Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2021-10-12

A new species of Helmutkunzia Wells & Rao, 1976 from an intertidal sandy beach in Xiamen, China and proposal of Pseudobalucopsylla gen. nov. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Miraciidae)

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province, China.
Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K.
Crustacea China Copepoda Harpacticoida identification key intertidal variability


A new species of the genus Helmutkunzia Wells & Rao, 1976 (Miraciidae) is described from specimens collected from an intertidal sandy beach in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Helmutkunzia xiamenensis sp. nov. differs from its two congeners by the length/width ratio of the female P5 exopod, the number or length of the setae on the sexually dimorphic P2 endopod in the male and the relative length of the spines on the endopodal lobe of the male P5. The Chinese species is morphologically closest to H. variabilis Wells & Rao, 1987 from the Andaman and Nicobar island chain. Females of both species can readily be differentiated by the relative length of the P5 exopod while males can be differentiated by the length of the armature elements on P2 enp-2 and the endopodal lobe of P5. The genus Balucopsylla Rao, 1972 is reviewed, resulting in the proposal of Pseudobalucopsylla gen. nov. to accommodate the type species Balucopsylla triarticulata Wells & Rao, 1987 and three new Indo-Pacific species previously identified with it: P. obscura sp. nov. from the Andaman Islands, P. costaricensis sp. nov. from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and P. mielkei sp. nov. from the Galápagos archipelago. A key to species of Pseudobalucopsylla sp. nov. is provided.



