, M., Johnson, T.H., Rachana, R.R., Varatharajan, R. & Mound, L.A. (2019) Redescription and lectotype designation of Gynaikothrips microchaetus Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae). Zootaxa, 4701 (6), 588–590.
    ThripsWiki (2021) ThripsWiki—providing information on the World’s thrips. Available from: (accessed 18 May 2021)
    Tree, D.J. (2012) First record of Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) from Australia. The Australian Entomologist, 39 (3), 105–108.
    Tree, D.J. & Walter, G.H. (2009) Diversity of host plant relationships and leaf galling behaviours within a small genus of thrips—Gynaikothrips and Ficus in south east Queensland, Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology, 48, 269–275.
    Tree, D.J., Mound, L.A. & Field, A.R. (2015) Host specificity studies on Gynaikothrips (Thysanoptera:Phlaeothripidae) associated with leaf galls of cultivated Ficus (Rosales: Moraceae) trees. Florida Entomologist, 98 (3), 880–883.
    Zimmermann, A. (1900) Über einige javanische Thysanopteren. Bulletin de l’Insitut Botanique de Buitenzorg, 7, 6–19.