Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2021-09-22

Biodiversity in the Andean Mountains: Two new rain frogs of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia

Grupo Herpetológico de Antioquia (GHA), Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia. Semillero de Investigación en Biodiversidad de Anfibios (BIO), Seccional Oriente, Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Cali, Colombia.
Grupo de Biodiversidad y Conservación Genética, Instituto de Genética, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.
Evolución, Ecología y Conservación (EECO), Programa de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas y Tecnologías, Universidad del Quindío, Armenia, Colombia
Amphibia Andes cloud forest conservation areas Nature reserves Systematics Taxonomy

Abstract

Frequent biodiversity sampling and monitoring programs often lead to relevant taxonomic findings. Here, as a product of different field expeditions to two places in the northern Andes, we discover and describe two new species of rain frogs of the genus Pristimantis from the cloud forests of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Pristimantis chocolatebari sp. nov. is diagnosed by having the following character states: dentigerous process of vomer triangular, snout large and protruding, dorsum smooth, vocal slits and vocal sac present, groin and hidden part of the thighs yellow. Pristimantis carylae sp. nov. is diagnosed by having iris copper red, dentigerous process of vomer oval, snout short and rounded, dorsum finely shagreen with scattered tubercles, double nuptial pad in males, groin and hidden part of thighs pink. We also infer, for the first time, the phylogenetic position of P. permixtus, P. platychilus, and two candidate new species. In addition, we emphasize not to use genetic distance as the only source of evidence for species delimitation, considering the high intraspecific diversity found in one of the species described here. Finally, we highlight the relevance of different habitat and ecosystem conservation strategies to promote amphibian diversity studies in the Andes.

 