  1. Apostolov, A. & Marinov, T.M. (1988) Copepoda Harpacticoida (morski kharpaktikoidi). [Copepoda, Harpacticoida (marine harpacticoids)]. Fauna Bolgarii [Fauna Bulgarica], 18, 1–384. [in Bulgarian]
    Bouck, L., & Thistle, D. (2004) Two new diosaccids (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Crustaceana, 76, 1313–1330.
    Brian, A. (1925) Descrizione di forme nuove di Copepodi arpacticoidi raccolti a Rovigno. Monitore zoologico italiano, 36, 15–24.
    Brian, A. (1927) Descrizione di un nuovo genere di Harpacticoide del Mar Egeo (Nota preliminare). Bolletino dei Musei e Laboratorii di Zoologia e Anatomia comparata della R. Università di Genova, Series 2, 7 (9), 1–3.
    Dana, J.D. (1846) Notice of some genera of Cyclopacea. American Journal of Science and Arts, Series 2, 1, 225–230.
    Geddes, D.C. (1968) Protopsammotopa norvegica, a new genus and species of interstitial harpacticoid copepod from western Norway. Sarsia, 36, 69–76
    Gee, J.M. & Fleeger, J.W. (1990) Haloschizopera apprisea, a new species of harpacticoid copepod from Alaska, and some observations on sexual dimorphism in the family Diosaccidae. Transactions of the American microscopical Society, 109, 282–299.
    Gómez, S. (2020) A new species of Robertgurneya Apostolov & Marinov, 1988, with an illustrated record of R. rostrata (Gurney, 1927), an amended genus diagnosis and comments on R. soyeri (Apostolov, 1974) and R. spinulosa (Sars, 1911) (Harpacticoida: Miraciidae). Zootaxa, 4861 (4), 451–485.
    Gurney, R. (1927) XXXIII. Report on the Crustacea:—Copepoda (littoral and semi-parasitic). Zoological results of the Cambridge expedition to the Suez Canal, 1924. Transactions of the zoological Society of London, 22, 451–577, figs. 108–168, tab. 35.
    Huys, R. (2009) Unresolved cases of type fixation, synonymy and homonymy in harpacticoid copepod nomenclature (Crustacea: Copepoda). Zootaxa, 2183 (1), 1–99.
    Huys, R. & Boxshall, G.A. (1991) Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, London, 468 pp.
    Huys, R., Gee, J.M., Moore, C.G. & Hamond, R. (1996) Marine and Brackish Water Harpacticoids, Part 1. In: Barnes, R.S.K. & Crothers, J.H. (Eds.), Synopses of the British Fauna, New Series, 51, pp. 1–352.
    ICZN (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature) (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, xxx + 306 pp.
    Jayabarathi, R., Padmavati, G. & Anandavelu, I. (2012) Abundance and species composition of harpacticoid copepods from a sea grass patch of South Andaman, India. Current Research Journal of biological Sciences, 4, 717–724.
    Jayabarathi, R., Padmavati, G. & Anandavelu, I. (2015) Spatial heterogeneity of benthic copepods: a comparative aspect on composition, abundance, and correlation. Zoological Studies, 54, 51.
    Karanovic, T. (2004) Subterranean Copepoda from arid Western Australia. Crustaceana Monographs, 3, 1–366.
    Karanovic, T. & Cooper, S.J.B. (2012) Explosive radiation of the genus Schizopera on a small subterranean island in Western Australia (Copepoda: Harpacticoida): unravelling the cases of cryptic speciation, size differentiation and multiple invasions. Invertebrate Systematics, 26, 115–192.
    Karanovic, T. & Ranga Reddy, Y. (2004) A new genus and species of the family Diosaccidae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the groundwaters of India. Journal of crustacean Biology, 24, 246–260.
    Kunz, H. (1971) Harpacticoiden (Crustacea Copepoda) von einem Sandstrand Angolas. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 186, 348–359.
    Lang, K. (1944) Monographie der Harpacticiden (Vorläufige Mitteilung). Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri Ab, Uppsala, 39 pp.
    Lang, K. (1965) Copepoda Harpacticoida from the Californian Pacific coast. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Series 4, 10 (2), 1–560.
    Mielke, W. (1990) A new species of Psammotopa (Copepoda) from the Pacific coast of Panama. Crustaceana, 59, 69–75.
    Mielke, W. (1992) Description of some benthic Copepoda from Chile and a discussion on the relationships of Paraschizopera and Schizopera (Diosaccidae). Microfauna marina, 7, 79–100.
    Mielke, W. (1994) New records of two copepod species (Crustacea) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Microfauna marina, 9, 55–60.
    Mielke, W. (1995) Species of the taxon Schizopera (Copepoda) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Microfauna marina, 10, 89–116.
    Mielke, W. (1997) Interstitial Fauna of Galapagos. XXXIX. Copepoda, part 7. Microfauna marina, 11, 115–152.
    Mielke, W. (2003) Meiobenthic copepods of Galápagos: species composition, distribution, colonization, speciation. Bulletin of marine Science, 73, 557–568.
    Nicholls, A.G. (1941) A revision of the families Diosaccidae Sars, 1906 and Laophontidae T. Scott, 1905 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida). Records of the South Australian Museum, 7, 65–110.
    Ohtsuka, S. & Iwasaki, N. (1998) Redescription of two diosaccid harpacticoid copepods from the northern Mariana Islands. Natural History Research, 5, 17–29.
    Pennak, R.W. (1942) Harpacticoid copepods from some intertidal beaches near Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Transactions of the American microscopical Society, 61, 274–285.
    Pongener, L., Padmavati, G. & Jayabarathi, R. (2018) Meiofauna and microalgae associates on the pneumatophores of Avicennia marina from the coastal waters of South Andaman, India. International Journal of Zoology Studies, 3, 203–212.
    Por, F.D. (1968) Copepods of some land-locked basins on the islands of Entedebir and Nocra (Dahlak Archipelago, Red Sea). Israel South Red Sea Expedition, 1962, Reports no. 31. Bulletin. Sea Fisheries Research Station Israel (Haifa), 49, 32–50.
    Rao, G.C. (1972) Some new interstitial harpacticoid copepods from Andhra coast, India. Cahiers de Biologie marine, 13, 305–319.
    Rao, G.C. (1989) Intertidal meiofauna. In: Jairajpuri, M.S. (Ed.), Fauna of Orissa. Part II. State Fauna Series, 1. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, pp. 1–77.
    Rao, G.C. (1993) Littoral meiofauna of Little Andaman. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Papers, 155, 1–120.
    Sars, G.O. (1903) Copepoda Harpacticoida. Parts I & II. Misophriidæ, Longipediidæ, Cerviniidæ, Ectinosomidæ (part). An Account of the Crustacea of Norway, with Short Descriptions and Figures of all the Species, 5, 1–28, pls. I–XVI.
    Sars, G.O. (1905) Pacifische Plankton-Crustaceen. (Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific. Schauinsland 1896–1897). II. Brackwasser-Crustaceen von den Chatham-Inseln. Zoologische Jahrbücher für Systematik, 21 (4), 371–414.
    Sars, G.O. (1906) Copepoda Harpacticoida. Parts XI & XII. Thalestridæ (continued), Diosaccidæ (part). An Account of the Crustacea of Norway, with Short Descriptions and Figures of all the Species, 5, 133–156, pls. LXXXI– XCVI.
    Sars, G.O. (1911) Copepoda Harpacticoida. Parts XXXI & XXXII. Supplement (continued). An Account of the Crustacea of Norway, with Short Descriptions and Figures of all the Species, 5, 369–396, supplement pls. 11–26.
    Scott, A. (1909) The Copepoda of the Siboga Expedition. Part I. Free-swimming, littoral and semi-parasitic Copepoda. Siboga-Expeditie. Uitkomsten op zoologisch, botanisch, oceanographisch en geologisch gebied verzameld in Nederlandsch Oost-Indië 1899–1900 aan boord H.M. Siboga onder commando van Luitenant ter zee 1e kl. F. Tydeman, 29a, 1–323, pls. I–LXIX.
    Scott, T. (1906) Notes on British Copepoda: change of names. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7, 17, 458–466.
    Song, S.J., Rho, H.S. & Kim, W. (2007) A new species of Amonardia (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae) from the cultivated brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Integrative Biosciences, 11, 69–77.
    Vervoort, W. (1964) Freeliving Copepoda from Ifaluk Atoll in the Caroline Islands with notes on related species. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 236, i–ix + 1–431.
    Webber, W.R., Fenwick, G.D., Bradford-Grieve, J.M., Eagar, S.H., Buckeridge, J.S., Poore, G.C.B., Dawson, E.W., Watling, L., Jones, J.B., Wells, J.B.J., Bruce, N.L., Ahyong, S.T., Larsen, K., Chapman, M.A., Olesen, J., Ho, J.-S., Green, J.D., Shiel, R.J., Rocha, C.E.F., Lörz, A.-N., Bird, G.J. & Charleston, W.A. (2010) Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Crustacea: shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnacles, slaters, and kin. In: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.), New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity: Volume Two: Kingdom Animalia—Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, Ichnofossils. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, pp. 98–232.
    Wells, J.B.J. (1967) The littoral Copepoda (Crustacea) of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 67, 189–358.
    Wells, J.B.J. (1978) A preliminary report on the littoral copepods of Moce Island, Lau group, Fiji. In: Lau-Tonga 1977. Report from the Royal Society of New Zealand Expedition. Bulletin of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 17, 91–93.
    Wells, J.B.J., Hicks, G.R.F. & Coull, B.C. (1982) Common harpacticoid copepods from New Zealand harbours and estuaries. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 9, 151–184.
    Wells, J.B.J. & Rao, G.C. (1976) The relationship of the genus Schizopera Sars within the family Diosaccidae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 58, 79–90.
    Wells, J.B.J. & Rao, G.C. (1987) Littoral Harpacticoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India, 16 (4), 1–385.
    Willen, E. (2000) Phylogeny of the Thalestridimorpha Lang, 1944 (Crustacea, Copepoda). Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, 233 pp.
    Wilson, C.B. (1932) The copepods of the Woods Hole region, Massachusetts. Bulletin of the United States national Museum, 158, 1–635, pls. 1–41.

How to Cite

MU, F. ., & HUYS, R. . (2021). A new species of <em>Helmutkunzia</em> Wells &amp; Rao, 1976 from an intertidal sandy beach in Xiamen, China and proposal of <em>Pseudobalucopsylla</em> gen. nov. (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Miraciidae). Zootaxa, 5051(1), 487–505.