References

  1. Acevedo, A.A., Armesto, O. & Palma, R.E. (2020) Two new species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) with notes on the distribution of the genus in northeastern Colombia. Zootaxa, 4750 (4), 499–523. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4750.4.3
    AmphibiaWeb (2021) Amphibiaweb. University of California, Berkeley, California. https://amphibiaweb.org (accessed 28 August 2021)
    Angulo, A. (2006) Fundamentos de bioacústica y aspectos prácticos de grabaciones y análisis de cantos. In: Angulo, A., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Rodríguez-Mahecha, J.V. & La Marca, E. (Eds.), Técnicas de inventario y monitoreo para los anfibios de la región tropical andina. Conservación Internacional. Serie Manuales de Campo Nº 2. Panamericana Formas e Impresos S.A., Bogotá D.C., pp. 93–134.
    Batista, A., Hertz, A., Koehler, G., Mebert, K. & Vesely, M. (2014) Morphological variation and phylogeography of frogs related to Pristimantis caryophyllaceus (Anura: Terrarana: Craugastoridae) in Panama. Salamandra, 50, 155–171.
    Bensch, S., Stjernman, M., Hasselquist, D., Örjan, Ö., Hannson, B., Westerdahl, H. & Torres-Pinheiro, R. (2000) Host specificity in avian blood parasites: a study of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus mitochondrial DNA amplified from birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 267, 1583–1589. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2000.1181
    Bickford, D., Lohman, D.J., Navjot, S.S., Ng, P.K.L., Meier, R., Winker, K., Ingram, K.K. & Das, I. (2007) Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 22, 148–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.11.004
    Brame, A.H. & Wake, D.B. (1963) The salamanders of South America. Contributions in Science Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 69, 1–72.
    Callejas, R. (2012) Generalidades del Departamento de Antioquia. In: Callejas, R. & Idaìrraga, A. (Eds.), Flora de Antioquia. Catalogo de las Plantas Vasculares. Vol. I. Editorial D ìVinni, Bogotaì, pp. 11–18.
    Clark, J.L. & Clavijo, L. (2012) Columnea antennifera, a new species of Gesneriaceae from the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 6 (2), 385–390.
    Crump, M.L. & Scott, N.J. (1994) Standard techniques for inventory and monitoring: visual encounter surveys. In: Heyer, W.R., Donnelly, M.A., Mcdiarmid, R.W., Hayek, L.C. & Foster, M.S. (Eds.), Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 84–92.
    Cochran, D.M. & Goin, C.J. (1970) Frogs of Colombia. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 288, 1–655. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.6346
    Darst, C.R. & Cannatella, D.C. (2004) Novel relationships among hyloid frogs inferred from 12S and 16S mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31 (2), 462–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2003.09.003
    Duellman, W.E. & Lehr, E. (2009) Terrestrial breeding frogs (Strabomantidae) in Peru. NTV Science, Münster, 322 pp.
    Flores, G. (1988) Two new species of Ecuadorian Eleutherodactylus (Leptodactylidae) of the E. crucifer assembly. Journal of Herpetology, 22, 34–41. https://doi.org/10.2307/1564354
    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular marine biology and biotechnology, 3, 294–299.
    Frost, D.R. (2021) Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Available from: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php (accessed 28 August 2021)
    González-Durán, G.A., Targino-Rocha, M., Rada, M. & Grant, T. (2017) Phylogenetic relationships and morphology of the Pristimantis leptolophus species group (Amphibia: Anura: Brachycephaloidea), with the recognition of a new species group in Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870. Zootaxa, 4243 (1), 42–74. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4243.1.2
    González, F. & Vélez-Puerta, J.M. (2018) Two new species of Burmeistera (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from Antioquia, Colombia. Caldasia, 40 (2), 271–283. https://doi.org/10.15446/caldasia.v40n2.70457
    Heinicke, M.P., Duellman, W.E. & Hedges, S.B. (2007) Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 10092–10097. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611051104
    Hoang, D.T., Chernomor, O., Von Haeseler, A., Minh, B.Q. & Vinh, L.S. (2018) UFBoot2: improving the ultrafast bootstrap approximation. Molecular biology and evolution, 35 (2), 518–522. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx281
    Hutter, C.R., Lambert, S.M. & Wiens, J.J. (2017) Rapid diversification and time explain amphibian richness at different scales in the Tropical Andes, Earth’s most biodiverse hotspot. The American Naturalist, 190 (6), 828–843. https://doi.org/10.1086/694319
    Ibáñez, D.R., Jaramillo, C.A. & Arosemena, F.A. (1994) A new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Panamá. Amphibia-Reptilia, 15, 337–341. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853894X00371
    IUCN (2021) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-2. Available fom: https://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed 30 May 2021)
    Jiménez de la Espada, M. (1870) Fauna neotropicalis species quaedam nondum cognitae. Jornal de Sciências, Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, 3, 57–65.
    Kalyaanamoorthy, S., Minh, B.Q., Wong, T.K., Von Haeseler, A. & Jermiin, L.S. (2017) ModelFinder: fast model selection for accurate phylogenetic estimates. Nature methods, 14 (6), 587–589. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.4285
    Katoh, S. & Standley, D.M. (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 772–780. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst010
    Kumar S., Stecher G., Tamura K. (2014) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33, 1870–1874. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw054
    Lehnert, M., Rodríguez-Duque, W.D, Giraldo-Gallego, L.F. & Tejedor, A. (2019) New Additions of Scaly Tree Ferns (Cyatheaceae) to the Flora of Colombia. American Fern Journal, 109 (2), 77–120. https://doi.org/10.1640/0002-8444-109.2.77
    Lynch, J.D. (1969) Identity of two Andean Eleutherodactylus with the description of a new species (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Journal of Herpetology, 3, 135–143. https://doi.org/10.2307/1562953
    Lynch, J.D. (1972) Two new species of frogs (Eleutherodactylus: Leptodactylidae) from the páramos of northern Ecuador. Herpetologica, 28, 141–147.
    Lynch, J.D. (1979) The identity of Eleutherodactylus vertebralis (Boulenger) with the description of a new species from Colombia and Ecuador (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Journal of Herpetology, 13, 411–418. https://doi.org/10.2307/1563475
    Lynch, J.D. (1986) New species of Eleutherodactylus of Colombia (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) II: Four species from the cloud forests of the western Cordilleras. Caldasia, 15, 629–647.
    Lynch, J.D. (1992) Distribution and variation in a Colombia frog, Eleutherodactylus erythropleura (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 27, 211–226. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650529209360880
    Lynch, J.D. (1996) New frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus (family Leptodactylidae) from the San Antonio region of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 20, 331–345.
    Lynch, J.D. & Burrowes, P.A. (1990) The frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus (family Leptodactylidae) at the La Planada Reserve in southwestern Colombia with descriptions of eight new species. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 136, 1–31. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.29037
    Lynch, J.D. & Duellman, W.E. (1980) The Eleutherodactylus of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes (Anura: Leptodactylidae). Miscellaneous Publication. Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 69, 1–86. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.16222
    Lynch, J.D. & Duellman, W.E. (1997) Frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus (Leptodactylidae) in western Ecuador: Systematics, Ecology, and Biogeography. Natural History Museum University Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 236 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.7951
    Lynch, J.D. & Rueda-Almonacid, J.V. (1998) Additional new species of frogs (genus Eleutherodactylus) from cloud forests of eastern Departamento de Caldas, Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 22, 287–298.
    Lynch, J.D. & Rueda-Almonacid, J.V. (1999) New species of frogs from low and moderate elevations from the Caldas transect of the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 23, 307–314.
    Lynch, J.D., Ruiz-Carranza, P. M. & Ardila-Robayo, M.C. (1994) The identities of the Colombian frogs confused with Eleutherodactylus latidiscus (Boulenger) (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 170, 1–42.
    Mendoza, Á.M., Ospina, O.E., Cárdenas-Henao, H. & García-R, J.C. (2015) A likelihood inference of historical biogeography in the world’s most diverse terrestrial vertebrate genus: Diversification of direct-developing frogs (Craugastoridae: Pristimantis) across the Neotropics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 85, 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.02.001
    Nguyen, L.T., Schmidt, H.A., von Haeseler, A. & Minh, B.Q. (2015) IQ-TREE: A fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32, 268–274. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msu300
    Orejuela, J.E. (2012) Orchids of the cloud forests of southwestern Colombia and opportunities for their conservation. European Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2 (1), 19–32. https://doi.org/10.14712/23361964.2015.84
    Padial, J.M., Miralles, A., De la Riva, I. & Vences, M. (2010) The integrative future of taxonomy. Frontiers in Zoology, 7, 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-7-16
    Padial, J., Grant, T. & Frost, D. (2014) Molecular systematics of terraranas (Anura: Brachycephaloidea) with an assessment of the effects of alignment and optimality criteria. Zootaxa, 3825 (1), 1–132. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3825.1.1
    Palumbi, S.R., Martin, A.P., Romano, S.L., McMillan, W.O., Stice, L. & Grabowski, G. (1991) The Simple Fool’s Guide to PCR. Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 45 pp.
    Pinto-Sánchez, N.R., Ibañez, R., Madriñan, S., Sanjur, O.I., Bermingham, E. & Crawford, A.J. (2012) The Great American Biotic Interchange in frogs: Multiple and early colonization of Central America by the South American genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolutiion, 62, 954–972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.11.022
    Pinto-Sánchez, N.R., Crawford, A.J. & Wiens, J.J. (2014) Using historical biogeography to test for community saturation. Ecology Letter, 17, 1077–1085. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12310
    Reyes-Puig, C., Yánez-Muñoz, M.H., Ortega, J.A. & Ron, S.R. (2020) Relaciones filogenéticas del subgénero Hypodictyon (Anura: Strabomantidae: Pristimantis) con la descripción de tres especies nuevas de la región del Chocó. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 91 (e913013), 1–38. https://doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2020.91.3013
    Rivera-Correa, M. (2012) Colombian Amphibians: Cryptic diversity and cryptic taxonomy. Froglog, 100, 36–37.
    Rivera-Correa, M. & Daza, J.M. (2016) Molecular phylogenetics of the Pristimantis lacrimosus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae) with the description of a new species from Colombia. Acta Herpetologica, 11 (1), 31–45.
    Rivera-Correa, M. & Daza, J.M. (2020) Out of the blue: A new rain frog species of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia. Zootaxa, 4838 (1), 83–101. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4838.1.4
    Ron, S.R., Merino-Viteri, A. & Ortiz, D.A. (2020) Anfibios del Ecuador. Version 2020.0. Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. Available from: https://bioweb.bio/faunaweb/amphibiaweb (accessed 28 August 2020)
    Rueda-Almonacid, J.V. & Lynch, J.D. (1983) Una nueva especie de Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) para la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia. Lozania, 42, 1–6.
    Ruiz-Carranza, P.M., Lynch, J.D. & Ardila-Robayo, M.C. (1997). Seis nuevas especies de Eleutherodactylus Duméril & Bibron, 1841 (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) del Norte de la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 21, 155–179.
    Santos, J.C., Coloma, L.A. & Cannatella, D.C. (2003) Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 12792–12797. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2133521100
    Savage, J.M. (2002) The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 934 pp.
    Vaidya, G., Lohman, D.J. & Meier, R. (2011) SequenceMatrix: concatenation software for the fast assembly of multi-gene datasets with character set and codon information. Cladistics, 27, 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2010.00329.x
    Vieira-Uribe, S. & Moreno, J.S. (2019) Three new Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from the Alto de Ventanas ecoregion in Antioquia, Colombia. Lankesteriana, 19 (2), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.15517/lank.v19i2.37802

  2.  

How to Cite

RIVERA-CORREA, M. ., GONZÁLEZ-DURÁN, G. A. ., SALDARRIAGA-GÓMEZ, A. M. ., & DUARTE-MARÍN, S. . (2021). Biodiversity in the Andean Mountains: Two new rain frogs of the genus <em>Pristimantis</em> (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia. Zootaxa, 5040(3), 334–364. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5040.3.2